The Yellow Emperor known as the Yellow Thearch, or by his Chinese name Huangdi, is a deity in Chinese religion, one of the legendary Chinese sovereigns and culture heroes included among the mytho-historical Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors and cosmological Five Forms of the Highest Deity. First calculated by Jesuit missionaries on the basis of Chinese chronicles and accepted by the twentieth-century promoters of a universal calendar starting with the Yellow Emperor, Huangdi's traditional reign dates are 2697–2597 or 2698–2598 BCE. Huangdi's cult became prominent in the late Warring States and early Han dynasty, when he was portrayed as the originator of the centralized state, as a cosmic ruler, as a patron of esoteric arts. A large number of texts – such as the Huangdi Neijing, a medical classic, the Huangdi Sijing, a group of political treatises – were thus attributed to him. Having waned in influence during most of the imperial period, in the early twentieth century Huangdi became a rallying figure for Han Chinese attempts to overthrow the rule of the Qing dynasty, which they considered foreign because its emperors were Manchu people.
To this day the Yellow Emperor remains a powerful symbol within Chinese nationalism. Traditionally credited with numerous inventions and innovations – ranging from the Chinese calendar to an ancestor of football – the Yellow Emperor is now regarded as the initiator of Chinese culture, said to be the ancestor of all Chinese; until 221 BCE when Qin Shi Huang of the Qin dynasty coined the title huangdi – conventionally translated as "emperor" – to refer to himself, the character di 帝 did not refer to earthly rulers but to the highest god of the Shang dynasty pantheon. In the Warring States period, the term di on its own could refer to the deities associated with the five Sacred Mountains of China and colors. Huangdi, the "yellow di", was one of the latter. To emphasize the religious meaning of di in pre-imperial times, historians of early China translate the god's name as "Yellow Thearch" and the first emperor's title as "August Thearch", in which "thearch" refers to a godly ruler. In the late Warring States period, the Yellow Emperor was integrated into the cosmological scheme of the Five Phases, in which the color yellow represents the earth phase, the Yellow Dragon, the center.
The correlation of the colors in association with different dynasties was mentioned in the Lüshi Chunqiu, where the Yellow Emperor's reign was seen to be governed by earth. The character huang 黄 was used in place of the homophonous huang 皇, which means "august" or "radiant", giving Huangdi attributes close to those of Shangdi, the Shang supreme god; the Records of the Grand Historian, compiled by Sima Qian in the first century BCE, gives the Yellow Emperor's name as "Xuan Yuan". Third-century scholar Huangfu Mi, who wrote a work on the sovereigns of antiquity, commented that Xuanyuan was the name of a hill where Huangdi had lived and that he took as a name; the Qing dynasty scholar Liang Yusheng argued instead that the hill was named after the Yellow Emperor. Xuanyuan is the name of the star Regulus in Chinese, the star being associated with Huangdi in traditional astronomy, he is associated to the broader constellations Leo and Lynx, of which the latter is said to represent the body of the Yellow Dragon, Huangdi's animal form.
Huangdi was referred to as "Youxiong". This name has been interpreted as either a clan name. According to British sinologist Herbert Allen Giles, that name was "taken from that of hereditary principality". William Nienhauser, a modern translator of the Records of the Grand Historian, states that Huangdi was the head of the Youxiong clan, which lived near what is now Xinzheng in Henan. Rémi Mathieu, a French historian of Chinese myths and religion, translates "Youxiong" as "possessor of bears" and links Huangdi to the broader theme of the bear in world mythology. Ye Shuxian has associated the Yellow Emperor with bear legends common across northeast Asia people as well as the Dangun legend. Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian describes the Yellow Emperor's ancestral name as Gongsun. In Han dynasty texts, the Yellow Emperor is called upon as the "Yellow God". Certain accounts interpret him as the incarnation of the "Yellow God of the Northern Dipper", another name of the universal god. According to a definition in apocryphal texts related to the Hétú 河圖, the Yellow Emperor "proceeds from the essence of the Yellow God".
As a cosmological deity, the Yellow Emperor is known as the "Great Emperor of the Central Peak", in the Shizi as the "Yellow Emperor with Four Faces". In old accounts the Yellow Emperor is identified as a deity of light and thunder, as one and the same with the "Thunder God", who in turn, as a mythological character, is distinguished as the Yellow Emperor's foremost pupil, such as in the Huangdi Neijing; the Chinese historian Sima Qian – and much Chinese historiography following him – considered the Yellow Emperor to be a more historical figure than earlier legendary figures such as Fu Xi, Nüwa, Shennong. Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian begins with the Yellow Emperor, while passing over the others. Throughout most of Chinese history, the Yellow Emperor and the other ancient sages were considered to be histor
Ralph Kasambara is a Malawian lawyer, who served as the Minister of Justice and Attorney General since April 2012. He served as the former Attorney General under the administration of Bingu wa Mutharika during the early part of the administration. After which he became the legal representative of the Malawian vice-president, Joyce Banda. Kasambara has been a critic of the administration of Bingu wa Mutharika, being vocal about grounds for impeachment and commenting that "wants to be a dictator", he was jailed in February 2012, after thugs went to his office with petrol bombs in an attempted arson plot, he called the police, together with supporters and restrained the perpetrators. Instead he was arrested for torture of the thugs, he was released on bail, arrested again over the faulty bail procedures. Prior to this incident Kasambara had been a vocal critic of President Mutharika's administration. Kasambara as arrested on Monday, 14 February 2012 after a group of attempted arsonists went to his offices with petrol bombs and were subdued by him and his supporters.
When they called the police, the police arrested him and five others on charges of'kidnapping' and'torturing' the three men. He was taken to jail, released on bail, re-arrested for a'fraudulent bail process'. According to the police,the bail granted by High Court judge Godfrey Mwase was not valid on the grounds that the courts in Malawi are on wage strikes albeit all the paper work were processed under due process through court, he was taken to a maximum security prison. He was transferred from prison to Mwaiwathu Hospital for a cardiac condition, he was being represented by his lawyer Wapona Kita and was releasedOn 8 November 2013, Kasambara was arrested on suspicion of involvement in the September shooting of whistleblower Paul Mphwiyo. Following the Capital Hill Cashgate Scandal, he was subsequently denied bail, but released on bail He would be rearrested on money laundering charges on 27 January 2014. On 21 July 2016, he was convicted by the High Court for conspiring to murder Paul Mphwiyo.
On 30 August 2016, he was given a 13-year jail term for conspiracy to murder a civil servant, in a crime believed to be linked to a multi-million dollar corruption ring He is a law teacher at Chancellor college, University of Malawi He was an Attorney General under Bingu wa Mutharika's first administration. He became the lawyer for Joyce Banda, being sidelined by the administration of Bingu wa Mutharika, he is the lawyer of Zambian President Michael Sata. On 26 April 2012, Malawi President Joyce Banda appointed Ralph Kasambara Minister of Justice and Attorney General. On 10 October, a few days after returning from a trip to the UN, President Joyce Banda sacked her cabinet, dropping Kasambara in the new cabinet, announced on 15 October 2013. Kasambara was replaced by Fahad Assani "Civic Education in Malawi Since 1992: An Appraisal", in Kings M. Phiri and Kenneth R. Ross, Democratisation in Malawi: A Stocktaking, Kacehere Publishing - 1998 The Legal Regime for Foreign Direct Investment in Malawi, UNIMA Students Law Journal - 2000
Olallie Lake Guard Station is a former guard station in the Clackamas ranger district of the Mt. Hood National Forest, in Jefferson County, Oregon. Built in 1939, the cabin is in the Olallie Scenic Area near Olallie Butte and Mount Jefferson in the Cascade Mountains, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1991. Its NRHP nomination explains its significance:Possessing high qualities of design and execution, the Guard Station is a good example of an architectural locution invested with special aesthetic and associative values by the agency that created it. Media related to Olallie Lake Guard Station at Wikimedia Commons National Register of Historic Places listings in Jefferson County, Oregon