Shandong is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, is part of the East China region. Shandong has played a major role in Chinese history since the beginning of Chinese civilization along the lower reaches of the Yellow River, it has served as a pivotal cultural and religious center for Taoism, Chinese Buddhism, Confucianism. Shandong's Mount Tai is the most revered mountain of Taoism and one of the world's sites with the longest history of continuous religious worship; the Buddhist temples in the mountains to the south of the provincial capital of Jinan were once among the foremost Buddhist sites in China. The city of Qufu is the birthplace of Confucius, was established as the center of Confucianism. Shandong's location at the intersection of ancient as well as modern north–south and east–west trading routes have helped to establish it as an economic center. After a period of political instability and economic hardship that began in the late 19th century, Shandong has emerged as one of the most populous and most affluent provinces in the People's Republic of China with a GDP of CNY¥5.942 trillion in 2014, or USD$967 billion, making it China's third wealthiest province.
Individually, the two Chinese characters in the name "Shandong" mean "mountain" and "east". Shandong could hence be translated as "east of the mountains" and refers to the province's location to the east of the Taihang Mountains. A common nickname for Shandong is Qílǔ, after the States of Qi and Lu that existed in the area during the Spring and Autumn period. Whereas the State of Qi was a major power of its era, the State of Lu played only a minor role in the politics of its time. Lu, became renowned for being the home of Confucius and hence its cultural influence came to eclipse that of the State of Qi; the cultural dominance of the State of Lu heritage is reflected in the official abbreviation for Shandong, "鲁". English speakers in the 19th century called the province Shan-tung; the province is on the eastern edge of the North China Plain and in the lower reaches of the Yellow River, extends out to sea as the Shandong Peninsula. Shandong borders the Bohai Sea to the north, Hebei to the northwest, Henan to the west, Jiangsu to the south, the Yellow Sea to the southeast.
With its location on the eastern edge of the North China Plain, Shandong was home to a succession of Neolithic cultures for millennia, including the Houli culture, the Beixin culture, the Dawenkou culture, the Longshan culture, the Yueshi culture. The earliest dynasties exerted varying degrees of control over western Shandong, while eastern Shandong was inhabited by the Dongyi peoples who were considered "barbarians". Over subsequent centuries, the Dongyi were sinicized. During the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period, regional states became powerful. At this time, Shandong was home to two major states: the state of Qi at Linzi and the state of Lu at Qufu. Lu is noted for being the home of Confucius; the state was, comparatively small, succumbed to the larger state of Chu from the south. The state of Qi, on the other hand, was a major power throughout the period. Cities it ruled included Jimo and Ju; the Qin dynasty conquered Qi and founded the first centralized Chinese state in 221 BCE.
The Han dynasty that followed created a number of commanderies supervised by two regions in what is now modern Shandong: Qingzhou in the north and Yanzhou in the south. During the division of the Three Kingdoms, Shandong belonged to the Cao Wei, which ruled over northern China. After the Three Kingdoms period, a brief period of unity under the Western Jin dynasty gave way to invasions by nomadic peoples from the north. Northern China, including Shandong, was overrun. Over the next century or so Shandong changed hands several times, falling to the Later Zhao Former Yan Former Qin Later Yan Southern Yan the Liu Song dynasty, the Northern Wei dynasty, the first of the Northern dynasties during the Northern and Southern dynasties Period. Shandong stayed with the Northern dynasties for the rest of this period. In 412 CE, the Chinese Buddhist monk Faxian landed at Laoshan, on the southern edge of the Shandong peninsula, proceeded to Qingzhou to edit and translate the scriptures he had brought back from India.
The Sui dynasty reestablished unity in 589, the Tang dynasty presided over the next golden age of China. For the earlier part of this period Shandong was ruled as part of Henan Circuit, one of the circuits. On China splintered into warlord factions, resulting in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Shandong was part of all based in the north; the Song dynasty reunified China in the late tenth century. The classic novel Water Margin was based on folk tales of outlaw bands active in Shandong during the Song dynasty. In 1996, the discovery of over two hundred buried Buddhist statues at Qingzhou was hailed as a major archaeological find; the statues included early examples of painted figures, are thought to have been buried due to Emperor Huizong's repression of Buddhism. The Song dynasty was forced to cede northern China to the Jurchen Jin dynasty in 1142. Shandong was administered by the Jin as Shandong East Circuit and Shandong West Circuit – the first use of its current name; the modern provinc
A turtle ship known as Geobukseon, was a type of large Korean warship, used intermittently by the Royal Korean Navy during the Joseon dynasty from the early 15th century up until the 19th century. It was used alongside the panokseon warships in the fight against invading Japanese naval ships; the ship's name derives from its protective shell-like covering. This design is recognized as the first armored ship in the world; the first references to older, first generation turtle ships, known as gwiseon, come from 1413 and 1415 records in the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty, which mention a mock battle between a gwiseon and a Japanese warship. However, these early turtle ships soon fell out of use as Korea's naval preparedness decreased during a long period of relative peace. Turtle ships participated in the war against Japanese naval forces supporting Toyotomi Hideyoshi's attempts to conquer Korea from 1592 to 1598. Korean Admiral Yi Sun-Shin is credited with designing the ship, his turtle ships were equipped with at least five different types of cannons.
Their most distinguishable feature was a dragon-shaped head at the bow that could launch cannon fire or flames from the mouth. Each was equipped with a covered deck to protect against arrow fire, musket-shots, incendiary weapons; the deck was covered with iron spikes to discourage enemy men from attempting to board the ship. According to the Nanjung Ilgi, Yi's wartime diary, Yi decided to resurrect the turtle ship in 1591 from pre-existing designs after discussing the matter with his subordinates. Once concluding that a Japanese invasion was possible, if not imminent, Yi and his subordinate officers, among whom Na Dae-yong is named as the chief constructor and built the first modern turtle ship. Yi's diary, along with the book entitled Hangnok written by his nephew Yi Beon, described numerous important details about the structures, construction progress, the use of turtle ships in battle, as well as the testing of weaponry used in the ships; the mounted weapons, Korean cannons with ranges from about 300 to 500 metres, were tested on March 12, 1592.
Yi completed his first turtle ship and launched it on March 27, 1592, one day before the Siege of Busanjin and the Battle of Dadaejin. Many different versions of the turtle ships served during the war, but in general they were about 100 to 120 feet long, resembled the panokseon's bottom structure; the turtle ship was technically a hull, placed on top of a panokseon with a large anchor held in the front of the ship and other minor modifications. On the bow of the vessel was mounted a dragon head which emitted sulfur smoke to hide its movement from the enemy in short distance combat; the dragon head, considered the most distinguishing feature of the vessel, was large enough for a cannon to fit inside. The dragon head served as a form of psychological warfare, with the aim of striking fear into the hearts of Japanese sailors. Early versions of the turtle ship would burn poisonous materials in the dragon's head to release a poisonous smoke. In the front of the ship was a large anchor. Below the anchor was a wooden crest, shaped like a face, these were used to ram into enemy ships.
Similar to the standard panokseon, the turtle ship had two sails. Oars were used for maneuvering and increased speed. Another advantage the turtle ship had was; the turtle ship had 11 cannon portholes on each side. There was one cannon porthole in the dragon head's mouth. There were two more cannon portholes on the back of the turtle ship; the heavy cannons enabled the turtle ships to unleash a mass volley of cannonballs. Its crew complement comprised about 50 to 60 fighting marines and 70 oarsmen, as well as the captain. Sources indicate that sharp iron spikes protruded from hexagonal plates covering the top of the turtle ship. An advantage of the closed deck was that it protected the Korean sailors and marines from small arms and incendiary fire; the spikes discouraged Japanese from engaging in their primary method of naval combat at the time, grappling an enemy ship with hooks and boarding it to engage in hand-to-hand combat. Korean written descriptions all point to a maneuverable ship, capable of sudden bursts of speed.
Like the panokseon, the turtle ship featured a U-shaped hull which gave it the advantage of a more stable cannon-firing platform, the ability to turn within its own radius. The main disadvantage of a U-shaped bottom versus a V-shaped bottom was a somewhat slower cruising speed. There are sources that state in a generic form that the turtle ship was covered with metal plates, making it a form of ironclad warship, the first known ship of this kind in history. Sources that question claims of iron plating exist. While it is clear from the available sources that the roof of the ship was covered with iron spikes to prevent boarding, there is split opinion among historians on whether the turtle ship was iron clad. One Japanese chronicle mentions a clash in August 1592 which involved three Korean turtle ships "covered in iron". However, according to Samuel Hawley, this phrase does not indicate that the vessels were covered with iron plates. Stephen Turnbull, points out the fact that the Japanese government ordered in February 1593 the military to use iron plate in building ships
South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n
Hangzhou romanized as Hangchow, is the capital and most populous city of Zhejiang Province in East China. It sits at the head of Hangzhou Bay, which separates Ningbo. Hangzhou grew to prominence as the southern terminus of the Grand Canal and has been one of the most renowned and prosperous cities in China for much of the last millennium; the city's West Lake, a UNESCO World Heritage site west of the city, is among its best-known attractions. A study conducted by PwC and China Development Research Foundation saw Hangzhou ranked first among "Chinese Cities of Opportunity". Hangzhou is considered a World City with a "Beta+" classification according to GaWC. Hangzhou is classified as a sub-provincial city and forms the core of the Hangzhou metropolitan area, the fourth-largest in China. During the 2010 Chinese census, the metropolitan area held 21.102 million people over an area of 34,585 km2. Hangzhou prefecture had a registered population of 9,018,000 in 2015. In September 2015, Hangzhou was awarded the 2022 Asian Games.
It will be the third city in China to host the Asian Games after Beijing 1990 and Guangzhou 2010. Hangzhou, an emerging technology hub and home to the e-commerce giant Alibaba hosted the eleventh G20 summit in 2016; the celebrated neolithic culture of Hemudu is known to have inhabited Yuyao, 100 km north-east of Hangzhou, as far back as seven thousand years ago. It was during this time. Excavations have established that the jade-carving Liangzhu culture inhabited the area around the present city around five thousand years ago; the first of Hangzhou's present neighborhoods to appear in written records was Yuhang, which preserves an old Baiyue name. Hangzhou was made the seat of the prefecture of Hang in AD 589, entitling it to a city wall, constructed two years later. By a longstanding convention seen in other cities like Guangzhou and Fuzhou, the city took on the name of the area it administered and became known as Hangzhou. Hangzhou was at the southern end of China's Grand Canal; the canal evolved over centuries but reached its full length by 609.
In the Tang dynasty, Bai Juyi was appointed governor of Hangzhou. An accomplished poet, his deeds at Hangzhou have led to his being praised as a great governor, he noticed that the farmland nearby depended on the water of West Lake, but due to the negligence of previous governors, the old dyke had collapsed, the lake so dried out that the local farmers were suffering from severe drought. He ordered the construction of a stronger and taller dyke, with a dam to control the flow of water, thus providing water for irrigation and mitigating the drought problem; the livelihood of local people of Hangzhou improved over the following years. Bai Juyi used his leisure time to enjoy the West Lake, visiting it daily, he ordered the construction of a causeway connecting Broken Bridge with Solitary Hill to allow walking, instead of requiring a boat. He had willows and other trees planted along the dyke, making it a beautiful landmark; this causeway was named "Bai Causeway", in his honor. It is listed as one of the Seven Ancient Capitals of China.
It was first the capital of the Wuyue Kingdom from 907 to 978 during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Named Xifu at the time, it was one of the three great bastions of culture in southern China during the tenth century, along with Nanjing and Chengdu. Leaders of Wuyue were noted patrons of the arts of Buddhist temple architecture and artwork; the dyke built to protect the city by King Qian Liu gave the Qiantang its modern name. Hangzhou became a cosmopolitan center, drawing scholars from throughout China and conducting diplomacy with neighboring Chinese states, with Japan and the Khitan Liao dynasty. In 1089, while another renowned poet Su Shi was the city's governor, he used 200,000 workers to construct a 2.8 km long causeway across West Lake. The lake was once a lagoon tens of thousands of years ago. Silt blocked the way to the sea and the lake was formed. A drill in the lake-bed in 1975 found the sediment of the sea. Artificial preservation prevented the lake from evolving into a marshland.
The Su Causeway built by Su Shi, the Bai Causeway built by Bai Juyi, a Tang dynasty poet, once the governor of Hangzhou, were both built out of mud dredged from the lake bottom. The lake is surrounded by hills on the western sides; the Baochu Pagoda sits on the Baoshi Hill to the north of the lake. Arab merchants lived in Hangzhou during the Song dynasty, due to the fact that the oceangoing trade passages took precedence over land trade during this time. There were Arabic inscriptions from the 13th century and 14th century. During the period of the Yuan dynasty, Muslims were persecuted through the banning of their traditions, they participated in revolts against the Mongols; the Fenghuangshi mosque was constructed by an Egyptian trader. Ibn Battuta is known to have visited the city of Hangzhou in 1345. During his stay at Hangzhou, he was impressed by the large number of well-crafted and well-painted Chinese wooden ships with colored sails and silk awnings in the canals, he attended a banquet held by Qurtai, the Yuan Mongol administrator of the city, who according to Ibn Battuta, was fond of the skills of local Chinese conjurers.
Hangzhou was chosen as the new capital of the Southern Song dynasty in 1132, wh
Querétaro the Free and Sovereign State of Querétaro, is one of the 32 federal entities of Mexico. It is divided into 18 municipalities, its capital city is Santiago de Querétaro. It is located in a region known as Bajío, it is bordered by the states of San Luis Potosí to the north, Guanajuato to the west, Hidalgo to the east, México to the southeast and Michoacán to the southwest. The state is one of the smallest in Mexico, but it is one of the most heterogeneous geographically, with ecosystems varying from deserts to tropical rainforest in the Sierra Gorda, filled with microecosystems; the area of the state was located on the northern edge of Mesoamerica, with both the Purépecha Empire and Aztec Empire having influence in the extreme south, but neither dominating it. The area the Sierra Gorda, had a number of small city-states, but by the time the Spanish arrived, these had all been abandoned, with only small agricultural villages and seminomadic peoples inhabiting the area. Spanish conquest was focused on the establishment of the Santiago de Querétaro, which still dominates the state culturally and educationally.
Querétaro is located in the north-central area of the country of Mexico, connecting the wetter climes of the south with the drier deserts of the north. The state is divided into 18 municipalities: Amealco de Bonfil, Arroyo Seco, Cadereyta de Montes, Colón, Corregidora, El Marqués, Ezequiel Montes, Jalpan de Serra, Landa de Matamoros, Pedro Escobedo, Peñamiller, Pinal de Amoles, Querétaro, San Joaquín, San Juan del Río, Tequisquiapan and Tolimán. Three of Mexico’s geographic zones cover parts of the state; the Mesa del Centro is in the center-west of the state, consists of small mesas with an average altitude of 2,000 meters above sea level. A few elevations reach over 3,000 meters; the Sierra Madre Oriental occupies the northeast of the state and includes the cities of Huasteca area. The topography of this area is rugged, with narrow valleys. Elevations here range between 900 m and 3,000 m m ASL; the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt occupies about half of the state in the south. The area is volcanic rock with peaks and mesas between 200 m and 3,000 m and valleys between 1,800 m and 1,900 m ASL.
The state is divided into five geographical regions: The Sierra Gorda, El Semidesierto Queretano, Los Valles Centrales, El Bajío Queretano and La Sierra Queretana. The Sierra Gorda is located in the north of the state and is part of the Sierra Madre Oriental in a subprovince called the Huasteco Karst, it is found in the municipalities of Arroyo Seco, Jalpan de Serra, Landa de Matamoros, Pinal de Amoles and San Joaquín and covers an area of 3,789km2 or 32.2% of the state. The topography is rugged, with steep valleys, it is a conjunction of mountains and hills formed by limestone, with wide contrasts in climates and vegetation. They range from near desert conditions to forests of pine and holm oak to the tropical rainforests of the Huasteca area in the state of San Luis Potosí; the Sierra Gorda was made a biosphere reserve in 1997, the Reserva de la Biosfera de la Sierra Gorda, to protect its abundance of species and ecosystems. In 2001, the area was registered with the Man and the Biosphere Programme of UNESCO.
This area is managed by la Comisión Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas of the Secretariat of Environment and Natural Resources federal agency. El Semidesierto Queretano is a wide strip that crosses the state from east to west, dry due to the blocking of moist air from the Gulf by the Sierra Madre Oriental; the area is found in the municipalities of Cadereyta de Montes, Colón, Peñamiller and Tolimán, with an area of 3,415.6km2 or 29% of the state. As it is near the mountain range, its topography is rugged. Los Valles Centrales is in the center of the state, overlapping all of the area formed by the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, with the exception of the north of the El Marqués municipality, in the Mesa del Centro; the continental divide runs through here marked by the Sierra Queretana, the El Macizo and El Zamoarano mountain chains. This area occupies the municipalities of Ezequiel Montes, El Marqués, Pedro Escobedo and San Juan del Río with an extension of 2,480.2kmw or 21.1% of the state.
El Bajío Queretano is in the western part of the state, a low elevation area that extends into neighboring Guanajuato. This area covers 1,005.7km2 or 8.5% of the state, contains low hills and small mountain chains that are part of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt. La Sierra Queretana is in the extreme south of the state, part of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, it is found in the municipalities of Amealco de Bonfil and Huimilpan, covering an area of 1,078.3 km or 9.2% of the state. The area has high plains that narrow into valleys and canyons; some of the flat areas border the Lerma River. The state contains two river basins: the Pánuco; the first is represented by the Lerma and La Laja Rivers and the second is represented by the Tamuín and Moctezuma Rivers. Other important rivers include the San Juan; these rivers contain 16 dams, including the Santa Catarina, El Batán, Constitution de 1917 and the San Ildefonso. Most of the state is dry, with the exception of the north, temperate and rainy; the average temperature is 18 °C.
Three well-defined climate areas are in the state. The south has
Expo 2012 Yeosu Korea was an International Exposition recognised by the Bureau International des Expositions held in Yeosu, South Korea which opened May 12, 2012 and ran until August 12, 2012. The theme of the Expo was “The Living Ocean and Coast” with subthemes of “Preservation and Sustainable Development of the Ocean and Coast,” “New Resources Technology,” and “Creative Marine Activities.” There were 105 participating countries, international organizations, 8,203,956 visitors. The Expo 2012 Yeosu opened on May 12 in the southern coastal town of Yeosu 455 kilometers south of Seoul, it was the second international fair hosted by Korea, after the Taejŏn Expo'93. The expo site for 80 exhibition halls stretched out alongside the sea with promenades and exhibit spaces extending to the island of Odongdo and the seawalls; the Yeosu Expo received positive reaction for addressing global issues like climate change and the protection of the ocean through story-telling events. Title International Exposition Yeosu Korea 2012, EXPO2012 YEOSU KOREA Title 2012 여수 세계 박람회 / 2012 麗水 世界 博覽會 The chairman of the Organizing Committee Kang Dong-Suk Theme'The Living Ocean and Coast' Theme Song'Stories told by the sea' Mascot Yeony, Suny Venue New Port Area 1,740,000㎡ Yeosu city, Jeollanam-do in Korea – Exhibition area 250,000㎡ Date May 12, 2012 ~ August 12, 2012 Facilities Theme Pavilion, International Pavilion, International Organizations Pavilion, Sky Tower, etc.
Ripple Effect The expected economic effect will be 12.2 trillion Korea won in production, 5.7 trillion Korea won in added value and 79,000 employees. Expected participation scale 8,000,000 people, 100 countries and 10 international organizations International Exposition Yeosu Korea 2012 Official Participants As of October 23, 2011, 103 countries, 8 international organizations MascotYeony and Suny, the official mascots of Expo 2012 Yeosu Korea, are personifications of plankton; each of their names is derived from “Yeosu,” where Yeo means “beautiful” and Su means “water”. EmblemA simplified abstraction of the organic forms of ecology and environment are represented in the logo. To host, a venue must receive over 2/3 of the votes cast by BIE member countries in the first round of voting. At each round of voting, the venue with the least votes is out and there is an additional vote between the remaining venues; the Living Ocean and Coast: Diversity of Resources and Sustainable Development The Expo theme aimed to help shed light on humankind’s knowledge and advancement of technology concerning the ocean and coast and identify ways to resolve challenges facing the ocean.
Since the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea went into effect in 1993, the ocean has emerged as an important element in resolving various problems humankind faces, including those related to resources, food and the environment. However, industrial activities have damaged the marine ecosystem and subsequently reduced fish stocks; as a result, the ocean faces severe crisis. A damaged marine ecosystem, global warming and natural disasters are not limited to a certain country or region, but are issues that have global implications; the theme, “The Living Ocean and Coast,” was divided into three sub-themes: Development and Preservation of the Ocean and Coast, New Resources Technology, Creative Marine Activities. These sub-themes have been further developed into 6 thematic groups, Climate & Environment, Marine Life, Marine Industry & Technology, Marine City and Marine Civilization, Marine Arts, each of which are demonstrated in their respective sub-theme pavilions. Development and Preservation of the Ocean and Coast aimed to inspire a new level of cooperation in the international community so as to combat climate change and create a paradigm where development and preservation find a better balance.
The last few decades have witnessed environmental degradation caused by use and development of natural resources by humankind. Our economies and societies must break away from their current fossil fuel-based economies to minimize damage to both people and the environment; the sub theme argued that individuals, businesses and the global community must realize that marine resources are limited and should not be subject to careless use, but that they are the fundamentals for the sound development of our future society, people and ecosystems must be considered on the same level. New Resources Technology illustrated the progress and future prospects of marine technology, a new growth driver for the advancement of humankind. Countries are becoming more competitive in marine-related industries and are developing new technologies to address issues related to resources and the changing environment; the discreet use of resources, which strikes a balance between development and preservation, is only possible if based on advanced marine science and technology.
Fostering marine industries will create added value and generate new jobs to transform sluggish industries into low cost, high efficiency structures. Creative Maritime Activities aimed to demonstrate the relationship between the oceans and humankind through culture and art and promote the new ideals of the seatizen and seavilization. A mix of play and experience aimed to trigger the imagination and curiosity of attendees towards an unknown world and to inspire children to learn to love and appreciate the oceans. A wide collection of marine-related culture and arts, including poetry, films, musicals and music were shown at the Yeosu Expo; the Korean Pavilion was designed to convey the theme of Expo 2012 Yeosu Korea, whilst emphasizing Korea’s vision and role. The exhibition hall was adorned with traditional Ko