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Yellow Fleet

The Yellow Fleet was the name given to a group of fifteen ships trapped in the Suez Canal from 1967 to 1975 as a result of the Israel-Egypt Six-Day War. Both ends of the canal had been blocked by the Egyptians with other obstacles; the name Yellow Fleet derived from their yellow appearance as they were covered in a desert sand swept on board. After eight years, the only ships that were able to return to their home port under their own power were the West German ships Münsterland and Nordwind. In June 1967 the fifteen ships were sailing northwards through the Suez Canal as a war broke out between Israel and Egypt in what was to become known as the Six-Day War. Both ends of the canal were closed, after three days it became apparent that the canal would remain blocked for some time as a result of the scuttling of ships to block its passage. Fourteen ships were forced to anchor in the widest part of the Great Bitter Lake; some of the scuttled ships cut off the SS Observer from the other ships and it had to anchor in Lake Timsah.

Ships, other floating craft and a bridge were sunk to block the canal. In addition to the vessels that were sunk, there were a number of sea mines that prevented navigation. With the war having left the Israelis in possession of the entire east bank of the canal, the Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser resolved to keep the canal closed to all shipping indefinitely; the only alternative would have been allow the Israelis to use it, anathema to the Egyptian government. If the political issues surrounding the canal could have somehow been resolved, its maintenance would have been economically nonviable since few shippers would have been willing to send their vessels and crews through what was a no man's land in an active combat zone. Throughout the eight years, the Israeli and Egyptian armies faced off against each other on either side of the Suez Canal. Sometimes raiding parties from both sides would slip across the canal to carry out intelligence gathering missions. One of the big concerns was.

It turned out to be a non-issue as 90% of the silt is a result of currents caused by the turning of ships' propellers, non-existent during this period. In October 1967, the officers and crews of all fourteen ships met on the Melampus to found the "Great Bitter Lake Association" which provided mutual support. Crew members continued to meet on board their ships, organized social events, founded a yachting club and held the "Bitter Lake Olympic Games" to complement the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City. Life boat races were arranged and soccer games were played on the largest ship, the MS Port Invercargill, while church services were held on the West German motorship Nordwind and movies were shown on the Bulgarian freighter Vasil Levsky; the Swedish Killara had a pool. In time, it was possible to reduce the number of crew members on board the ships, in 1969 the ships were gathered into several groups to further reduce the number of crew necessary for their upkeep; those crew that were left to maintain the vessels were rotated every three months.

In 1972, the last crew members of the German ships were sent home, with the maintenance of the ships left to a Norwegian company. A postal system evolved, the hand-crafted postage stamps of which became collectors' items around the world; the Egyptian postal authority recognized the stamps. In terms of the postal system, this resulted in the creation of group stamps such as: In early 1975, the Suez Canal was once again opened for international transport, on 24 May 1975, the German ships Münsterland and Nordwind reached Hamburg port, cheered by more than 30,000 spectators, they were the only ships to have returned to their home port under their own power. For the Münsterland this was the end of a voyage to Australia which had lasted eight years, three months and five days. In the 2010s, there has been renewed interest in this unusual story. Two books have appeared that chronicle the 8-year sojourn of the ships in the Great Bitter Lake, Acht Jahre gefangen im Großen Bittersee by Hans Jürgen Witthöft, in German.

Blair, Jonathon. "New Life for the Troubled Suez Canal". National Geographic. Retrieved 23 August 2011. Pearson, John. "A'new' Suez Canal shapes up for 1980s". Popular Mechanics. Hearst Magazines. 143. ISSN 0032-4558. Retrieved 23 August 2011. - Total pages: 208 BBC. "The Yellow Fleet". BBC Radio 4. Retrieved 22 August 2011. Frickers, Gordon. "Agapenor manoeuvring in Bombay Roads". Frickers.co.uk. Retrieved 23 August 2011. Lee, Bill. "Yellow Fleet memories sough". Telegraph & Argus. Retrieved 22 August 2011. Merchantnavyofficers.com. "Blue Funnel". Merchantnavyofficers.com. Retrieved 23 August 2011. Time. "World: The Suez Canal's Bleak Centennial". Time. Retrieved 23 August 2011. New Zealand Maritime Index. "New Zealand Maritime Index". New Zealand Maritime Index. Retrieved 23 August 2011. Seemotive – Post vom Großen Bittersee The Yellow Fleet at Ships on Stamps Ian Russel. "Melampus in Suez". The Blue Funnel Line 1866 – 1986. Retrieved 6 September 2010

822 Naval Air Squadron

822 Naval Air Squadron was a Fleet Air Arm aircraft squadron before and during World War II. 822 squadron was formed on 3 April 1933 from a merger of No's 442 and 449 Flights at Netheravon and posted to the Home Fleet aboard HMS Furious. From March to November 1936 it was equipped with Fairey Seals passed on from 821 Squadron, soon replaced by Blackburn Sharks, to carry out a Torpedo Spotter Reconnaissance role. In August 1937 the squadron received Fairey Swordfish aircraft, which it continued to operate from Furious until February 1939, when the squadron was re-allocated to HMS Courageous as a deck landing training unit. Furious and Courageous were 1st class cruisers, converted in 1924 to serve as an aircraft carriers; when Courageous was sunk by the German submarine U-29 in September 1939, the squadron was disbanded. The squadron was re-formed in October 1941 as a torpedo bomber reconnaissance Swordfish squadron. In March 1942 it sailed in July on HMS Furious. On 11 November, the squadron attacked La Senia Airfield, losing Commanding Officer, Lieutenant JGA McI Nares.

After July 1943, it attached to 45th Naval TBR Wing and transferred to southern India in February 1944 for service with the Eastern Fleet. There the squadron joined 11th Naval TBR Wing and attacked a railway target at Sigli, Sumatra from HMS Victorious; the squadron was subsequently sent back to the UK, minus their aircraft, on HMS Rajah and in early 1945 was re-allocated to RAF Coastal Command for anti-submarine duties in the English Channel. In June 1945 the squadron was again re-equipped, this time with 12 Barracuda IIs. Sqn Histories 712–825 Fleet Air Arm archive

Aspherical space

In topology, a branch of mathematics, an aspherical space is a topological space with all homotopy groups π n equal to 0 when n > 1. If one works with CW complexes, one can reformulate this condition: an aspherical CW complex is a CW complex whose universal cover is contractible. Indeed, contractibility of a universal cover is the same, by Whitehead's theorem, as asphericality of it, and it is an application of the exact sequence of a fibration that higher homotopy groups of a space and its universal cover are same. Each aspherical space X is, by definition, an Eilenberg–MacLane space of type K, where G = π 1 is the fundamental group of X. Directly from the definition, an aspherical space is a classifying space for its fundamental group. Using the second of above definitions we see that all orientable compact surfaces of genus greater than 0 are aspherical, it follows that all non-orientable surfaces, except the real projective plane, are aspherical as well, as they can be covered by an orientable surface of genus 1 or higher.

A product of any number of circles is aspherical. As is any complete, Riemannian flat manifold. Any hyperbolic 3-manifold is, by definition, covered by the hyperbolic 3-space H3, hence aspherical; as is any n-manifold whose universal covering space is hyperbolic n-space Hn. Let X = G/K be a Riemannian symmetric space of negative type, Γ be a lattice in G that acts on X; the locally symmetric space Γ ∖ G / K is aspherical. The Bruhat–Tits building of a simple algebraic group over a field with a discrete valuation is aspherical; the complement of a knot in S3 is aspherical, by the sphere theorem Metric spaces with nonpositive curvature in the sense of Aleksandr D. Aleksandrov are aspherical. In the case of Riemannian manifolds, this follows from the Cartan–Hadamard theorem, generalized to geodesic metric spaces by Mikhail Gromov and Werner Ballmann; this class of aspherical spaces subsumes all the given examples. Any nilmanifold is aspherical. In the context of symplectic manifolds, the meaning of "aspherical" is a little bit different.

We say that a symplectic manifold is symplectically aspherical if and only if ∫ S 2 f ∗ ω = ⟨ c 1, f ∗ ⟩ = 0 for every continuous mapping f: S 2 → M, where c 1 denotes the first Chern class of an complex structure, compatible with ω. By Stokes' theorem, we see that symplectic manifolds which are aspherical are symplectically aspherical manifolds. However, there do exist symplectically aspherical manifolds; some references drop the requirement on c1 in their definition of "symplectically aspherical." However, it is more common for symplectic manifolds satisfying only this weaker condition to be called "weakly exact." Acyclic space Essential manifold Whitehead conjecture Bridson, Martin R.. Grundlehren der Mathematischen Wissenschaften, 319. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1999. Xxii+643 pp. ISBN 3-540-64324-9 MR1744486 Aspherical manifolds on the Manifold Atlas

The Cort├Ęge

The Cortège, or The Chalmers Cortège is an annual carnival parade held on Walpurgis Night by students of the Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg. The Cortège consists of around 1000 students and around 50 truck carriages, each carriage depicting—in a satirical and comic way—significant events that have taken place since the previous parade; the procession makes its way through the city centre, where it is seen by around 250,000 people each year. Before the first Cortège was arranged, students at Chalmers walked the streets with one foot on the pavement and one foot in the gutter each year on 30 April, the day when Chalmers students traditionally exchange their black student caps for white caps. In 1909, the students decided to gather all the horse carriages in the city to travel the distance they walked; the next year, the Chalmers Students' Union decided to organize a parade of student culture jokes. In the year 1911 a committee, Chalmers Cortège Committé, was created to organize the whole procession.

Since, except for 1912 due to exam scheduling conflicts, as well as 1940 due to World War II, CCC has arranged The Cortège. Chalmers Cortège Committé. Chalmers Cortège Committé. Retrieved 29 Apr. 2006. Cortège history

Kenelm Edward Digby

Sir Kenelm Edward Digby was an English lawyer and civil servant. He was Permanent Under Secretary of State at the Home Office from 1895-1903. Digby was born in Wotton-under-Edge in Gloucestershire, the son of Hon. and Revd. Kenelm Henry Digby and his wife Caroline; the Digby county family, established in Dorset, had a history of public service. The Revd. Kenelm Henry Digby was the younger brother of Edward Digby, 9th Baron Digby) and Jane Digby. Digby schooled at Blakeney in Norfolk and at Harrow School, he graduated in 1859 from Corpus Christi College Oxford, was called to the bar as a member of Lincoln's Inn in 1865. From 1868-1875 he taught at Oxford University, published An Introduction to the History of the Law of Real Property in 1875, which soon became a standard textbook, he was a strong supporter of Gladstonian Liberalism and believed in "the greater importance of giving substantial power to the working classes". In his life he was involved in working out fair and effective means of compensating workmen for industrial injuries.

In 1892 Digby was appointed County Court Judge in Derbyshire, in 1891 he became a bencher of Lincoln's Inn and in 1904 took silk. In 1894 he was unexpectedly approached on behalf of the Liberal Home Secretary, H. H. Asquith, about an appointment as Permanent Under Secretary of State at the Home Office. However, a strong devotion to public duty weighed in the balance against his fears about his inexperience in administration and public office. In January 1895 Digby was appointed Permanent Under Secretary of State at the Home Office, succeeding Sir Godfrey Lushington. Digby was created KCB in 1898, retired in September 1903 and was created GCB in 1906. Over the subsequent ten years he sat as a member of numerous departmental committees of inquiry, chairing the Home Office departmental committee on workmen's compensation, acted as an arbitrator in labour disputes. In 1914 he was appointed a member of the commission to investigate alleged German war atrocities in Belgium. Digby married Caroline on 30 August 1870, the second daughter of liberal politician Edward Strutt, 1st Baron Belper.

They had four children - two daughters. One of his sons was Edward Aylmer Digby. One of his grandchildren was Kenelm Hubert Digby, the proposer of the notorious 1933 "King and Country" debate in the Oxford Union, Attorney General and judge in Sarawak. Digby died on 21 April 1916 at Studland in Dorset

All About My Wife

All About My Wife is a 2012 South Korean romantic comedy film directed by Min Kyu-dong, about a timid husband who hires a professional Casanova to seduce his perfect but fearsome wife, hoping this will make her divorce him. Starring Im Soo-jung, Lee Sun-kyun and Ryu Seung-ryong, the movie was released in theaters on May 17, 2012, it is a remake of the Argentinean film Un novio para mi mujer. After seven years of marriage, the mild-mannered Doo-hyun is at the end of his rope, Jung-in, his wife is driving him crazy with her endless nagging and complaining, he can't bring himself to ask for a divorce because of the fights that will follow. When Doo-hyun's company transfers him out of state, it seems like his dream of getting away is coming true, but to his horror, Jung-in surprises him by moving across the country to be with him. Desperate but too afraid to ask for a divorce, Doo-hyun recruits his next-door neighbor and legendary Casanova Sung-ki to seduce his wife and make her leave him first. After scoping her out, Sung-ki is intrigued by the challenge and confidently agrees to seduce Jung-in as his career finale.

Meanwhile, to give her something to do, Doo-hyun has arranged for Jung-in to get a spot on the local radio station, shooting her mouth off about life's injustices. True to his reputation, Sung-ki succeeds in grabbing Jung-in's attention, the two develop feelings for each other, but though Doo-hyun asked for it, he grows to regret his decision and decides to spy on his wife and her lover. With 594,195 tickets sold during the opening weekend of May 18 to 20, the film's debut made a splash atop the local box office, putting up a strong fight against Hollywood films The Avengers and Men in Black 3. Benefiting from positive word-of-mouth, it continued its impressive commercial run, with over 4.5 million admissions in total. Official website Official website All About My Wife on IMDb All About My Wife at the Korean Movie Database All About My Wife at HanCinema