Chumpe, is a mountain in the north of the Pariacaca mountain range in the Andes of Peru, about 5,200 metres high. It is situated in the Junín Region, Yauli Province, in the districts of Huay-Huay and Yauli District. Chumpe lies east of Lake Pumacocha; the mining town of San Cristóbal is situated at its feet
Rajuntay is a mountain of the Andes mountain range in central Peru, part of the Andes. At 5,477 metres; the name means coupled snow. It is called Raujunte. List_of_mountains_in_the_Andes
Anticona called Ticlio, is a mountain in the Andes of Peru, about 5,150 metres high. It is located in the Lima Region, Huarochiri Province, Chicla District, in the Junín Region, Yauli Province, Morococha District. Anticona lies between the Ticlio mountain pass in the southwest and Yanashinga in the northeast, northwest of a lake named Huacracocha
Ticlio is a mountain pass and the highest point of the central road of Peru, in the Andes mountains, reaching a height of 4,818 metres. It used to be a railway crossing loop on the Ferrocarril Central Andino in Peru whose main claim to fame was being the highest railway junction in the world; the railway now crosses the pass through a nearby tunnel at a lower elevation which enters a different valley than the highway on the eastern side of the pass. It lies at km 171 just on the Pacific side of the Andes watershed; the 1,435 mm standard gauge line through the Ticlio station was opened in 1893 and from 1921 it was the junction for the now-closed branch to Morococha. The railway is an active freight line but there are now no regular passenger services on the FCCA. On the railway approach to Ticlio from the direction of Lima eight tunnels were necessary in a stretch of less than two miles. Antikuna Qinghai–Tibet Railway Waqraqucha List of highest railway stations in the world http://mikes.railhistory.railfan.net/r022.html Marshall, John.
The Guinness Railway Book. Enfield: Guinness Books. ISBN 0-8511-2359-7. OCLC 24175552
La Oroya is a city on the River Mantaro in central Peru. It is situated on the Andes some 176 km east-north-east of the national capital, is capital of the Yauli Province. La Oroya is the location of a smelting operation that earned the town a place on the Blacksmith Institute's 2007 report, "The World's Worst Polluted Places". Settlement at La Oroya dates to about 10,000 BCE. In 1533, the Spanish established a small settlement and started small-scale mining for precious metals in the area, but isolation and transport difficulties hindered extraction. At the time of the War of Independence, the area's strategic position made it a center of guerrilla activity. In 1861, the settlement was named San Jeronímo de Callapampa and in 1893 it became La Oroya. In 1925, La Oroya was designated the capital of the Yauli province and in 1942, it was elevated to city status. Mining in the area developed and did not expand until the railway from Lima to La Oroya was completed in 1893; the railway, an extraordinary feat of engineering, was planned by the Polish railway builder Ernest Malinowski, crosses the Ticlio Pass, where it reaches an altitude of 4781 meters.
Until the recent completion of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway it was the highest standard gauge railway in the world. The smelter, now the city's main employer, was established in 1922 by the American Cerro de Pasco Corporation, who ran it until 1974 when Cerro was nationalized and became part of the state owned Empresa Minera del Centro del Peru S A, otherwise known as Centromin. In 1993, the Peruvian government decided to privatize Centromin. In 1997, 99.97% of the La Oroya smelter was acquired by Doe Run Peru, a subsidiary of the Renco Group, for US$247 million. The acquisition consisted of a capital contribution to Centromin's Metaloroya of US$126.5 million and a purchase price payment of US$120.5 million. Doe Run Peru bought the Cobriza copper mine for US$7.5 million to maintain concentrate supplies to the copper smelter. First to be built was the copper smelter in 1922, followed by the lead smelter in 1928 and the zinc refinery in 1952. Annual capacities were 70,000 tonnes copper, 122,000 tonnes lead and 45,000 tonnes zinc, although the need to keep below emission limits and temperature inversions that trap gases over the city and surrounding area have tended to keep production below these levels.
A number of local mines produce'dirty concentrates' that contain metallic impurities that cannot be separated by the flotation process. Over the years, the La Oroya metallurgists have devised methods to separate and recover these metals as byproducts, the three main smelters have become integrated for this purpose. La Oroya is one of few smelting operations in the world with this capability; as a result, La Oroya produces gold and silver, arsenic trioxide, cadmium, selenium, sulfuric acid and oleum. This technology has helped the operation to reduce the emission of toxic metals. With the acquisition of La Oroya, Doe Run inherited a complicated and semi-obsolescent smelter complex; the operation had suffered from disrepair, previous owners had invested little in modernization or clean operations. As a result of years of pollution, the hills around the smelter became denuded, the river became more toxic, the health of area inhabitants suffered. Residents have been found to have alarmingly high concentrations of lead in their blood and in the drinking water, many have bronchial troubles.
A 1999 study showed high levels of air pollution, with 85 times more arsenic, 41 times more cadmium, 13 times more lead than amounts considered safe. When Doe Run bought La Oroya, it took over Centromin's PAMA, an environmental contract requiring environmental remediation measures; the measures required new sulfuric acid plants, elimination of fugitive gases from the coke plant, use of oxygenated gases in the anodic residue plant, a water treatment plant for the copper refinery, a recirculation system for cooling waters at the smelter and disposal of acidic solutions at the silver refinery, an industrial wastewater treatment plant for the smelter and refinery, a containment dam for the lead mud near the zileret plant, a granulation process water at the lead smelter, an anode washing system at the zinc refinery and disposal of lead and copper slag wastes, domestic waste water treatment, domestic waste disposal. However, Doe Run Peru has been indemnified by Centromin against any environmental liability arising out of Centromin's prior operations.
Doe Run's original commitment to this program was US$107 million but it is now expected that it will cost at least US$244 million. The company caused trouble in 2004 among non-governmental organizations, when it said that it would not be able to complete the PAMA by the deadline of 2006, asked for an extension. On Dec 29, 2004, the Peruvian Government issued Supreme Decree No. 046-2004-EM, which recognized that exceptional circumstances may justify an extension of the time to complete one or more projects within the scope of a PAMA. Doe Run Peru was granted such an extension by the Ministry of Energy and Mines on May 29, 2006; the exact reason for the request was not given but appears to have been a combinat
Pariacaca mountain range
The Pariacaca mountain range called Huarochirí mountain range lies in the Andes of Peru. It is located in the Junín Region, in the provinces of Jauja and Yauli, in the Lima Region, in the provinces of Huarochirí and Yauyos, it is part of the Cordillera Central of Peru. The highest mountain in the range is Pariacaca at 5,750 metres. Other peaks are listed below: Many of the toponyms of the Junín Region and the Lima Region originate from Quechua, their Spanish-based orthography, however, is in conflict with the normalized alphabet of the language. According to Article 20 of Decreto Supremo No 004-2016-MC which approves the Regulations to Law 29735, published in the official newspaper El Peruano on July 22, 2016, adequate spellings of the toponyms in the normalized alphabets of the indigenous languages must progressively be proposed with the aim of standardizing the namings used by the National Geographic Institute The National Geographic Institute realizes the necessary changes in the official maps of Peru.
The official maps of Peru have been withdrawn from the websites of the IGN. The recovery and revitalisation of the indigenous languages is a means to fight discrimination by the use of the language that affects speakers of the native languages in Peru and to promote respectful coexistence in a multicultural and multilingual society
Department of Junín
Junín is a region in the central highlands and westernmost Peruvian Amazon. Its capital is Huancayo; the region has a heterogeneous topography. The western range located near the border with the Lima Region, has ice-covered peaks. On the east, there are high glacier valleys. Among them is the Junín Plateau, located between the cities of La Oroya and Cerro de Pasco; the Mantaro Valley becomes wider before Jauja up to the limit with the Huancavelica Region. This area concentrates a large share of the region's population. Towards the east, near the jungle, there is an abundance of narrow and deep canyons, with inclined hillsides, covered by woods under low-lying clouds; the Waytapallana mountain range is located in the south central area of the region. This range holds a great fault, the reason earthquakes happen in the area; the upper jungle, with valleys of great length, modelled by the Tulumayu, Perené and Ene rivers, is located on the eastern side of the region. Lake Junin, the largest lake within Peru, is located in the region, except for its northernmost tip which belongs to the Pasco Region.
Junín Region is home to Mount Toromocho. The Junín Region borders the regions of Pasco in the north, Ucayali in the northeast and Cusco in the east; the Mantaro River marks the border of the region with the Ayacucho and Huancavelica regions in the south and in the west it is bordered by the Lima Region. The Junín Region has an average annual temperature of 13.1 °C, a maximum high of 17 °C and a minimum low of 0 °C. The rainy season runs from November to April, from December to March in tropical areas; the region is divided into nine provinces. The provinces and their capitals are: According to the 2007 Peru Census, the language learnt first by most of the residents was Spanish followed by Quechua; the Quechua varieties spoken in Junín are Yaru Quechua and Chanka Quechua. The following table shows the results concerning the language learnt first in the Junín Region by province: Until the arrival of the Incas the plains of Junin region known as the Pampas were inhabited by a semi-wild, rowdy group of people whose rivals were the Tarumas.
Meanwhile, the Mantaro Valley was inhabited by the Huancas. Inca Pachacuti won all these races in 1460, which became part of the Inca Empire. Huancayo became the region's main highway rest stop on the Inca Trail. Woolen mills were created during the viceroyalty, when the tissue and the tissue became a tradition that continues today. On September 13, 1825, Simón Bolívar issued a decree creating what is now the Junín Region, to commemorate his victory in the Battle of Junín, the last real cavalry charge in the Western world where no shot was fired, but knowing only used. Major events of national importance occurred during this period: Huancayo hosted the Assembly that issued the 1839 Constitution and in December 3, 1854, Ramón Castilla signed a decree that granted freedom to Afro-Peruvian slaves. Asháninka Communal Reserve Chacamarca Historical Sanctuary Nor Yauyos-Cochas Landscape Reserve Otishi National Park Pampa Hermosa Reserved Zone Gobierno Regional Junín – Junín Regional Government official website