SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Yasnaya Polyana

Yasnaya Polyana is a writer's house museum, the former home of the writer Leo Tolstoy. It is 12 kilometres southwest of Tula, 200 kilometres from Moscow. Tolstoy was born in the house, where he wrote both Peace and Anna Karenina, he is buried nearby. Tolstoy called Yasnaya Polyana his "inaccessible literary stronghold". In June 1921, the estate formally became his memorial museum, it was at first run by the writer's daughter. The current director of the museum is Tolstoy's great-great-grandson Vladimir Tolstoy; the museum contains Tolstoy's personal effects and movables, as well as his library of 22,000 volumes. The estate-museum contains the writer's mansion, the school he founded for peasant children, a park where Tolstoy's unadorned grave is situated; the estate of Yasnaya Polyana was owned by the Kartsev family. In the 18th century, it was purchased by major-general Sergey Volkonskiy and passed to his son, general-in-chief Prince Nikolai Volkonskiy, the grandfather of the writer. Nikolai lived in what is now known as the'Volkonskiy house' before commencing to build the main, single-storey manor house in 1810, at the highest point of the estate.

This was flanked by two two-storey wings, linked by decking. He built stables, a coach-house, a bathhouse and two orangeries linked by a gallery, created a formal French garden, an English landscape garden with a cascade of ponds, long avenues of birch and oak trees; the house passed from Nikolai Volkonskiy to his only daughter, Maria Nikolayevna, the mother of Leo Tolstoy. Her husband, Nikolai Ilyich Tolstoy, a veteran of the war against Napoleon in 1812, added a second storey to the house, providing accommodation for an extended family of thirteen. Leo Tolstoy was born at Yasnaya Polyana, his parents died when he was young, he was raised there by relatives. In 1854, to pay off gambling debts, Tolstoy sold the central part of the house to a neighbour, who dismantled it and rebuilt it on his own land. Only the two wings remained, he brought his wife there after their marriage in 1862. At the time Tolstoy lived there, the Yasnaya Polyana estate comprised about 1,600 hectares, on a sloping hillside with dense original forest at the upper end, a series of four ponds at different levels.

The estate had four clusters of peasant houses for about 350 peasants living and working on the estate. Tolstoy wrote War and Peace at Yasnaya Polyana between 1862 and 1869, wrote Anna Karenina there between 1873 and 1877, he wrote the novels in his study by hand in small handwriting, with many additions and deletions and notes, gave the draft to his wife, who made a clean copy at night, which Tolstoy rewrote the next day. Each chapter went through five or six drafts, she recopied War and Peace seven times before it was finished. All the drafts are now in the Rumyantsev Museum in Moscow. Tolstoy's thirteen children, of whom four died in childhood, were all born at Yasnaya Polyana, they were born on the same leather sofa where Tolstoy himself was born, kept in his study next to his writing desk, is still there today. When he was living and working at Yasnaya Polyana, Tolstoy awakened at 7:00 a.m. did physical exercises, walked in the park, before starting his writing. During the harvest season he worked in the fields with the peasants, both for physical exercise and to make his writing about peasant life more realistic.

He visited the school for peasant children which he had created in one building, where he told stories to the children. Tolstoy entertained all the important Russian cultural and artistic figures of his time at Yasnaya Polyana, his guests are known to have included Anton Chekhov, Maxim Gorky, the painters Valentin Serov, Ilya Repin. In 1911, Tolstoy's widow Sofia Alexandrovna applied to Tsar Nicholas II to have Yasnaya Polyana made into a state museum; the Tsar refused, but did grant a pension to the family which allowed the house and estate to be preserved as they were. In 1919, the Soviet Government formally put Yasnaya Polyana under the protection of the state, in June 1921 Yasnaya Polyana was nationalized and became a state museum, receiving 3,147 visitors in its first year. In October 1941, as the Germans approached Moscow, 110 crates filled with the exhibits of the museum were evacuated to Moscow, to Tomsk; the estate was occupied by the Germans for 45 days, who turned the Leo Tolstoy House into a hospital, German soldiers who died in the hospital were buried around Tolstoy's grave.

A fire during the occupation damaged the upper floor of the house. Following the war the estate was restored to the way it looked. Soviet propaganda made use of the Germans' disregard of the house's cultural value in the 1942 war documentary film Moscow Strikes Back; the Kuzminsky wing, like the house of Leo Tolstoy, was part of the large house built by Tolstoy's father, demolished. In 1859 Tolstoy turned it into a school for the peasant children of his estate, where he practised his theories of education. After 1862, it became the home of the younger sister of his wife, Tatyana Andreyevna Kuzminskiy, her family. By 1897 it had become dilapidated; the Volkonskiy house is the oldest structure on the estate. It was used as a carpet factory at one time. During Tolstoy's time it housed the estate's servants. Long before he died Tolstoy announced the place where he wanted to be buried.

Lal Bihari Himirika

Lal Bihari Himirika is an Indian Politician from Biju Janata Dal. He is MLA of Rayagada constituency of Odisha, he represented the Odisha Assembly from Rayagada Vidhan Sabha constituency in 2009 and 2014 assembly elections. Sri Himirika hails from Penta village of Rayagada district in the state of Odisha. Started his career as a union worker in the JK paper mills, Jaykaypur, he served as the ST development minister in the 15th assembly of Odisha. Sri Ramesh Chandra Majhi succeeded him in May 2017, he served as a member of the KBK Committee. Himirika was appointed the president of Rayagada district BJD. Member -House Committee on environment- 2000-2001 Member -Committee on welfare of SC & ST- 2000-2001 Member -House Committee on Cooperatives- 2001-2002 Member -House Committee on environment- 2001-2002 Member -Committee on welfare of SC & ST- 2001-2002 Member -House Committee on Cooperatives- 2001-2002 Member -House Committee on environment- 2002-2003 Member -Committee on welfare of SC & ST- 2002-2003 Member -House Committee on Cooperatives- 2003-2004 Member -Committee on welfare of SC & ST- 2003-2004

2019 Johannesburg riots

The 2019 Johannesburg riots occurred in the South African city of Johannesburg from 1–5 September 2019, leading to the deaths of at least seven people. The riots were xenophobic in nature targeting foreign nationals from the rest of Africa. Retaliatory actions by rioters in other African nations was taken against South African brands; the South African Institute of Race Relations stated that the riots were similar in nature and origin to the 2008 xenophobic riots that occurred in Johannesburg. The riot resumed in Johannesburg on the 8 September 2019 when rioters marched on the central business district and looted shops whilst calling for foreigners to go. On 1 September 2019, riots and looting targeting shops owned by foreign nationals broke out in Jeppestown and Johannesburg CBD following the death of a taxi driver for trying to stop drug dealers. By 3 September around 189 people had been arrested by police for looting. 423 have been arrested by 5 September and President Cyril Ramaphosa stated that at least ten people were confirmed to have died, including two foreign nationals.

The looting meanwhile spread to the township of Alexandra. Around 50 businesses predominantly owned by Africans from the rest of the continent were destroyed or damaged during the incident; the mosque located in the Jozi Mall was attacked and copies of Quran were defiled, while every shop in the mall was looted. In Katlehong, residents placed barriers on the roads before looting the Sontonga Mall, stated the Guanteng Police. Two people were shot dead for trying to loot shops, including one South African named Isaac Sebaku in Coronationville by a Somali shop owner, arrested and another person in Crosby. Premier of Gauteng, David Makhura, confirmed that a South African was shot over an incident of looting. Police Minister Bheki Cele stated. News24 has reported that the police have confirmed two South Africans were shot dead in Brixton and Sophiatown during the riots and a Zimbabwean security guard was shot in Hillbrow. Two victims of unknown nationality were killed in Jeppestown. Cele confirmed five murders were reported - two in Coronationville, two in Hillbrow and one in Jeppestown.

Two charred corpses were recovered from shops burnt by looters in Alexandra. On 5 September, the provincial police arrested 74 persons in Katlehong as looting and rioting continued, taking the number of an arrests to 497, they stated that 11 persons had died during the riots, though only 7 deaths are known to have been caused directly due to it. Isaac Sithole, a Zimbabwean, was burnt alive by South African rioters in Katlehong, his sister-in-law alleged that a baby had died in an arson attack. Following the resumption of rioting on the 8 September noted Zulu leader, Mangosuthu Buthelezi, gave a speech calling for calm and a secession of violence. One person died and five were injured during a protest by South Africans against immigrants in Johannesburg whilst 16 people were arrested. Another person was shot in Malvern during the violence; this brought the number of deaths to 12. The police stated. By the end of the riots a reported total of over 680 people had been arrested; the riots coincided with a nation-wide truck driver strike protesting against the employment of non-South African truckers.

It coincided with the publication of a statement by Human Rights Watch that over 200 people had been killed in South Africa since March 2018. During the riot a number of freight trucks were torched and foreign truck drivers assaulted in the province of KwaZulu-Natal. In response the Football Association of Zambia cancelled an international soccer match against South Africa taking place in Zambia due to “prevailing security concerns in South Africa.” A Pick n Pay store in Zambia was stormed following the riots in South Africa. The Government of Botswana issued travel advisory and warning to its citizens in wake of the deadly riots targeting foreigners; the South African NGO Right2Know stated that xenophobia and the resulting riots were the result of "xenophobic populism" espoused by South African politicians such as Goodwill Zwelithini, Herman Mashaba, President Cyril Ramaphosa. A number of South African celebrities such as Nadia Nakai, Manaka Ranaka, Cassper Nyovest were publicly critical of xenophobia and the resulting riots.

A month after the riots in Johannesburg foreign nationals in Cape Town staged a sit-in outside the local offices of the United Nations Refugee Agency. The nationals demanded that the UNRA pay for their fare back to their respective home countries so as to escape xenophobia in South Africa. In Nigeria all stores and service centres operated by South African telecom company MTN were temporarily shut following retaliatory attacks on the company for the riots in South Africa. Other South African companies temporarily suspended trading as Multichoice and Shoprite stopped operations. Nigerian artist Tiwa Savage stated on Twitter that she would be cancelling appearances in South Africa in protest of the riots. Following the riots President Muhammadu Buhari of Nigeria summoned the South African High Commissioner to convey his concerns about the incident to President Ramaphosa of South Africa; the Nigerian government cancelled its participation at the African Economic Forum, scheduled to be held in Cape Town in retaliation to the riots and closed its embassy in South Africa citing security concerns.

Nigeria's ruling party, the All Progressives Congress, advocated for the nationalization of South African businesses in retaliation for attacks on Nigerian nationals. South African diplomatic missions in Abuja and Lagos were close