Lilydale to Warburton Rail Trail
The Lilydale to Warburton Rail Trail is a walking and horse-riding track in eastern Victoria, Australia. It runs a distance of 38 km between Warburton, along the former Warburton railway line. A section between Corduroy Road in Yarra Junction and Warburton is known as the Centenary Trail; the trail begins at Lilydale and passes through the townships of Mount Evelyn, Seville, Woori Yallock, Launching Place, Yarra Junction and Millgrove, ending at Warburton. Since the closure of the Warburton railway line in July 1965 and the dismantling of the track in the 1970s the land had remained vacant. In 1984 and again in 1996 the state government investigated selling off the land, but withdrew these proposals in part due to community opposition. Since its establishment in 1996 the trail has been continually developed and maintained by a combination of local volunteers the Friends of the Lilydale to Warburton Rail Trail, as well the Local Council and State and Federal governments. Over several years a significant amount of effort went into clearing the land, restoring 13 bridges and surfacing of the trail.
Negotiations were undertaken with neighbouring farmers who had occupied the reserve to erect fencing and gates where necessary. By 1998 the trail was continuous from Maroondah Highway, Lilydale to the site of the former Warburton station, with only a short section between Lilydale Station and Maroondah Highway remaining incomplete; the remaining section of the trail, a bridge across the Maroondah Highway, was completed in early 2011. The next stage of improvements to the trail is a crossing at York Road in Mount Evelyn, which should be completed mid-2011. Although the trail is continuous from Lilydale to Warburton, it does not adhere to the former Warburton rail line's alignment; some 700 metres from Lilydale station, just before a historic bridge where the original alignment of Anderson Street passed over the railway, the trail deviates around the north and south of Mount Lilydale Mercy College. The school leases the land occupied by the railway, which connects the old school grounds south-west of the line with an extension on the north-east.
The southern end of the deviation rises to meet the original alignment of the trail at a steep grade that makes it unsuitable for wheelchairs. Bicycle Trails in Victoria Bike Paths Victoria ninth edition, 2014. Edited and published by Sabey & Associates Pty Ltd. pages 66 – 74 Rail Trails Australia's Lilydale to Warburton Rail Trail Page Visit Victoria's Warburton Trail page Visit Warburton official website Historical Train Photos of Warburton D3 639.
Port Phillip, is a port in southern Victoria, Australia. It is nearly surrounded by the city of its suburbs. Geographically, the port covers 1,930 square kilometres and the shore stretches 264 km. Although it is shallow for its size, most of the port is navigable; the deepest portion is only 24 metres, half the region is shallower than 8 m. The volume of the water in the port is around 25 cubic kilometres. Before European settlement the area around Port Phillip was divided between the territories of the Wathaurong and Boonwurrung Nations, its waters and coast are home to seals, dolphins and many kinds of seabirds and migratory waders. The first Europeans to enter the port were the crews of HMS Lady Nelson, commanded by John Murray and, ten weeks HMS Investigator commanded by Matthew Flinders, in 1802. Subsequent expeditions into the bay took place in 1803 to establish the first settlement in Victoria, near Sorrento, but was abandoned in 1804. Thirty years settlers from Tasmania returned to establish Melbourne, now the state's capital city, at the mouth of the Yarra River in 1835 and Geelong at Corio Bay in 1838.
Today Port Phillip is the most densely populated catchment in Australia with an estimated 4.5 million people living around the bay. Port Phillip formed between the end of the last Ice Age around 8000 BCE and around 6000 BCE, when the sea-level rose to drown what was the lower reaches of the Yarra River, vast river plains and lakes; the Yarra and other tributaries flowed down what is now the middle of the bay, formed a lake in the southern reaches of the bay, dammed by The Heads, subsequently pouring out into Bass Strait. The Aboriginal people were in occupation of the area long before the bay was formed, having arrived at least 20,000 years ago and 40,000 years ago. Large piles of semi-fossilised sea-shells known as middens, can still be seen in places around the shoreline, marking the spots where Aboriginal people held feasts, they made a good living from the abundant sea-life, which included seals. In the cold season, they wore intricate feathered head-dresses. A dry period combined with sand bar formation, may have dried the bay out as as between 800 BCE and 1000 CE.
In 1800, Lieutenant James Grant was the first known European to pass through Bass Strait from west to east in HMS Lady Nelson. He was the first to see, crudely chart, the south coast from Cape Banks in South Australia to Wilsons Promontory in Victoria. Grant gave the name "Governor King's Bay" to the body of water between Cape Otway and Wilsons Promontory, but did not venture in and discover Port Phillip; the first Europeans to discover and enter Port Phillip, were the crew of the Lady Nelson, commanded by John Murray, which entered the bay on 15 February 1802. Murray called the bay Port King after the Governor of Philip Gidley King. On 4 September 1805, King formally renamed it Port Phillip, in honour of his predecessor Arthur Phillip. About ten weeks after Murray, Matthew Flinders in HMS Investigator found and entered the port, unaware Murray had been there; the official history of Nicholas Baudin's explorations in Le Géographe claimed they too had sighted the entrance at that time but this is certainly a embellishment or error, being absent from the ship's logs and Baudin's own accounts.
As a result of Murray's and Flinders' reports, King sent Lieutenant Charles Robbins in HMS Cumberland to explore Port Phillip fully. One of his party, Charles Grimes, became the first European to walk right round the bay, thus to discover the mouth of the Yarra, on 2 February 1803. King decided to place a convict settlement at Port Phillip to stake a claim to southern Australia ahead of the French. On 10 October 1803 a convoy of two ships HMS Calcutta and Ocean led by Captain David Collins carrying 402 people entered Port Philip Bay. After some investigation it was decided to establish the settlement at a spot known as Sullivan Bay close to where Sorrento now exists; the expedition landed at Sullivan Bay on 17 October 1803, the first of the "orders" issued by Collins bears that date. On 25 October, the King's birthday, the British flag was hoisted over the tiny settlement and a little salvo of musketry celebrated the royal occasion. On 25 November the first white child was born in Victoria and was baptised on Christmas Day, receiving the name of William James Hobart Thorne.
The first marriage took place on 28 November, when a free woman, Hannah Harvey was wedded to convict Richard Garrett. Lack of fresh water and good timber, led this, the first attempt at European settlement in Victoria, to be abandoned on 27 January 1804; when Collins left Port Phillip, the'Calcutta' proceeded to Sydney, the'Ocean' to Risdon Cove Tasmania, where they arrived on 15 February 1804. Prior to abandonment, a group of convicts including William Buckley, escaped from the settlement. Buckley took up residence in a cave near Point Lonsdale on the western side of the bay's entrance, The Rip. Port Phillip was left undisturbed until 1835, when settlers from Tasmania led by John Batman and John Pascoe Fawkner established Melbourne on the lower reaches of the Yarra. John Batman encountered Willia
Shire of Healesville
The Shire of Healesville was a local government area about 60 kilometres northeast of Melbourne, the state capital of Victoria, Australia. The shire covered an area of 466.20 square kilometres, existed from 1887 until 1994. Healesville was first incorporated as a shire on 30 September 1887, it annexed part of the Shire of Yea on 21 April 1925, part of the Shire of Eltham on 18 June 1958, while losing land to the Shire of Alexandra on two occasions. On 15 December 1994, the Shire of Healesville was abolished, along with the Shires of Lillydale and Upper Yarra and parts of the Shire of Sherbrooke, was merged into the newly created Shire of Yarra Ranges; the Shire of Healesville was divided into three ridings, each of which elected three councillors: Badger Riding Sugarloaf Riding Watts Riding Badger Creek Bend of Islands Castella Christmas Hills Chum Creek Dixons Creek Healesville Narbethong Steels Creek Tarrawarra Toolangi Yarra Glen Yering * Estimate in the 1958 Victorian Year Book
Yarra Valley (wine)
The Yarra Valley is an Australian wine region located east of Melbourne, Victoria. It is a cool climate region, best known for producing Chardonnay, sparkling wine and Pinot noir, its proximity to the urban centre and high profile wineries have made it an important destination for enotourism, receiving over 3.1 million visitors in 2011. The westernmost point of the Yarra Valley is Whittlesea, north to Kinglake, east to Mount Gregory and south to Gembrook, it is divided into two distinct subregions, the Valley Floor and the Upper Yarra, with distinct altitudes, soils and climates between them. Rainfall in the Yarra Valley is between 750mm - 950mm; the valley floor includes the towns of Lilydale, Yarra Glen and Healesville, is the path of both the Melba Highway and the Maroondah Highway. Most of the subregion sits between 50 and 80 metres above sea level and its sloping hills are warmer on average than other parts of the area; the area is predominantly grey soils, with pockets of granite around Yarra Glen and limestone near Kangaroo Ground and Lilydale.
The Upper Yarra extends across most of the southern side of the valley and includes the towns of Seville and Hoddles Creek. The younger, fertile red soils of this subregion coupled with a cooler climate owing to its increased elevation and south-westerly winds after March, produce the area's most notable varietals and Pinot Noir; the Yarra Valley was Victoria's first planted wine region, beginning with a vineyard at Yering Station in 1838. The Ryrie brothers, moving their cattle south from Sydney, took up a grazing license of 43,000 acres and planted two varietals, the Black Cluster of Hamburg and Sweetwater; the property was taken over by Swiss-born Paul de Castella in 1850 and developed into a major wine centre for the region, its increasing profile recognised in 1861 when it won the Argus Gold Cup for best Victorian vineyard. In 1863, Hubert de Castella established St Huberts Winery and Guillame de Pury founded Yeringberg, increasing the area under vine to 430 acres. In 1889 Yering Station won the grand prix at the Exposition Universelle, the only time a winery in the southern hemisphere has done so.
Although profile and plantings had grown by the turn of the century, economic decline, the threat of phylloxera and changing palatal preference impacted on cool climate viticulture and by 1937 the region was converted to dairy farming. In 1963, Reg Egan founded Wantirna Estate, the first of the most recent generation of Yarra Valley wineries, with plantings of varieties unknown in Australia, including crouchon, pedro ximinez and dolcetto. 12 hectares of vines were planted in 1969 by the botanist Dr. Bailey Carrodus in the foot of the Warramate Hills, signalling the founding of Yarra Yering and the rekindling of interest in the region as a wine district. In 1985 prominent Australian wine critic James Halliday founded Coldstream Hills, in the following year French Champagne house Moët & Chandon opened a local base at Domaine Chandon; the Black Saturday bushfires were a series of fires that burnt large areas of rural Victoria on and around 7 February 2009, resulting in the death of 173 people.
The wine region was threatened by three of the major fire complexes - Kinglake/Marysville, Dandenong Ranges & Maroondah/Yarra - and townships of Yarra Glen, Steels Creek and Dixons Creek were all affected. Yering Station, Punt Road, St Huberts and Domaine Chandon all reported losing some amount of fruit to spot fires. Mornington Peninsula winemaker Tom Carson's Serrat vineyard was destroyed; the Yarra Valley Wine Growers Association estimates that around 25 percent of viticultural area was threatened or impacted by fires, around 457 acres have been damaged or destroyed 5 percent of the total planted area. In most places fire caused little direct damage to vines, but huge amounts of fruit were lost due to smoke taint. Though a definitive Yarra Valley style doesn't exist, recent trends with its key varieties offer some insight. Chardonnay in Australia has long been associated with a deep, buttery style that experiences full malolactic fermentation and excessive amounts of oak treatment, that has since gone out of fashion nationwide.
Australia's cooler wine regions the Yarra Valley, are leading the charge on leaner, acid-driven styles of Chardonnay, more aligned with Burgundy, with winemakers reducing or preventing malic acid conversion and reducing both the duration of oak maturation and the percentage of new oak used. Oakridge Wines is a leading proponent of this style, their importance recognised in 2012 when Nick Stock awarded the winery three honours: Chardonnay of the Year, Wine of the Year and Winery of the Year. Victorian wine Yarra Valley Wine Growers Association
The Australian wine industry is the world's fifth largest exporter of wine with 780 million litres a year to the international export market with only about 40% of production consumed domestically. The wine industry is a significant contributor to the Australian economy through production, employment and tourism. There is a $2.8 billion domestic market for Australian wines, with Australians consuming over 530 million litres annually with a per capita consumption of about 30 litres – 50% white table wine, 35% red table wine. Norfolk Islanders are the second biggest per capita wine consumers in the world with 54 litres. Only 16.6% of wine sold domestically is imported. Wine is produced in every state, with more than 60 designated wine regions totalling 160,000 hectares; the wine regions in each of these states produce different wine varieties and styles that take advantage of the particular Terroir such as: climatic differences and soil types. The major varieties are predominantly Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot noir and Sauvignon blanc.
Wines are labelled with the name of their grape variety, which must constitute at least 85 percent of the wine. Vine cuttings from the Cape of Good Hope were brought to the penal colony of New South Wales by Governor Phillip on the First Fleet. An attempt at wine making from these first vines failed, but with perseverance, other settlers managed to cultivate vines for winemaking, Australian made wine was available for sale domestically by the 1820s. In 1822 Gregory Blaxland became the first person to export Australian wine, was the first winemaker to win an overseas award. In 1830 vineyards were established in the Hunter Valley. In 1833 James Busby returned from France and Spain with a serious selection of grape varieties including most classic French grapes and a good selection of grapes for fortified wine production. Wine from the Adelaide Hills was sent to Queen Victoria in 1844, but there is no evidence that she placed an order as a result; the production and quality of Australian wine was much improved by the arrival of free settlers from various parts of Europe, who used their skills and knowledge to establish some of Australia's premier wine regions.
For example, emigrants from Prussia in the mid-1850s were important in establishing South Australia's Barossa Valley as a winemaking region. In smaller scale, winemakers from Switzerland helped in establishing Geelong wine region in Victoria in 1842. Early Australian winemakers faced many difficulties due to the unfamiliar Australian climate, but because it is warm and Mediterranean overall, making Australia ideal for wine production, they achieved considerable success. "At the 1873 Vienna Exhibition the French judges, tasting blind, praised some wines from Victoria, but withdrew in protest when the provenance of the wine was revealed, on the grounds that wines of that quality must be French." Australian wines continued to win high honours in French competitions. A Victorian Syrah competing in the 1878 Paris Exhibition was likened to Château Margaux and "its taste completed its trinity of perfection." One Australian wine won a gold medal "first class" at the 1882 Bordeaux International Exhibition and another won a gold medal "against the world" at the 1889 Paris International Exhibition.
That was all before the destructive effects on the industry of the phylloxera epidemic. Australia has become a world leader in both the quantity and quality of wines it produces. For example, Australian wine exports to the US rose from 578,000 cases in 1990 to 20,000,000 cases in 2004 and in 2000 it exported more wine than France to the UK for the first time in history; the industry has at times suffered from its own productivity. In the late 1980s, governments sponsored growers to pull out their vines to overcome a glut of winegrapes. Low grape prices in 2005 and 2006 have led to calls for another sponsored vine pull. Cleanskin wines were introduced into Australia during the 1960s as a means to combat oversupply and poor sales. In recent years organic and biodynamic wines have been increasing in popularity, following a worldwide trend. In 2004 Australia hosted the First International Biodynamic Wine Forum in Beechworth, Victoria which brought together biodynamic wine producers from around the globe.
Despite the overproduction of grapes many organic and biodynamic growers have enjoyed continuing demand thanks to the premium prices winemakers can charge for their organic and biodynamic products in the European market. Major grape varieties are Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Sauvignon blanc, Sémillon, Riesling; the country has no native grapes, Vitis vinifera varieties were introduced from Europe and South Africa in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Some varieties have been bred for example Cienna and Tarrango. Although Syrah was called Shiraz in Australia and Syrah elsewhere, its dramatic commercial success has led many Syrah producers around the world to label their wine "Shiraz". About 130 different grape varieties are used by commercial winemakers in Australia. Over recent years many winemakers have begun exploring so called "alternative varieties" other than those listed above. Many varieties from France and Spain for example Petit Verdot, Pinot grigio, Pinot noir, Sangiovese and Viognier are becoming more common.
Wines from many other varieties are being produced. Australian winemaking results have been impressiv
Chardonnay is a green-skinned grape variety used in the production of white wine. The variety originated in the Burgundy wine region of eastern France, but is now grown wherever wine is produced, from England to New Zealand. For new and developing wine regions, growing Chardonnay is seen as a "rite of passage" and an easy entry into the international wine market; the Chardonnay grape itself is neutral, with many of the flavors associated with the wine being derived from such influences as terroir and oak. It is vinified in many different styles, from the lean, crisply mineral wines of Chablis, France, to New World wines with oak and tropical fruit flavors. In cool climates, Chardonnay wine tends to be medium to light body with noticeable acidity and flavors of green plum and pear. In warmer locations, the flavors become more citrus and melon, while in warm locations, more fig and tropical fruit notes such as banana and mango come out. Wines that have gone through malolactic fermentation tend to have softer acidity and fruit flavors with buttery mouthfeel and hazelnut notes.
Chardonnay is an important component of many sparkling wines around the world, including Champagne and Franciacorta in Italy. Chardonnay's popularity peaked in the late 1980s gave way to a backlash among those wine connoisseurs who saw the grape as a leading negative component of the globalization of wine. Nonetheless, it is one of the most planted grape varieties, with 210,000 hectares worldwide, second only to Airén among white wine grapes and fifth among all wine grapes. For much of its history, a connection was assumed between Pinot blanc. In addition to being found in the same region of France for centuries, ampelographers noted that the leaves of each plant have near-identical shape and structure. Pierre Galet disagreed with this assessment, believing that Chardonnay was not related to any other major grape variety. Viticulturalists Maynard Amerine and Harold Olmo proposed a descendency from a wild Vitis vinifera vine, a step removed from white Muscat. Chardonnay's true origins were further obscured by vineyard owners in Lebanon and Syria, who claimed that the grape's ancestry could be traced to the Middle East, from where it was introduced to Europe by returning Crusaders, though little external evidence supports that theory.
Another theory stated. Modern DNA fingerprinting research at University of California, now suggests that Chardonnay is the result of a cross between the Pinot noir and Gouais blanc grape varieties; the Romans are thought to have brought Gouais blanc from Croatia, it was cultivated by peasants in eastern France. The Pinot of the French aristocracy grew in close proximity to the Gouais blanc, giving both grapes ample opportunity to interbreed. Since the two parents were genetically distant, many of the crosses showed hybrid vigour and were selected for further propagation; these "successful" crosses included Chardonnay and siblings such as Aligoté, Aubin vert, Bachet noir, Franc Noir de la-Haute-Saône, Gamay Blanc Gloriod, Gamay noir, Knipperlé, Roublot and Dameron. As of 2006, 34 clonal varieties of Chardonnay could be found in vineyards throughout France, most of which were developed at the University of Burgundy in Dijon; the so-called "Dijon clones" are bred for their adaptive attributes, with vineyard owners planting the clonal variety best suited to their terroir and which will produce the characteristics that they are seeking in the wine.
Examples include the lower-yielding clones'Dijon-76','95' and'96' that produce more flavor-concentrated clusters.'Dijon-77' and'809' produce more aromatic wines with a "grapey" perfume, while'Dijon-75','78','121','124','125' and'277' are more vigorous and higher-yielding clones. New World varieties include the'Mendoza' clone, which produced some of the early California Chardonnays. The'Mendoza' clone is prone to develop millerandage known as "hens and chicks", where the berries develop unevenly. In places such as Oregon, the use of newer Dijon clones has had some success in those regions of the Willamette Valley with climates similar to that of Burgundy. Chardonnay has served as parent to several French-American hybrid grapes, as well as crossings with other V. vinifera varieties. Examples include the hybrid Chardonel, a Chardonnay and Seyval blanc cross produced in 1953 at the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station. Mutations of the Chardonnay grape include the rare pink-berried'Chardonnay Rose'.
Chardonnay Blanc Musqué is found around the Mâconnais village of Clessé and sometimes confused with the'Dijon-166' clone planted in South Africa, which yields Muscat-like aromas. In the 1930s, Chardonnay was crossed with a Seibel grape to create the hybrid grape Ravat blanc. Chardonnay has a wide-ranging reputation for relative ease of cultivation and ability to adapt to different conditions; the grape is "malleable", in that it reflects and takes on the impression of its terroir and winemaker. It is a vigorous vine, with extensive leaf cover which can inhibit the energy and nutrient uptake of its grape clusters. Vineyard managers counteract this with aggressive canopy management; when Chardonnay vines are planted densely, they are forced to compete for resources and funnel energy into their grape clusters. In certain conditions, the vines can be v
Victoria is a state in south-eastern Australia. Victoria is Australia's smallest mainland state and its second-most populous state overall, thus making it the most densely populated state overall. Most of its population lives concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australia's second-largest city. Victoria is bordered by Bass Strait and Tasmania to the south,New South Wales to the north, the Tasman Sea to the east, South Australia to the west; the area, now known as Victoria is the home of many Aboriginal people groups, including the Boon wurrung, the Bratauolung, the Djadjawurrung, the Gunai/Kurnai, the Gunditjmara, the Taungurong, the Wathaurong, the Wurundjeri, the Yorta Yorta. There were more than 30 Aboriginal languages spoken in the area prior to the European settlement of Australia; the Kulin nation is an alliance of five Aboriginal nations which makes up much of the central part of the state. With Great Britain having claimed the half of the Australian continent, east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria formed part of the wider colony of New South Wales.
The first European settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, much of what is now Victoria was included in 1836 in the Port Phillip District, an administrative division of New South Wales. Named in honour of Queen Victoria, who signed the division's separation from New South Wales, the colony was established in 1851 and achieved self government in 1855; the Victorian gold rush in the 1850s and 1860s increased both the population and wealth of the colony, by the time of the Federation of Australia in 1901, Melbourne had become the largest city and leading financial centre in Australasia. Melbourne served as federal capital of Australia until the construction of Canberra in 1927, with the Federal Parliament meeting in Melbourne's Parliament House and all principal offices of the federal government being based in Melbourne. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate. At state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
The Labor Party led Daniel Andrews as premier has governed Victoria since 2014. The personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria Linda Dessau. Victoria is divided into 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, which the state administers directly; the economy of Victoria is diversified, with service sectors including financial and property services, education, retail and manufacturing constitute the majority of employment. Victoria's total gross state product ranks second in Australia, although Victoria ranks fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne hosts a number of museums, art galleries, theatres, is described as the world's sporting capital; the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the largest stadium in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere, hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The ground is considered the "spiritual home" of Australian cricket and Australian rules football, hosts the grand final of the Australian Football League each year, drawing crowds of 100,000.
Nearby Melbourne Park has hosted the Australian Open, one of tennis' four Grand Slam events, annually since 1988. Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, dating from 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851. After the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788, Australia was divided into an eastern half named New South Wales and a western half named New Holland, under the administration of the colonial government in Sydney; the first British settlement in the area known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. It consisted of 402 people, they had been sent from England in HMS Calcutta under the command of Captain Daniel Woodriff, principally out of fear that the French, exploring the area, might establish their own settlement and thereby challenge British rights to the continent.
In 1826, Colonel Stewart, Captain Samuel Wright, Lieutenant Burchell were sent in HMS Fly and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. The expedition landed at Settlement Point, on the eastern side of Western Port Bay, the headquarters until the abandonment of Western Port at the insistence of Governor Darling about 12 months afterwards. Victoria's next settlement was on the south west coast of what is now Victoria. Edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, John Pascoe Fawkner. From settlement, the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after, the site now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe, three weeks after Melbourne, and in 1838, Geelong was declared a town, despite earlier European settlements dating back to 1826