Lamiaceae or Labiatae is a family of flowering plants commonly known as the mint or deadnettle family. Many of the plants are aromatic in all parts and include widely used herbs, such as basil, rosemary, savory, oregano, thyme, lavender. Some species are shrubs, trees, or, vines, many members of the family are widely cultivated, not only for their aromatic qualities but their ease of cultivation, since they are readily propagated by stem cuttings. Besides those grown for their leaves, some are grown for decorative foliage. Others are grown for seed, such as Salvia hispanica, or for their edible tubers, such as Plectranthus edulis, Plectranthus esculentus, Plectranthus rotundifolius, the family has a cosmopolitan distribution. The enlarged Lamiaceae contains about 236 genera and has stated to contain 6,900 to 7,200 species. The largest genera are Salvia, Stachys, Hyptis, Vitex, Clerodendrum was once a genus of over 400 species, but by 2010, it had been narrowed to about 150. The original family name Labiatae refers to the fact that the flowers typically have petals fused into an upper lip, the flowers are bilaterally symmetrical with 5 united petals,5 united sepals.
They are usually bisexual and verticillastrate, although this is still considered an acceptable alternative name, most botanists now use the name Lamiaceae in referring to this family. The leaves emerge oppositely, each pair at right angles to the one or whorled. The stems are square in cross section, but this is not found in all members of the family. The last revision of the family was published in 2004. It described and provided keys to 236 genera and these are marked with an asterisk in the list below. A few genera have been established or resurrected since 2004 and these are marked with a plus sign. The remaining genera in the list are mostly of historical interest only and are from a source that includes such genera without explanation, few of these are recognized in modern treatments of the family. Kew Gardens provides a list of genera that includes additional information, a list at the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website is frequently updated. The circumscription of genera has changed since 2004.
Tsoongia and Viticipremna have been sunk into synonymy with Vitex, huxleya has been sunk into Volkameria
San Bruno, California
San Bruno is a city in San Mateo County, United States, incorporated in 1914. The population was 41,114 at the 2010 United States Census, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.5 square miles, all of it land. San Bruno City Hall sits at an elevation of 41 feet above sea level. Portions of Mills Park and Rollingwood are very hilly, featuring canyons, many of them now in culverts, flow from springs in the hills toward San Francisco Bay. Just west of Skyline Boulevard and outside of city limits is San Andreas Lake, the lake is one of several reservoirs used by the San Francisco Water Department, providing water to San Francisco and several communities in San Mateo County, including San Bruno west of I-280. San Bruno enjoys a mild Mediterranean climate characterized by cool, dry summers and chilly, since 1927, the National Weather Service has maintained a weather station at the nearby San Francisco International Airport. According to the records, January is the coldest month with an average high of 55.9 °F.
Frost occurs occasionally during the months, snowfall is very rare. Measurable snowfalls occurred on December 11,1932, and February 5,1976, in recent years, traces of snow have been reported on December 27,1988, January 8,1989, and February 24,1996. Freezing temperatures occur on an average of only 1.3 days annually, the coldest winter temperature on record was 20 °F on December 11,1932, the same day 1.0 inch of snow fell. September is the warmest month with a high of 72.7 °F. Temperatures exceed 90 °F on an average of 4.0 days annually and low overcast are common during the night and morning hours in the summer months, which are generally very dry except for occasional light drizzle from the fog. On rare occasions moisture moving up from tropical storms has produced thunderstorms or showers in the summer, gusty westerly winds are common in the afternoon during the summer. The highest summer temperature was 106 °F on June 14,1961, a high of 105 °F was recorded on July 17,1988, and a high of 103 °F was recorded on September 14,1971.
Until August 1,1993, it had never reached 100 °F in August, due to thermal inversions, summer temperatures in the higher hills are often much higher than at the airport. Thunderstorms occur several times a year, mostly during the winter months, the annual average days with measurable precipitation is 65.2 days. The most rainfall in a month at the airport was 13.64 inches in February 1998, nylund reported 6.09 inches in Crestmoor during a 24-hour period in January 1967. Winter storms are accompanied by strong southerly winds
USS Boston (1884)
The fifth USS Boston was a protected cruiser and one of the first steel warships of the New Navy of the 1880s. In some references she is combined with Atlanta as the Atlanta class, Boston was ordered as part of the ABCD ships, the others being the cruisers Atlanta and Chicago and the dispatch vessel Dolphin. All were ordered from the shipyard, John Roach & Sons of Chester. However, when Secretary of the Navy William C.45 caliber Gatling guns, the 8-inch guns were initially in open barbettes with gun shields added later. Armor protection was light, with 2-inch gun shields and conning tower, the engineering plant included eight coal-fired cylindrical boilers producing 100 psi steam and a horizontal compound engine producing 3,500 ihp driving one shaft. Like the other ABCD ships, Boston was built with a rig to increase cruising range. The ship carried up to 490 tons of coal, with a range as built of 3,390 nmi at 10 kn. In 1900–01 Boston was rebuilt and the 6-inch guns were converted to rapid firing with brass case ammunition replacing powder bags.
During her service with the Oregon Naval Militia 1911-16 she retained her original pair of 8/30 guns, All armament was removed prior to her conversion to a freighter in 1917. Boston, being the second cruiser of the New Navy completed, was not ready for service until 1888. She made a cruise to Guatemala and Haiti to protect American citizens and she joined the Squadron of Evolution on 30 September 1889 and cruised to the Mediterranean and South America from 7 December 1889 to 29 July 1890, and along the east coast in 1891. Boston departed New York on 24 October 1891 for the Pacific via Cape Horn, recommissioned on 15 November 1895, Boston joined the Asiatic Squadron at Yokohama, Japan on 25 February 1896. From 4 October to 23 December and other ships deployed to Taku in China to protect American interests in the wake of a coup detat by the Empress Dowager Cixi, following this, Boston remained in the Philippines assisting in their pacification until 8 June 1899. Boston returned to San Francisco on 9 August 1899 and went out of commission at Mare Island Navy Yard on 15 September 1899 and she remained out of commission until 11 August 1902 and rejoined the Pacific Squadron.
On 7 November 1903, Boston was the first ship of the Pacific Squadron to arrive near Panama to support that countrys newly declared independence and she cruised in South America and the US West Coast. In April 1907 she carried a Honduran peace delegation that ended the Honduran-Nicaraguan War and she went out of commission again at Puget Sound Navy Yard on 10 June 1907. From 15 June 1911 to September 1916, she served as a vessel with the Oregon Naval Militia. With the United States declaration of war on Germany in April 1917, Boston was converted to a freighter by Seattle Construction & Drydock in 1917–1918
Fort Point, San Francisco
Fort Point is a masonry seacoast fortification located at the southern side of the Golden Gate at the entrance to San Francisco Bay. This fort was completed just before the American Civil War by the United States Army, the fort is now protected as Fort Point National Historic Site, a United States National Historic Site administered by the National Park Service as a unit of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area. In 1769 Spain occupied the San Francisco area and by 1776 had established the areas first European settlement, with a mission and a presidio. To protect against encroachment by the British and Russians, Spain fortified the high white cliff at the narrowest part of the bays entrance, the Castillo de San Joaquin, built in 1794, was an adobe structure housing nine to thirteen cannons. Mexico won independence from Spain in 1821, gaining control of the region and the fort, following the United States victory in 1848, California was annexed by the U. S. and became a state in 1850. The gold rush of 1849 had caused rapid settlement of the area, military officials soon recommended a series of fortifications to secure San Francisco Bay.
Coastal defenses were built at Alcatraz Island, Fort Mason, the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers began work on Fort Point in 1853. Plans specified that the lowest tier of artillery be as close as possible to water level so cannonballs could ricochet across the surface to hit enemy ships at the water-line. Workers blasted the 90-foot cliff down to 15 feet above sea level, the structure featured seven-foot-thick walls and multi-tiered casemated construction typical of Third System forts. It was sited to defend the maximum amount of harbor area, while there were more than 30 such forts on the East Coast, Fort Point was the only one on the West Coast. In 1854 Inspector General Joseph K. Mansfield declared this point as the key to the whole Pacific Coast. a crew of 200, many unemployed miners, labored for eight years on the fort. In 1861, with war looming, the army mounted the forts first cannon, colonel Albert Sidney Johnston, commander of the Department of the Pacific, prepared Bay Area defenses and ordered in the first troops to the fort.
Kentucky-born Johnston resigned his commission to join the Confederate Army, throughout the Civil War, artillerymen at Fort Point stood guard for an enemy that never came. Troops soon moved out of Fort Point, and it was never again occupied by the army. The fort was important enough to receive protection from the elements. In 1869 a granite seawall was completed, the following year, some of the forts cannon were moved to Battery East on the bluffs nearby, where they were more protected. In 1882 Fort Point was officially named Fort Winfield Scott after the hero from the war against Mexico. The name never caught on and was applied to an artillery post at the Presidio
California State Legislature
The California State Legislature is the state legislature of the U. S. state of California. It is a body consisting of the lower house, the California State Assembly, with 80 members, and the upper house. New legislators convene each new session, to organize, in the Assembly and Senate Chambers, respectively. Aside from the recess, the legislature is in session year-round, the Democratic Party currently holds supermajorities in both chambers of the California Legislature. The state senate currently consists of 27 Democrats and 13 Republicans, except for the period from 1995 to 1996, the Assembly has been in Democratic hands since the 1970 election. The Senate has been in Democratic hands continuously since 1970, the first Californian State House was originally a hotel in San Jose owned by businessman Pierre Don Pedro Sainsevain and his associates. The State Legislature currently meets in the California State Capitol in Sacramento, members of the Assembly are elected from 80 districts and serve two-year terms.
Members of the Senate are elected from forty districts and serve four-year terms, twenty Senate seats are up for election at each two-year election cycle. Term limits were established in 1990 following the passage of Proposition 140. In June 2012, voters approved Proposition 28 which allows legislators to serve a maximum of 12 years without regard to whether the years are served in the State Assembly or the State Senate. The proceedings of the California State Legislature are briefly summarized in regularly published journals, which show votes, reports produced by California executive agencies, as well as the Legislature, were published in the Appendices to the Journals from 1849 to 1970. Since the 1990s, the legislature has provided a video feed for its sessions. Due to the expense and the obvious political downside, California did not keep records of actual speeches made by members of the Assembly. As a result, reconstructing legislative intent outside of an acts preamble is extremely difficult in California for legislation passed before the 1990s.
Since 1993, the Legislature has hosted a web/ftp site in one form or another, the most sought-after legislative committee appointments are to banking and insurance. A bill is a proposal to change, repeal, or add to existing state law, an Assembly Bill is one introduced in the Assembly, a Senate Bill, in the Senate. Bills are designated by number, in the order of introduction in each house, for example, AB16 refers to the 16th bill introduced in the Assembly. The numbering starts afresh each session, there may be one or more extraordinary sessions
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay is a shallow estuary in the U. S. state of California. It is surrounded by a region known as the San Francisco Bay Area, dominated by the large cities San Francisco, Oakland. San Francisco Bay drains water from approximately 40 percent of California and it connects to the Pacific Ocean via the Golden Gate strait. However, this group of interconnected bays is often called the San Francisco Bay. The bay was designated a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance on February 2,2013, the bay covers somewhere between 400 and 1,600 square miles, depending on which sub-bays, wetlands, and so on are included in the measurement. The main part of the bay measures 3 to 12 miles wide east-to-west and it is the largest Pacific estuary in the Americas. Later and inlets were filled in, reducing the Bays size since the mid-19th century by as much as one third. Recently, large areas of wetlands have been restored, further confusing the issue of the Bays size, despite its value as a waterway and harbor, many thousands of acres of marshy wetlands at the edges of the bay were, for many years, considered wasted space.
As a result, soil excavated for building projects or dredged from channels was often dumped onto the wetlands, from the mid-19th century through the late 20th century, more than a third of the original bay was filled and often built on. The idea was, and remains, there are five large islands in San Francisco Bay. Alameda, the largest island, was created when a shipping lane was cut in 1901 and it is now predominantly a bedroom community. Angel Island was known as Ellis Island West because it served as the point for immigrants from East Asia. It is now a park accessible by ferry. Mountainous Yerba Buena Island is pierced by a tunnel linking the east and west spans of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge, attached to the north is the artificial and flat Treasure Island, site of the 1939 Golden Gate International Exposition. From the Second World War until the 1990s, both served as military bases and are now being redeveloped. Isolated in the center of the Bay is Alcatraz, the site of the federal penitentiary.
The federal prison on Alcatraz Island no longer functions, but the complex is a popular tourist site, despite its name, Mare Island in the northern part of the bay is a peninsula rather than an island. During the last ice age, the now filled by the bay was a large linear valley with small hills
Golden Gate National Cemetery
Golden Gate National Cemetery is an United States national cemetery in California, located in the city of San Bruno,12 miles south of San Francisco. Because of the name and location, it is confused with San Francisco National Cemetery. Congress authorized construction of the facility in 1937, with the first interments in 1941, the cemetery was officially dedicated on Memorial Day, May 30,1942. California Attorney General Earl Warren was keynote speaker at the ceremony, Golden Gate is one of a large number of U. S. Army-planned cemeteries started in the 1930s and completed during the 1940s. They were designed specifically to provide abundant burial opportunities in locations around the nation in cities with very large veteran populations, as of 2005, the cemetery held 137,435 interments. Over the years, several attempts to expand Golden Gate National Cemetery were met with resistance from local residents, notable is that the Golden Gate National Cemetery was the first cemetery to initiate the large flag display on Memorial Day.
Flags are raised around the base of the hill in the center of the cemetery and this practice was created and put into effect by John T. Spelman, the superintendent of the cemetery at the time. The cemetery was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2016, the American Veterans donated a Schulmerich carillon to the cemetery as part of their worldwide living memorial carillon program. The carillon was dedicated May 30,1958, corporal Edward A. Bennett, U. S. Army, Company B, 358th Infantry, 90th Infantry Division. Master Sergeant Vito R. Bertoldo, U. S. Army, Company A, 242nd Infantry, chief Gunner’s Mate John Joseph Clausey U. S. Navy. On board the USS Bennington, July 21,1905, corporal John O. Dahlgren, U. S. Marine Corps. Peking, June 20 – July 16,1900, private John Francis DeSwan, Company H, 21st U. S. Infantry. Santiago de Cuba, July 1,1898, private Mosheim Feaster, Company E, 7th U. S. Cavalry. Sergeant Paul H. Foster, U. S. Marine Corps Reserve, 2nd Battalion, 4th Marines, near Con Thien, Republic of Vietnam, October 14,1967.
Sergeant Edward H. Gibson, Company M, 27th Infantry, San Mateo, Philippine Islands, December 19,1899. Private First Class Harold Gonsalves, U. S. Marine Corps Reserve, captain Nelson M. Holderman, U. S. Army, 307th Infantry, 77th Division. Machinists Mate William R. Huber, U. S. Navy, on board the USS Bruce, June 11,1928. Boatswain’s Mate First Class Reinhardt J. Keppler, U. S. Navy, on board the USS San Francisco, November 12–13,1942
The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia-Pacific War, was the theater of World War II that was fought in the Pacific and East Asia. It was fought over a vast area that included the Pacific Ocean and islands, the South West Pacific, South-East Asia, and in China. The Pacific War saw the Allied powers pitted against the Empire of Japan, the formal and official surrender of Japan took place aboard the battleship USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay on 2 September 1945. In Allied countries during the war, The Pacific War was not usually distinguished from World War II in general, or was known simply as the War against Japan. Japan used the name Greater East Asia War, as chosen by a decision on 10 December 1941. Japanese officials integrated what they called the Japan–China Incident into the Greater East Asia War, in Japan, the Fifteen Years War is used, referring to the period from the Mukden Incident of 1931 through 1945. The Phayap Army sent troops to invade and occupy northeastern Burma, involved were the Japanese puppet states of Manchukuo and Mengjiang, and the collaborationist Wang Jingwei regime.
The official policy of the U. S. Government is that Thailand was not an ally of the Axis, Japan conscripted many soldiers from its colonies of Korea and Formosa. To a small extent, some Vichy French, Indian National Army and Italy both had limited involvement in the Pacific War. The German and the Italian navies operated submarines and raiding ships in the Indian, the Italians had access to concession territory naval bases in China, while the Germans did not. After Japans attack on Pearl Harbor and the subsequent declarations of war, Free France and many other countries took part, especially forces from other British colonies. Between 1942 and 1945, there were four main areas of conflict in the Pacific War, the Central Pacific, South East Asia, U. S. sources refer to two theaters within the Pacific War, the Pacific theater and the China Burma India Theater. However these were not operational commands, in the Pacific, the Allies divided operational control of their forces between two supreme commands, known as Pacific Ocean Areas and Southwest Pacific Area.
In 1945, for a period just before the Japanese surrender. By 1937, Japan controlled Manchuria and was ready to move deeper into China, the Marco Polo Bridge Incident on 7 July 1937 provoked full-scale war between China and Japan. In August 1937, Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek deployed his best army to fight about 300,000 Japanese troops in Shanghai, the Japanese continued to push the Chinese forces back, capturing the capital Nanking in December 1937 and committed which was known as Nanking Massacre. In March 1938, Nationalist forces won their first victory at Taierzhuang, but the city of Xuzhou was taken by Japanese in May. In June 1938, Japan deployed about 350,000 troops to invade Wuhan, the Japanese achieved major military victories, but world opinion—in particular in the United States—condemned Japan, especially after the Panay incident
Lighthouses mark dangerous coastlines, hazardous shoals and safe entries to harbors, and can assist in aerial navigation. Once widely used, the number of operational lighthouses has declined due to the expense of maintenance, before the development of clearly defined ports, mariners were guided by fires built on hilltops. Since raising the fire would improve the visibility, placing the fire on a platform became a practice that led to the development of the lighthouse. In antiquity, the lighthouse functioned more as a marker to ports than as a warning signal for reefs and promontories. The most famous lighthouse structure from antiquity was the Pharos of Alexandria, coins from Alexandria and Laodicea in Syria exist. The modern era of lighthouses began at the turn of the 18th century, advances in structural engineering and new and efficient lighting equipment allowed for the creation of larger and more powerful lighthouses, including ones exposed to the sea. The function of lighthouses shifted toward the provision of a warning against shipping hazards.
The Eddystone Rocks were a major hazard for mariners sailing through the English Channel. The first lighthouse built there was a wooden structure, anchored by 12 iron stanchions secured in the rock. His lighthouse was the first tower in the world to have been exposed to the open sea. The civil engineer, John Smeaton, rebuilt the lighthouse from 1756–59, his tower marked a step forward in the design of lighthouses. He modelled the shape of his lighthouse on that of an oak tree and he pioneered the use of hydraulic lime, a form of concrete that will set under water, and developed a technique of securing the granite blocks together using dovetail joints and marble dowels. This profile had the advantage of allowing some of the energy of the waves to dissipate on impact with the walls. His lighthouse was the prototype for the lighthouse and influenced all subsequent engineers. One such influence was Robert Stevenson, himself a figure in the development of lighthouse design. His greatest achievement was the construction of the Bell Rock Lighthouse in 1810 and this structure was based upon Smeatons design, but with several improved features, such as the incorporation of rotating lights, alternating between red and white.
Stevenson worked for the Northern Lighthouse Board for nearly fifty years during which time he designed and oversaw the construction and he invented the movable jib and the balance crane as a necessary part for lighthouse construction. Alexander Mitchell designed the first screw-pile lighthouse – his lighthouse was built on piles that were screwed into the sandy or muddy seabed, construction of his design began in 1838 at the mouth of the Thames and was known as the Maplin Sands lighthouse, and first lit in 1841
Commander, U.S. Pacific Fleet
Pacific Fleet, is the title of the United States Navy officer who commands the United States Pacific Fleet. Originally established in 1907 as a rear admirals billet, the position has been held by a four-star admiral since March 19,1915. As of 27 May 2015, the 62nd and current Commander, Pacific Fleet is Admiral Scott H. Swift. The position has been known by several titles since its inception,1907 to December 6,1922, Commander-in-Chief, U. S. S. Pacific Fleet October 24,2002 to present, Commander, U. S, Fleet Forces Command Official Website U. S