Portsmouth Square is located on the site of the first public square established in the early 19th century in the Mexican community of Yerba Buena, whose name was changed to San Francisco in 1847. During the Mexican-American War Captain John Berrien Montgomery of the USS Portsmouth was ordered to seize Yerba Buena. On July 9,1846, the first American flag was raised near the Mexican adobe custom house in the plaza that would eventually be named Portsmouth Square in honor of the ship, many historical events have happened at the plaza. In 1847, the first public school in California was erected at the southwest corner of plaza, on May 11,1848, the discovery of gold was announced when Sam Brannan showed his gold to a crowd. On June 12,1849, a crowd was gathered at the plaza, an assembly was organized on July 16,1849 to fight against a lawless body The Hounds. On August 29,1850, a service was held after the death of US President Zachary Taylor. The First Admission Day celebration was held October 29,1850 when California became the 31st state of the United States, on June 1,1852, a crowd protested against the purchase of the Jenny Lind Theatre as the city hall.
On September 18,1859, Colonel E. D. Baker delivered an oration after U. S, senator David C. Broderick was killed in a duel with California Chief Justice David S. Terry. Director Don Siegal filmed a scene from the 1971 movie Dirty Harry in the Square, as the character Dirty Harry follows Scorpio it is possible to see the stone bridge joining the park to the Chinese Culture Center of San Francisco, at the Hilton Financial,750 Kearny Street. In 1987, the park underwent its second major renovation, the first phase involved installing new elevators and bathrooms on the top of the park. The second phase began in 1994, included installation of child play structures, Chinese chess tables, phase three included the construction of a new community room and play areas. This $3.9 million renovation was completed and the park was opened to the public in 2001, the square is considered a part of Chinatown, earning it a nickname Heart of Chinatown. The park features many markers and statues, a monument to Robert Louis Stevenson is located inside the park to commemorate its history.
In addition, a statue of the Goddess of Democracy, a gift from the San Francisco Goddess of Democracy Statue Project to the city, a four-level underground parking garage is located beneath Portsmouth Square, accommodating an average of 50,000 vehicles per month. It served as a home for a large number of homeless people. Regarding these criticisms, the city department has tried to hire additional gardeners, another city department, Public Works, was urged by Newsom to help clean up the park, at least temporarily. The playground at the features an installation by Mary Fuller. The collection of sculptures are made of concrete and glass and overall encompass approximately 86 in, completed in 1983 and dedicated in 1984, the sculptures are used as playground equipment such as a slide and a sandbox
John D. Sloat
John Drake Sloat was a commodore in the United States Navy who, in 1846, claimed California for the United States. Sloat was brought up by his maternal grandparents, Sloat commanded the schooner Grampus during which he fought the Action of 2 March 1825 against the pirate ship of Roberto Cofresí. He served on the ships Franklin and Washington, and from 1828 commanded the sloop St. Louis with the rank of master commandant and he was promoted to captain in 1837, and from 1840 to 1844 was in charge of the Portsmouth Navy Yard. He was a Military Governor of California for only twenty-two days and he retired with the rank of Captain in December 1861, and was promoted to Rear Admiral on the retired list in July 1866. Sloat was a Freemason, and belonged to St. Nicholas lodge No.321 in New York City and he died in New Brighton, New York, and was buried in Brooklyns Green-Wood Cemetery. Two destroyers have been named USS Sloat in his honor as well as a World War II Liberty ship, a major street, Sloat Boulevard, and Commodore Sloat elementary school, both in San Francisco, are named after him.
Local streets in Monterey, Sacramento, there is a large monument erected in his honor on the Presidio of Monterey U. S. Army post. An elementary school in Sacramento is named for him and his home town in New York was named Sloatsburg, after his grandfather Stephen and his family. Castleman,2016, State University of New York Press Proclamation to the Inhabitants of California and this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here
Yerba buena or hierba buena is the Spanish name for a number of aromatic plants, most of which belong to the mint family. Yerba buena translates as good herb, the specific plant species regarded as yerba buena varies from region to region, depending on what grows wild in the surrounding landscape, or which species is customarily grown in local gardens. Perhaps the most common variation of plant is spearmint. The term has been used to cover a number of aromatic true mints and mint relatives of the genera Clinopodium, all plants so named have medicinal properties, and some have culinary value as herbal teas or seasonings as well. In the western United States, yerba buena most often refers to the species Clinopodium douglasii, but may refer to Eriodictyon californicum. In Cuba, yerba buena generally refers to Mentha nemorosa, a plant known as large apple mint, foxtail mint, hairy mint, woolly mint or, simply. In Puerto Rico a close relative of traditional culinary savory, Satureja viminea, is sometimes used
New Spain was a colonial territory of the Spanish Empire, in the New World north of the Isthmus of Panama. It was established following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire in 1521, after 1535 the colony was governed by the Viceroy of New Spain, an appointed minister of the King of Spain, who ruled as monarch over the colony. The capital of New Spain was Mexico City and it developed highly regional divisions, which reflect the impact of climate, the presence or absence of dense indigenous populations, and the presence or absence of mineral resources. The areas of central and southern Mexico had dense indigenous populations with complex social, silver mining not only became the engine of the economy of New Spain, but vastly enriched Spain, and transformed the global economy. New Spain was the New World terminus of the Philippine trade, although New Spain was a dependency of Spain, it was a kingdom not a colony, subject to the presiding monarch on the Iberian Peninsula. Every privilege and position, economic political, or religious came from him and it was on this basis that the conquest and government of the New World was achieved.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain was established in 1535 in the Kingdom of New Spain and it was the first New World viceroyalty and one of only two in the Spanish empire until the 18th century Bourbon Reforms. The Spanish Empire comprised the territories in the north overseas Septentrion, from North America, to the west of the continent, New Spain included the Spanish East Indies. To the east of the continent, it included the Spanish West Indies and this was not occupied by many Spanish settlers and were considered more marginal to Spanish interests than the most densely populated and lucrative areas of central Mexico. To shore up its claims in North America starting in the late 18th century, Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest explored and claimed the coast of what is now British Columbia and Alaska. The indigenous societies of Mesoamerica brought under Spanish control were of unprecedented complexity, the societies could provide the conquistadors, especially Hernán Cortés, a base from which the conquerors could become autonomous, or even independent, of the Crown.
As a result, the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain, since the time of the Catholic Monarchs, central Iberia was governed through councils appointed by the monarch with particular jurisdictions. Thus, the creation of the Council of the Indies became another, the crown had set up the Casa de Contratación in 1503 to regulate contacts between Spain and its overseas possessions. A key function was to gather information about navigation to make trips less risky and they were accompanied by maps of the area discussed, many of which were drawn by indigenous artists. The Francisco Hernández Expedition, the first scientific expedition to the New World, was sent to gather information medicinal plants, an earlier Audiencia had been established in Santo Domingo in 1526 to deal with the Caribbean settlements. That Audiencia, housed in the Casa Reales in Santo Domingo, was charged with encouraging further exploration, management by the Audiencia, which was expected to make executive decisions as a body, proved unwieldy.
Therefore, in 1535, King Charles V named Don Antonio de Mendoza as the first Viceroy of New Spain. After the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire in 1532 opened up the vast territories of South America to further conquests, the Crown established an independent Viceroyalty of Peru there in 1540
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
After Smiths death in 1844, the Mormons followed Brigham Young to what would become the Utah Territory. Today, most Mormons are understood to be members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, some Mormons are either independent or non-practicing. The center of Mormon cultural influence is in Utah, and North America has more Mormons than any other continent, Mormons have developed a strong sense of communality that stems from their doctrine and history. Mormons dedicate large amounts of time and resources to serving in their church, Mormons have a health code which eschews alcoholic beverages, coffee and other addictive substances. They tend to be very family-oriented, and have connections across generations and with extended family. Mormons have a law of chastity, requiring abstention from sexual relations outside of heterosexual marriage. Mormons self-identify as Christian, although some non-Mormons consider Mormons non-Christian, Mormons believe in the Bible, as well as other books of scripture, such as the Book of Mormon.
They have a view of cosmology, and believe that all people are spirit-children of God. Mormons believe that returning to God requires following the example of Jesus Christ and they believe that Christs church was restored through Joseph Smith and is guided by living prophets and apostles. Central to Mormon faith is the belief that God speaks to his children, due to their high birth and conversion rates, the Mormon population has grown significantly in recent decades rising from around three million in 1970 to over 15 million in 2015. The term Mormons has been embraced by most adherents of Mormonism, most notably Mormon fundamentalists, while other Latter Day Saint denominations, both LDS Church members and members of fundamentalist groups commonly use the word Mormon in reference to themselves. The LDS Church, disagrees with this self-characterization, Church leaders encourage members to use the churchs full name to emphasize its focus on Jesus Christ. Today, polygamy is practiced within Mormonism only by people that have broken with the LDS Church, the history of the Mormons has shaped them into a people with a strong sense of unity and communality.
From the start, Mormons have tried to establish what they call Zion, in the first period, Smith had tried literally to build a city called Zion, in which converts could gather. During the pioneer era, Zion became a landscape of villages in Utah, in modern times, Zion is still an ideal, though Mormons gather together in their individual congregations rather than a central geographic location. Mormons trace their origins to the visions that Joseph Smith reported having in the early 1820s while living in upstate New York, in 1823, Smith said an angel directed him to a buried book written on golden plates containing the religious history of an ancient people. Smith published what he said was a translation of these plates in March 1830 as the Book of Mormon, named after Mormon, on April 6,1830, Smith founded the Church of Christ. The early church grew westward as Smith sent missionaries to proselytize, in 1833, Missouri settlers, alarmed by the rapid influx of Mormons, expelled them from Jackson County into the nearby Clay County, where local residents were more welcoming
San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. It is the birthplace of the United Nations, the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856, after three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party lines, San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation, as of 2016, San Francisco is ranked high on world liveability rankings.
The earliest archaeological evidence of habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized. In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican–American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography. The California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers, with their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849.
The promise of fabulous riches was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor. Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels, many were left to rot, by 1851 the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870 Yerba Buena Cove had been filled to create new land, buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings. California was quickly granted statehood in 1850 and the U. S. military built Fort Point at the Golden Gate, silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode in Nevada in 1859, further drove rapid population growth. With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush
Samuel Brannan was an American settler, businessman and prominent Mormon who founded the California Star, the first newspaper in San Francisco, California. He is considered the first to publicize the California Gold Rush and was its first millionaire and he helped form the first vigilance committee in San Francisco. He used the profits from his stores and possibly the tithes contributed to him as a leader of the LDS church to buy tracts of real estate. When he could not account for the tithes given him, he was disfellowshipped from the LDS church and his wife divorced him and he was forced to liquidate much of his real estate to pay her one-half of their assets. He died poor and in relative obscurity, Brannan was born in Saco, Maine, to Thomas and Sarah Emery Brannan. Because of problems with his father, when he was fourteen years old Brannan moved with his sister and her husband to Painesville. It was there that Brannan learned the printers trade, during their journey to Ohio, the trio found themselves listening to two men whom they would know as Orson Hyde and Heber C.
Brannans brother-in-law bought a copy of the Book of Mormon from these street corner missionaries, in the neighboring town of Kirtland, Brannan and Mary Ann all joined the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints in 1842. After his fathers death, Brannan inherited a decent sum of money, bought out of his last year of his apprenticeship. Soon after making his investment and hoping to get rich because of said investment and he made a quick visit to Maine in order to see his ailing mother and made his way to New Orleans where his brother Thomas was living. The Brannan brothers bought a press and type with what money they had. After this tragedy, Brannan made his way back to the North, stopping in Indianapolis to work on the Gazette, but that only lasted for a couple months before he returned to Painesville. Once Brannan had returned to his sisters home, he renewed his religious convictions in the LDS church and was called by the apostle Wilford Woodruff to serve a mission in Ohio. Before being called as a missionary he had married Harriet Hatch and his mission ended earlier than expected when he caught malaria and had to return home for his health.
Once he had recovered he was again called to help the church. While waiting in Connecticut to meet-up with Smith, Brannan fell in love with Ann Eliza Corwin whose mother took care of the visitors in the boarding house. Brannan planned to marry her and separate from his first wife and they were eventually married although it was said that Brannan had never officially divorced his first wife. From Connecticut they went to New York City, New York, in 1844, and began printing The Prophet, shortly after the paper began, news spread that the prophet Joseph Smith and his brother Hyrum were murdered and Brigham Young had taken over the position as prophet
Yerba Buena Island
Yerba Buena Island sits in the San Francisco Bay between San Francisco and Oakland, California. The Yerba Buena Tunnel runs through its center and connects the western and eastern spans of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge and it has had several other names over the decades, Sea Bird Island, Wood Island, and Goat Island. The island is named after the town of Yerba Buena, which was named for the plant of the name that was abundant in the area. The plants English and Spanish common name, Yerba buena, is a form of the Spanish hierba buena. The island is part of District 6 of the City and County of San Francisco. According to the United States Census Bureau, Yerba Buena Island, today the military reservation southeast of the Yerba Buena Tunnel belongs to the United States Coast Guard District Eleven. The US Coast Guard Sector San Francisco – Vessel Traffic Service tower is located on Signal Road Bldg,278 atop the peak of the island. The US Coast Guard Sector San Francisco Headquarters is co-located with US Coast Guard Station San Francisco on Healy Avenue @ Fresnel Way at water-level on the southeast coast of the island, the USCG Station has a navigational buoy repair facility on Fresnel Way.
The USCG Senior Officers residences are in Quarters A, B, C,8 and 9 off of Hillcrest Road on the hill atop the USCG base, the IOC houses the VTS, WatchKeeper and the US Coast Guard Sector San Francisco Command Center together in one building. Officially, the island was Yerba Buena Island until 1895, when on a decision by the United States Board on Geographic Names, during the gold rush, a large number of goats were pastured on the island, and the name Goat Island came into popular use. It was changed back to Yerba Buena Island on June 3,1931, in 1891, the United States Army Engineers built a Torpedo Station / Shed / Storehouse / Assembly building at the end of Army Road by North Gate Road. The torpedoes were actually floating mines that could be placed in the bay via cable for defense against intruding enemy vessels, the Torpedo Station was abandoned in the 1930s but still stands today listed in the National Register of Historic Places. Just before the turn of the 20th century, the first U. S.
Naval Training Station on the Pacific Coast was established on the north east side of the island by 1st Street and North Gate Road. Quarters One, known as the Admiral Nimitz House near the intersection of Whiting Way and its Classic Revival style, fashionable for private residences in the Bay Area at the time, was unusual for naval base housing. The training station closed after World War I, although the training station closed the Navy maintained presence with the stationary receiving ship USS Boston, renamed USS Despatch, anchored in harbor through World War II. During World War II, Yerba Buena Island fell under the jurisdiction of Treasure Island Naval Station, built on the shoals of Yerba Buena Island, the 403-acre Treasure Island was a Works Progress Administration project in the 1930s. Quarters One became the residence of the Commander in Chief, US Pacific Fleet. Several other buildings used by the Naval Station during World War II remain on the island, buildings 83,205 and 230 were support facilities to the senior officers quarters
Fort Vancouver was a 19th-century fur trading post that was the headquarters of the Hudsons Bay Companys Columbia Department, located in the Pacific Northwest. Named for Captain George Vancouver, the fort was located on the bank of the Columbia River in present-day Vancouver. The fort was a center of the regional fur trading. Every year trade goods and supplies from London arrived either via ships sailing to the Pacific Ocean or overland from Hudson Bay via the York Factory Express and trade goods were exchanged with a plethora of Indigenous cultures for fur pelts. Furs from Fort Vancouver were often shipped to the Chinese port of Guangzhou where they were traded for Chinese manufactured goods for sale in the United Kingdom, at its pinnacle, Fort Vancouver watched over 34 outposts,24 ports, six ships, and 600 employees. Today, a replica of the fort, with internal buildings, has been constructed and is open to the public as Fort Vancouver National Historic Site. During the War of 1812, the Pacific Northwest was a distant region of the conflict, two rival fur trading outfits, the Canadian North West Company and the American Pacific Fur Company, had until both operated in the region peaceably.
Funded largely by John Jacob Astor, the PFC operated without many opportunities for defense by the United States Navy. News of the war and of a coming British warship put the American company into a difficult position, in October 1813, management met at Fort Astoria and agreed to liquidate its assets to the NWC. The HMS Racoon arrived the following month and in honor of George III of the United Kingdom, Fort Astoria was renamed to Fort George. Frederick Merk has argued the definition used by the negotiators of the Gulf of Georgia included the entirety of the Puget Sound, in addition to the Straits of Georgia and Juan de Fuca. This would have given the United Kingdom the most favorable location for ports north of Alta California, robinson didnt agree to the proposal and subsequent talks didnt focus on establishing a permanent border west of the Rocky Mountains. The Treaty of 1818 made the resources of the vast region were to be free, the treaty wasnt made to combine American and British interests against other colonial powers in the region.
Rather, the document states that the joint occupancy of the Pacific Northwest was intended to prevent disputes between the two nations from arising, in the ensuing years, the North West Company would continue to expand its operations in the Pacific Northwest. Skirmishes with its competitor, the Hudsons Bay Company, had already flared into the Pemmican War. The end of the conflict in 1821 saw the NWC mandated by the British Government to merge into the HBC, throughout 1825 and 1826, British officials would continue to offer Americans partition plans for the Pacific Coast of North America. These largely originated in part from correspondence with the NWC and HBC, the border would continue to extend west on the 49th parallel to the Rocky Mountains, where the Columbia would be used as the border until it reached the Pacific Ocean. Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs George Canning has been appraised by historians most supportive British Foreign minister in securing a border along the Columbia