Yemen, sometimes spelled Yaman the Republic of Yemen, is a country at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. It is the second-largest Arab sovereign state in the peninsula; the coastline stretches for about 2,000 kilometres. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, the Gulf of Aden and Guardafui Channel to the south, Oman and the Arabian Sea to the east. Yemen's territory encompasses more than 200 islands, including Socotra, one of the largest islands in the Middle East. Yemen is a member of the Arab League, United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation; the state is characterized as a failed state with high necessity of transformation. Yemen's constitutionally stated capital is the city of Sana'a, but the city has been under Houthi rebel control since February 2015. Yemen is a developing country and in 2019 the United Nations reported that Yemen is the country with the most people in need of humanitarian aid with 24.1 million people in need.
In ancient times, Yemen was the home of the Sabaeans, a trading state that flourished for over a thousand years and included parts of modern-day Ethiopia and Eritrea. In 275 CE, the region came under the rule of the Jewish-influenced Himyarite Kingdom. Christianity arrived in the fourth century. Islam spread in the seventh century and Yemenite troops were crucial in the early Islamic conquests. Administration of Yemen has long been notoriously difficult. Several dynasties emerged from the ninth to 16th centuries, the Rasulid dynasty being the strongest and most prosperous; the country was divided between the British empires in the early twentieth century. The Zaydi Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen was established after World War I in North Yemen before the creation of the Yemen Arab Republic in 1962. South Yemen remained a British protectorate known as the Aden Protectorate until 1967 when it became an independent state and a Marxist-Leninist state; the two Yemeni states united to form the modern Republic of Yemen in 1990.
President Ali Abdullah Saleh was the first president of the new republic until his resignation in 2012. His rule has been described as a kleptocracy. Since 2011, Yemen has been in a state of political crisis starting with street protests against poverty, unemployment and president Saleh's plan to amend Yemen's constitution and eliminate the presidential term limit, in effect making him president for life. President Saleh stepped down and the powers of the presidency were transferred to Vice President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, formally elected president on 21 February 2012 in a one-candidate election; the total absence of central government during this transition process exacerbated several clashes on-going in the country, like the armed conflict between the Houthi rebels of Ansar Allah militia and the al-Islah forces, as well as the al-Qaeda insurgency. In September 2014, the Houthis took over Sana'a with the help of the ousted president Saleh declaring themselves the national government after a coup d'état.
This resulted in a new civil war and a Saudi-led military intervention aimed at restoring Hadi's government. At least 56,000 civilians and combatants have been killed in armed violence in Yemen since January 2016; the conflict has resulted in a famine affecting 17 million people. The lack of safe drinking water, caused by depleted aquifers and the destruction of the country's water infrastructure, has caused the largest, fastest-spreading cholera outbreak in modern history, with the number of suspected cases exceeding 994,751. Over 2,226 people have died since the outbreak began to spread at the end of April 2017; the term Yamnat was mentioned in Old South Arabian inscriptions on the title of one of the kings of the second Himyarite kingdom known as Shammar Yahrʽish II. The term referred to the southwestern coastline of the Arabian peninsula and the southern coastline between Aden and Hadramout; the historical Yemen included much greater territory than the current nation, stretching from northern'Asir in southwestern Saudi Arabia to Dhofar in southern Oman.
One etymology derives Yemen from ymnt, meaning "South", plays on the notion of the land to the right. Other sources claim that Yemen is related to yamn or yumn, meaning "felicity" or "blessed", as much of the country is fertile; the Romans called it Arabia Felix, as opposed to Arabia Deserta. Latin and Greek writers referred to ancient Yemen as "India", which arose from the Persians calling the Abyssinians whom they came into contact with in South Arabia by the name of the dark-skinned people who lived next to them, viz. the Indians. With its long sea border between eastern and western civilizations, Yemen has long existed at a crossroads of cultures with a strategic location in terms of trade on the west of the Arabian Peninsula. Large settlements for their era existed in the mountains of northern Yemen as early as 5000 BCE; the Sabaean Kingdom came into existence from at least the 11th century BCE. The four major kingdoms or tribal confederations in South Arabia were: Saba, Qataban, Ma'in. Saba’ is thought to be biblical Sheba, was the most prominent federation.
The Sabaean rulers adopted the title Mukarrib thought to mean unifier, or a priest-king, or the head of confederation of South Arabian kingdoms, the "king of the kings". The role of the Mukarrib was to bring the
Tadahiro Sekimoto was a Japanese electronics engineer, a recipient of the IEEE Medal of Honor, chairman of Japan's Institute for International Socio-Economic Studies, former chairman of the Board of Councilors of the Japan Federation of Economic Organizations who served as president and chairman of Japan's NEC Corporation. Born in Hyōgo, Sekimoto earned his BS in physics in 1948 and his Doctor of Engineering degree in 1962 at the University of Tokyo. On 11 November 2007, he died after a series of strokes. Sekimoto joined NEC, now a globally active Japanese information technologies conglomerate and member of the Sumitomo Group, in 1948, he started his career at the company's Central Research Laboratories, where he advanced to chief of basic research in 1965. In August 1965 he was appointed to a two-year assignment at COMSAT in Washington, DC, where he engaged in research on digital transmission technologies used in satellite communications. On his return to NEC in 1967, Sekimoto was appointed to manage the company's Communications Research Laboratory.
He rose to general manager of NEC's Transmission Division in 1972 and, in 1974, was elected to the NEC board of directors. He was appointed senior vice president in 1977 and executive vice president with portfolio for sales in Japan in 1978. In this position, he enhanced the company's sales operations in the Japanese domestic market by creating structures conducive to marketing mass-produced electronics products. In 1980, Sekimoto was appointed president of NEC and launched NEC's C&C concept for integrating computers and communications, which resulted in significant sales increases. Sekimoto served as chairman of the board from 1994 to 1998, when he resigned from the post to apologize for NEC's role in a scandal involving the Japan Defense Agency, Japan's de facto defence ministry. Sekimoto, in addition the accomplishments of his corporate career, made significant contributions to the advancement of communications technologies over more than 50 years. During his 17 years at NEC's Central Research Laboratories he designed early pulse-code modulation equipment down to the coding and decoding circuitry.
During his two years at COMSAT, he set up a communications processing laboratory and oversaw or helped oversee numerous projects covering voice-, data-, video-processing technologies, including the development of single-channel-per-carrier pulse-code-modulation multiple-access demand-assignment equipment and assigned it the acronym SPADE because "the ace of the spades in card games was regarded as almighty". In the early 1970s, Intelsat commercialized SPADE technology, credited with allowing developing countries to join global networks by making satellite communications affordable to them. A time-division multiple access system and an automatic routing system Sekimoto developed were not only hugely significant for satellite communications, but became indispensable elements of cellular mobile communications thirty years on. Seminal in their day, many technologies and applications Sekimoto worked on at NEC and COMSAT are integral to modern telecommunications systems, they helped lay the groundwork for the global networks that many societies now depend on.
Sekimoto has authored numerous works, both technical publications and books written for a wider audience, he has 35 Japanese and five non-Japanese patents to his credit. Sekimoto, an IEEE Life Fellow and a foreign associate of the National Academy of Engineering in the U. S. has been recognized for his contributions to communications with numerous awards. In addition to its Medal of Honor, the IEEE awarded him its Alexander Graham Bell Medal, he is a recipient of the IEEE Communication Society’s Edwin Howard Armstrong Award, he has received the American Institute of Astronautics and Aeronautics’ Aerospace Communications Award. He was appointed a Chevalier of the Legion of Honour of France in 1995 and an honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1996; the Japanese government honoured him with a Medal of Honor with Purple Ribbon in 1982 and the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Sacred Treasure in 1997. When speaking, Sekimoto invariably credits his mentor, Koji Kobayashi—also an engineer who served as president and chairman of NEC, for inspiring him to pursue his interests.
Sekimoto was active in promoting research on relations between Japan and other countries and ways to solve Japan's own social problems through his role at the IISE. Medal with Purple Ribbon Medal with Blue Ribbon Légion d'honneur IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal Knight Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Order of the Sacred Treasure, 1st class IEEE Medal of Honor
Lorraine Huling Maynard was a silent film actress and author. She was the daughter of Florence Simmons Huling, they divorced when Lorraine was five, her mother worked in Chicago, Illinois, as a nurse/receptionist for Edmund James Doering, who became her lover as well as a father figure for Lorraine. Lorraine attended Chicago public schools and a convent school for the first few years of her education. Lorraine spent several summers in Westbrook, with her grandmother, Mary Elizabeth Lyman Simmons, frequently travelled abroad with her mother and Doering; when Lorraine was 15, Florence's relationship with Doering ended and she married Charles Young, who drank and made advances to Lorraine on at least one occasion. Encouraged by her mother to go on the stage, Lorraine made her Broadway debut in 1913, playing the role of "Doll" in Prunella. In 1915, while working as a model in New York City, she met Richard Field Maynard, a portrait painter and Harvard College graduate. A romantic relationship developed between them but was opposed by Richard's parents, who were concerned about the age difference between Richard and Lorraine, about Lorraine's career as an actress.
Lorraine's mother objected to the match, moved to Hollywood, with her daughter. Lorraine appeared in several more films, including King Lear, in which she played Cordelia, The Fall of a Nation, a response to D. W. Griffith's The Birth of a Nation. Lorraine and Richard corresponded during their separation and married in 1917, with Lorraine retiring from the screen, they had two daughters and Beverly. Shortly after their marriage, Lorraine began taking creative writing classes at Columbia University. A number of her stories were published in magazines for children, she wrote the children's books Twinkle Little Movie Star, which drew on her knowledge of Hollywood and moviemaking, Dilly Was Different. In the 1930s, Lorraine formed a deep attachment to him, she worked with him on his books, transcribing at least one into Braille, he provided the introduction to her Genius in Chrysalis: Locked Doors on Greatness Within. Lorraine's last book, written with Dr. Laurence Miscall, was published in 1940. Richard Field Maynard died in 1964 and Lorraine dismayed at growing old, committed suicide in her home in Old Greenwich, Connecticut, in November 15, 1971.
The Unwelcome Mrs. Hatch The Straight Road The Dancing Girl Are You a Mason? The Fall of a Nation King Lear Lorraine Huling Maynard Papers. Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University. Lorraine Huling Maynard on IMDb Lorraine Huling Maynard Papers. Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University