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Yellow Sea

The Yellow Sea is a marginal sea of the Western Pacific Ocean located between mainland China and the Korean Peninsula, can be considered the northwestern part of the East China Sea. It is one of four seas named after common colour terms, its name is descriptive of the phenomenon whereby fine sand grains from the Gobi Desert sand storms, that descend annually from the north, turn the surface of its waters a golden yellow; the innermost bay of northwestern Yellow Sea is called the Bohai Sea, into which it flow some of the most important river of northern China, such as the Yellow River, the Hai River and the Liao River. Sand and silt carried down by these rivers contribute further to the sea's colour; the northern extension of the Yellow Sea is called the Korea Bay, into which flow the Yalu River, the Chongchon River and the Taedong River. Since 1 November 2018, the Yellow Sea has served as the location of "peace zones" between North and South Korea; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Yellow Sea as follows: The Yellow Sea is separated from the Sea of Japan by the boundary from the southern end of Haenam Peninsula in Jeollanamdo to Jeju Island and divided into the East China Sea by the boundary from the west end of Jeju Island to the Yangtze River estuary.

The Yellow Sea, excluding the Bohai, extends by about 960 km from north to south and about 700 km from east to west. Its depth is only 44 m on average, with a maximum of 152 m; the sea is a flooded section of continental shelf that formed after the last ice age as sea levels rose 120 m to their current levels. The depth increases from north to south; the sea bottom and shores are dominated by sand and silt brought by the rivers through the Bohai Sea and the Korea Bay. These deposits, together with sand storms are responsible for the yellowish colour of the water referenced in the sea's name. Major islands of the sea include Anmado, Daebudo, Gageodo, Hauido, Hongdo, Jindo, Sido, Sindo, Wando and Yeonpyeongdo; the area has dry winters with strong northerly monsoons blowing from late November to March. Average January temperatures are − 3 °C in the south. Summers are warm with frequent typhoons between June and October. Air temperatures range between 10 and 28 °C; the average annual precipitation increases from about 500 mm in the north to 1,000 mm in the south.

Fog is frequent along the coasts in the upwelling cold-water areas. The sea has a warm cyclone current, forming part of the Kuroshio Current, which diverges near the western part of Japan and flows northward into the Yellow Sea at the speed of below 0.8 km/h. Southward currents prevail near the sea coast in the winter monsoon period; the water temperature is close to freezing in the northern part in winter, so drift ice patches and continuous ice fields form and hinder navigation between November and March. The water temperature and salinity are homogeneous across the depth; the southern waters are warmer at 6–8 °C. In spring and summer, the upper layer is warmed up by the sun and diluted by the fresh water from rivers, while the deeper water remains cold and saline; this deep water stagnates and moves south. Commercial bottom-dwelling fishes are found around this mass of water at its southern part. Summer temperatures range between 22 and 28 °C; the average salinity is low, at 30‰ in the north to 33–34‰ in the south, dropping to 26‰ or lower near the river deltas.

In the southwest monsoon season the increased rainfall and runoff further reduce the salinity of the upper sea layer. Water transparency increases from about 10 meters in the north up to 45 meters in the south. Tides are semidiurnal, i.e. rise twice a day. Their amplitude varies between about 3 meters at the coast of China. Tides are higher at the Korean Peninsula ranging between 4 and 8 meters and reaching the maximum in spring; the tidal system rotates in a counterclockwise direction. The speed of the tidal current is less than 1.6 km/h in the middle of the sea, but may increase to more than 5.6 km/h near the coasts. The fastest tides reaching 20 km/h occur in the Myeongnyang Strait between the Jindo Island and the Korean Peninsula; the tide-related sea level variations result in a land pass 2.9 km long and 10–40 meters wide opening for an hour between Jindo and Modo islands. The event occurs about twice a year, in the middle of June, it had long been celebrated in a local festival called "Jindo Sea Parting Festival", but was unknown to the world until 1975, when the French ambassador Pierre Randi described the phenomenon in a French newspaper.

The sea is rich in seaweed, crustaceans, clams, in blue-green algae which bloom in summer and contribute to the water color. For example, the seaweed production in the area was as high as 1.5 million tonnes in 1979 for China alone. The abundance of all these plant and animal species increases t

Jae Ko

Jae Ko is a Korean-born artist living and working on an island off the Western shore of Maryland. Ko attended Toyo Art School in Tokyo, completing her studies in 1984, she received her BFA in 1988 from Wako University in Tokyo and her MFA in 1998 from Maryland Institute College of Art in Baltimore, Maryland. Ko works in a variety of media — installation, vinyl cord drawings, drawings on paper. Ko is recognized for using rolled paper to create kinetic sculpture. Ko's pieces range from stark white to the brown of recycled paper to deep blue. Ko's large-scale works can require tens of thousands of pounds of paper to produce, many hours to install. Ko has pieces exhibited as part of public collections at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden in Washington, D. C. the Phillips Collection in Washington, D. C. and ADM in Chicago, among others. Ko's Untitled JK #526, created in 2006, is a part of the collection of the Contemporary Art Purchasing Program at University of Maryland. Ko has had many solo exhibitions — most at Houston, TX's Contemporary Arts Museum and at Galerie Lausberg in Düsseldorf, Germany.

Ko has won awards from the National Endowment for the Arts, the Maryland State Arts Council and The Pollock-Krasner Foundation, Inc. In 2012, Ko was a recipient of the Anonymous Was A Woman Award; the award, granted to 10 women over the age of 45, is a no-strings grant of $25,000 allowing the artists "to continue to grow and pursue their work."

Ballester Point

Ballester Point is a point forming the south side of the entrance to Johnsons Dock and the northeast side of the entrance to Española Cove in Hurd Peninsula, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The area was visited by early 19th century sealers operating from Johnsons Dock; the feature is named for a doyen of the Spanish Antarctic Program. The point is located at 62°39′28″S 60°22′31″W, 4.95 km southwest of Ereby Point, 1.55 km south of Hespérides Point and 7.6 km north-northeast of Miers Bluff.. Isla Livingston: Península Hurd. Mapa topográfico de escala 1:25000. Madrid: Servicio Geográfico del Ejército, 1991. L. L. Ivanov. Livingston Island: Central-Eastern Region. Scale 1:25000 topographic map. Sofia: Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria, 1996. L. L. Ivanov et al. Antarctica: Livingston Island and Greenwich Island, South Shetland Islands, Scale 1: 100000 map, Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Sofia, 2005. L. L. Ivanov. Antarctica: Livingston Island and Greenwich, Robert and Smith Islands.

Scale 1:120000 topographic map. Troyan: Manfred Wörner Foundation, 2009. Antarctic Digital Database. Scale 1:250000 topographic map of Antarctica. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. Since 1993 upgraded and updated. L. L. Ivanov. Antarctica: Livingston Island and Smith Island. Scale 1:100000 topographic map. Manfred Wörner Foundation, 2017. ISBN 978-619-90008-3-0 Ballester Point. SCAR Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica. Bulgarian Antarctic Gazetteer. Antarctic Place-names Commission. Ballester Point. Copernix satellite imageThis article includes information from the Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria, used with permission