New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary
Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary, founded in 1896, is the rabbinical seminary of Yeshiva University. It is located along Amsterdam Avenue in New York City, in the Washington Heights neighborhood of Manhattan; the school's Hebrew name is Yeshivas Rabbeinu Yitzchok Elchonon, after Rabbi Yitzchak Elchanan Spektor, who had died that year. The Hebrew name of the Rabbinic school appears on the seals of all affiliates of Yeshiva University, in Hebrew letters; the seminary is referred to by its English acronym of RIETS. The RIETS semikhah program is a structured four year curriculum; the primary focus is on advanced Talmudic learning as well as developing a proficiency in deciding matters of classical and contemporary Jewish law or halakha. The majority of talmidim in the semikha program are enrolled in the Katz Kollel, led by the Rosh Kollel, Rabbi Hershel Schachter. There are a variety of required ancillary courses intended to train students for careers as practicing rabbis, in fields such as homiletics, pastoral counseling, Jewish philosophy.
There is an honors track within the general semikha program where students receive an extra stipend and are required to take additional supplemental courses. Many RIETS students are concurrently enrolled in a variety of other graduate degree granting programs, including those in law, academic Jewish studies and the sciences. RIETS has two post-semikha kollelim, referred to as the Kollel Elyon, which offer talmidim the opportunity to study Torah at an advanced level and take supplemental courses for an additional 3 to 4 years while receiving a generous stipend; the Roshei Kollel of the Kollel Elyon are Rabbi Mordechai Willig. The first Jewish schools in New York were Rabbi Elnathan's, on the lower East Side. In 1896, several New York and Philadelphia rabbis agreed that a rabbinical seminary based on the traditional European Yeshiva viewpoint was needed to produce American rabbis who were committed to what would come to be called Orthodox Judaism. There were only two rabbinical seminaries in the United States.
Hebrew Union College followed Reform Judaism, was unacceptable to traditional rabbis and other Jews. The other was the Jewish Theological Seminary, small, financially precarious, while nominally traditional, had roots in the Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau, whose fidelity to tradition was questionable. Rabbi Bernard L. Levinthal and other leading traditional rabbis of the day founded the school known as the Rabbinical College of America. In 1915, it merged with an elementary school, the Eitz Chaim Yeshiva, changed its name to RIETS, appointed Rabbi Dr. Bernard Revel to head the combined school. In 1916, he expanded its offerings to include the Talmudical Academy. In the late 1920s, the institution began a building campaign of 5 million USD, announcing an institution called the "Yeshiva of America," the "Yeshiva College of America," before settling on Yeshiva College. In 1926, it bought a three-block site in Washington Heights, built its first building, moved its operation there; as of 2018, that building continues to house Yeshiva University's affiliated high school, but all other operations have moved to other buildings on the expanded campus surrounding it.
The high school integral to RIETS, became a separate entity, RIETS became a college-level program, including granting of degrees via smichah. Secular studies were added, with the RIETS rosh yeshiva serving as president of the college secular academic programs. For example, Rabbi Revel was the official rosh yeshiva and college president though greater Talmudic scholars were on faculty, notably Rabbi Moshe Soloveichik, who served as co-head of RIETS; this arrangement continued into the 1940s. However, the second president, Rabbi Samuel Belkin separated the two institutions in order to obtain United States government funding and research grants for a variety of YU's secular departments. In Rabbi Belkin's view, the modern understanding of the separation of church and state in the United States would have forced YU to either forgo federal grants and stagnate, or to alter the religious character of RIETS; the split was opposed by RIETS's leading scholar Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik, who saw it as the antithesis of the school's guiding philosophy.
Rabbi Belkin prevailed and, following the split, he remained both the official rosh yeshiva of RIETS and president of Yeshiva University. Despite the separation, the identities have continued to be blended. Both the religious seminary and the college undergraduate Talmudic department are called RIETS, have the same faculty and students. With the 2003 appointment of Richard Joel, a layman, as president of Yeshiva University, the dual role had to end. Joel's predecessor, Rabbi Norman Lamm, continued as the official rosh yeshiva of RIETS, with Richard Joel being the "Chief Executive", responsible for fund-raising and administrative issues. Rabbi Menachem Penner is the Dean of RIETS, a position he began July 1, 2013, after Rabbi Yona Reiss's resignation. Before taking over as dean in 2013, Penner had been the assistant dean of RIETS. At the time of Rabbi Yona Reiss' appointment, RIETS absorbed the academic administration of the Undergraduate Torah Studies programs affiliated with Yeshiva College and Sy Syms School of Business on the Wilf Campus.
Many great rabbis have taught at RIETS. Scions of the Brisker dynasty, Rabbis Moshe Soloveichik and Jos
David G. Greenfield
David G. Greenfield is an American politician who served in the New York City Council from the 44th district from 2010 to 2017, he is a Democrat. The district includes Bensonhurst, Borough Park, Kensington and Sheepshead Bay in Brooklyn, he is the founding director and counsel of TEACH NYS and prior to his election served as the executive vice president of the Sephardic Community Federation. As Director and Counsel of TEACH NYS, Greenfield organized statewide advocacy campaigns that resulted in private and public school parents receiving tax breaks and private schools receiving more government assistance. Greenfield served as deputy director of finance in Senator Joseph Lieberman's 2004 presidential campaign. Prior to that, he had a stint as chief of staff to Assemblyman Dov Hikind. Greenfield is ranked as the 51st most powerful New Yorker in City & State's most recent Power 100 list, ranking him one slot behind billionaire political activist George Soros. Greenfield is Orthodox Jewish and prays in R' Landau's Synagogue in the Midwood section of Brooklyn, among other Orthodox shuls in the neighborhood.
Greenfield voted against a 2010 bill that required the City Clerks office to post on its website, hand out at its office, information on where in the U. S. and the world same sex couples are able to get married. On January 7, 2010 Greenfield announced his candidacy on the Zev Brenner radio show to replace Simcha Felder. Felder announced his resignation after accepting the post as the new deputy comptroller for accounting and budget under John Liu. Greenfield received powerful endorsements from groups and politicians from both sides of the aisle, including US Senator Joseph Lieberman NYC Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg, Former NYC Mayor Ed Koch NY State Senators Carl Kruger, Martin J. Golden, he received the support of local NYC council members Domenic Recchia, Lewis Fidler, Michael C. Nelson, Vincent J. Gentile, as well as the backing of the Kings County Conservative Party and Kings County Democratic county leader Vito Lopez and the good government group Citizens Union, he was elected in his first term by his Brooklyn colleagues to co-chair the Brooklyn delegation and serve as their representative on the Budget Negotiating Team of the New York City Council.
He has since gone on to become the chair of the powerful Land Use Committee of the New York City Council. Greenfield has appeared as a commentator on many national news shows including Fox & Friends and is a frequent political commentator in The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal among other national newspapers. Greenfield denounced an Anti-Semitic outburst in New York City Council Chamber by pro-Palestine activists protesting commemoration of the 70th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz. Greenfield is considered a political moderate in a liberal New York City Council. Greenfield authored a law that banned the Department of Sanitation from placing hard-to-remove stickers on vehicles that were parked on the wrong-side of the street, he co-authored a law that requires the Department of Education to notify parents and teachers about harmful polychlorinated biphenyl in classrooms. Greenfield introduced a law that would stop New York City from towing cars for unpaid parking tickets and instead boot the car.
Greenfield's proposed legislation was adopted by the New York City Council Department of Finance as a pilot program in June 2012. Greenfield is the author of the Vision Zero legislation that lowers the default speed-limit in New York City to 25 miles per hour; this legislation is the lynchpin of Vision Zero and is considered to be the key strategy behind saving lives by reducing traffic accidents in New York City. Greenfield is a long-time advocate for increased government funding for public and non-public schools. In July 2017 he announced that he would not be seeking a third term, would instead be taking over as CEO of the Metropolitan Council on Jewish Poverty, when Alan Schoor retires in 2018
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with an estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017. Named after the Dutch village of Breukelen, it borders the borough of Queens at the western end of Long Island. Brooklyn has several bridge and tunnel connections to the borough of Manhattan across the East River, the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge connects Staten Island. Since 1896, Brooklyn has been coterminous with Kings County, the most populous county in the U. S. state of New York and the second-most densely populated county in the United States, after New York County. With a land area of 71 square miles and water area of 26 square miles, Kings County is New York state's fourth-smallest county by land area and third-smallest by total area, though it is the second-largest among the city's five boroughs. Today, if each borough were ranked as a city, Brooklyn would rank as the third-most populous in the U. S. after Los Angeles and Chicago. Brooklyn was an independent incorporated city until January 1, 1898, after a long political campaign and public relations battle during the 1890s, according to the new Municipal Charter of "Greater New York", Brooklyn was consolidated with the other cities and counties to form the modern City of New York, surrounding the Upper New York Bay with five constituent boroughs.
The borough continues, however. Many Brooklyn neighborhoods are ethnic enclaves. Brooklyn's official motto, displayed on the Borough seal and flag, is Eendraght Maeckt Maght, which translates from early modern Dutch as "Unity makes strength". In the first decades of the 21st century, Brooklyn has experienced a renaissance as an avant garde destination for hipsters, with concomitant gentrification, dramatic house price increases, a decrease in housing affordability. Since the 2010s, Brooklyn has evolved into a thriving hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms, of postmodern art and design; the name Brooklyn is derived from the original Dutch colonial name Breuckelen, meaning marshland. Established in 1646, the name first appeared in print in 1663; the Dutch colonists named it after the scenic town of Netherlands. Over the past two millennia, the name of the ancient town in Holland has been Bracola, Brocckede, Brocklandia, Broikelen and Breukelen; the New Amsterdam settlement of Breuckelen went through many spelling variations, including Breucklyn, Brucklyn, Brookland, Brockland and Brookline/Brook-line.
There have been so many variations of the name. The final name of Brooklyn, however, is the most accurate to its meaning; the history of European settlement in Brooklyn spans more than 350 years. The settlement began in the 17th century as the small Dutch-founded town of "Breuckelen" on the East River shore of Long Island, grew to be a sizeable city in the 19th century, was consolidated in 1898 with New York City, the remaining rural areas of Kings County, the rural areas of Queens and Staten Island, to form the modern City of New York; the etymology of Breuckelen may be directly from the dialect word Breuckelen meaning buckle or from the Plattdeutsch Brücken meaning bridge. The Dutch were the first Europeans to settle Long Island's western edge, largely inhabited by the Lenape, an Algonquian-speaking American Indian tribe who are referred to in colonial documents by a variation of the place name "Canarsie". Bands were associated with place names, but the colonists thought their names represented different tribes.
The Breuckelen settlement was named after Breukelen in the Netherlands. The Dutch West India Company lost little time in chartering the six original parishes: Gravesend: in 1645, settled under Dutch patent by English followers of Anabaptist Lady Deborah Moody, named for's-Gravenzande, Netherlands, or Gravesend, England Brooklyn Heights: as Breuckelen in 1646, after the town now spelled Breukelen, Netherlands. Breuckelen was located along Fulton Street between Smith Street. Brooklyn Heights, or Clover Hill, is where the village Brooklyn was founded in 1816. Flatlands: as Nieuw Amersfoort in 1647 Flatbush: as Midwout in 1652 Nieuw Utrecht: in 1657, after the city of Utrecht, Netherlands Bushwick: as Boswijck in 1661 The colony's capital of New Amsterdam, across the East River, obtained its charter in 1653 than the village of Brooklyn; the neighborhood of Marine Park was home to North America's first tide mill. It was built by the Dutch, the foundation can be seen today, but the area was not formally settled as a town.
Many incidents and documents relating to this period are in Gabriel Furman's 1824 compilation. What is Brooklyn today left Dutch hands after the final English conquest of New Netherland in 1664, a prelude to the Second Anglo–Dutch War. New Netherland was taken in a naval action, the conquerors renamed their prize in honor of the overall English naval commander, Duke of York, brother of the monarch King Charles II of England and future king himself as King James II of England and James VII of Scotland; the English reorganized the six old Dutch towns on southwestern Long Island as Kings County on November 1, 1683, one of the "original twelve counties" established in New York Pro
Boston (Hasidic dynasty)
Boston is a Hasidic sect established in 1915 by Chief Rabbi Pinchas David Horowitz. Following the custom of European Chassidic Courts, where the Rebbe was called after the name of his city, the Bostoner branch of Hasidic Judaism was named after Boston, Massachusetts; the most senior and well-known of the Bostoner Rebbes in contemporary times was Grand Rabbi Levi Yitzchak Horowitz, who died in December 2009. Amid a spectrum of notable accomplishments and "firsts in America," Bostoner Hasidim claim to be skilled in applying ancient Jewish values in modern society, engaging in outreach to students, providing tangible help for the sick and their families during crucial times of need. Bostoner Hasidim pride themselves on their musical tradition; the worldwide community of Bostoner Hasidism has headquarters in Brookline and Har Nof, with additional branches in Beit Shemesh, Israel. Grand Rabbi Pinchas David Horowitz, the first Bostoner Rebbe, a scion of Shmelke of Nikolsburg and the Lelov dynasty, was born in Jerusalem in Ottoman Syria.
He first arrived in Boston in 1915 from the Russian Empire, where he had gone to settle a rabbinic dispute. Shortly after his arrival, Rabbi Pinchas David was accepted as Rebbe by a group of followers he attracted from within the Boston Jewish community. However, in 1939, he left Boston and moved to Brooklyn where he opened the Bostoner beth midrash of Williamsburg, Brooklyn. After his death in 1941, his older son, Rav Moshe, succeeded him in New York, while his younger son, Levi Yitzchak Horowitz, moved back to Boston in 1943 and built the New England Chassidic Center. In his lifetime, Reb Moshe founded the Bostoner beth midrash of Crown Heights and the Bostoner beth midrash of Borough Park, Brooklyn. In 1985, upon the passing of Reb Moshe, his eldest son, Avrom Horowitz, succeeded him as Bostoner Rebbe of New York. In 1989, Reb Moshe's younger son, Pinchas Dovid, moved to Flatbush, Brooklyn to establish a community there, he accepted the mantle of Bostoner Rebbe of Flatbush. In 2006, Avrom moved to Beit Shemesh in Israel to establish a community there.
In the mid 1980s, Levi Yitzchak Horowitz established another Boston community in Har Nof and would spend half of the year in Boston and half of the year in Jerusalem. On Saturday, December 5, 2009 Levi Yitzchok Horowitz died in Jerusalem, survived by his three sons and two daughters. In his spiritual will, the title of Grand Rabbi of Boston was bestowed upon all three surviving sons. Pinchas Dovid Horowitz, the Chuster Rebbe of Borough Park, the oldest, serves as Bostoner Rebbe in New York. Grand Rabbi Pinchos Duvid Horowitz first Bostoner Rebbe Grand Rabbi Moshe Horowitz Bostoner Rebbe of New York – Born in Jerusalem, he was the elder son of Rabbi Pinchas and the first Chasidic Rebbe to succeed his father in America, establishing a Bostoner Beis Medrash in Crown Heights, Brooklyn and in Borough Park, Brooklyn, he was active in the formation of Agudath Israel of America and a member of its Moetzes Gedolei HaTorah, was a founder of Yeshiva Torah Vodaas. He worked with the Vaad Hatzalah to help settle Jewish refugees in America during and after World War II.
Grand Rabbi Chaim Avrohom Horowitz, Bostoner Rebbe of Borough Park 1985 to 2016 and Ramat Beit Shemesh Rabbi Yaakov Yitzchak Horowitz of Lawrence, NY – son of Grand Rabbi Chaim Avrohom Rabbi Yisroel Yona Horowitz Ruv Bostoner Bais Medrash of Boro Park – son of Grand Rabbi Chaim Avrohom Grand Rabbi Pinchas Duvid Horowitz, present Bostoner Rebbe of Flatbush – son of Grand Rabbi Moshe Horowitz Rabbi Mordechai Horowitz R"M of Darchei Noam - son of Grand Rabbi Pinchos Dovid of Flatbush Rabbi Chaim Avrohom Horowitz of Monsey – son of Grand Rabbi Pinchos Duvid of Flatbush Grand Rabbi Levi Yitzchak Horowitz, the Bostoner Rebbe in Brookline and Har Nof – son of Rabbi Pinchas David Horowitz Rabbi Pinchas Duvid Horowitz – Chuster Ruv - eldest son of Grand Rabbi Levi Yitzchok - successor to his father as Bostoner-Chuster Rebbe of New York, Chuster-Bostoner Rebbe of Betar Illit Rabbi Moshe Shimon Horowitz, Bostoner Ruv of Betar Illit - eldest son of the Chuster-Bostoner Rebbe Rabbi Yisroel Aharon Horowitz - son of the Chuster-Bostoner Rebbe and son-in-law of Rabbi Yitzchok Arie Weiss, Horodonka Rebbe of Manchester, England Reb Shia'le Horowitz, Bostoner Ruv of Monsey, New York - son of the Chuster-Bostoner Rebbe Rabbi Yechiel Mechel Horowitz, Bostoner Ruv of Highland Park, New Jersey - son of the Chuster-Bostoner Rebbe Rabbi Mayer Alter Horowitz of Jerusalem - middle son of Grand Rabbi Levi Yitzchok, successor to his father as Bostoner Rebbe in the Har Nof section of Jerusalem.
Rabbi Naftali Yehuda Horowitz, Bostoner Rebbe – youngest son of Grand Rabbi Levi Yitzchok, successor to his father as the Bostoner Rebbe of Boston. Official Website of the Bostoner ShulMoshe D. Sherman Orthodox Judaism in America: A Biographical Dictionary and Sourcebook pp 94–96
Joseph B. Soloveitchik
Joseph Ber Soloveitchik was a major American Orthodox rabbi and modern Jewish philosopher. He was a scion of the Lithuanian Jewish Soloveitchik rabbinic dynasty; as a rosh yeshiva of Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary at Yeshiva University in New York City, The Rav, as he came to be known, ordained close to 2,000 rabbis over the course of half a century. He served as an advisor, guide and role-model for tens of thousands of Jews, both as a Talmudic scholar and as a religious leader, he is regarded as a seminal figure by Modern Orthodox Judaism. Joseph Ber Soloveitchik was born on February 27, 1903, in Pruzhany Russia, he came from a rabbinical dynasty dating back some 200 years: His paternal grandfather was Rabbi Chaim Soloveitchik, his great-grandfather and namesake was Rabbi Yosef Dov Soloveitchik, the Beis HaLevi. His great-great-grandfather was Rabbi Naftali Zvi Yehuda Berlin, his great-great-great-great grandfather was Rabbi Chaim Volozhin, his father, Rabbi Moshe Soloveichik, preceded him as head of the RIETS rabbinical school at Yeshiva University.
On his maternal line, Soloveitchik was a grandson of Rabbi Eliyahu Feinstein and his wife Guta Feinstein, née Davidovitch, who, in turn, was a descendant of a long line of Kapulyan rabbis, of the Tosafot Yom Tov, the Shelah, the Maharshal, Rashi. Soloveitchik was educated in the traditional manner at a Talmud Torah, an elementary yeshiva, by private tutors, as his parents realized his great mental powers. According to a curriculum vitae written and signed in his own hand, in 1922, he graduated from the liberal arts "Gymnasium" in Dubno. In 1924, he entered the Free Polish University in Warsaw, where he spent three terms, studying political science. In 1926, he came to Berlin and entered the Friedrich Wilhelm University, he passed the examination for supplementary subjects at the German Institute for Studies by Foreigners, was given full matriculation at the University. He took up studies in philosophy and Hebrew subjects maintaining a rigorous schedule of intensive Talmud study. According to the CV, among his "highly honored" teachers in university, bearing the title "Geheimrat", were Professor Dr. Heinrich Maier and Professor Dr. Max Dessoir, along with Professor Dr. Eugen Mittwoch and Professor Dr. Ludwig Bernhard.
He studied the work of European philosophers, was a life-long student of neo-Kantian thought. He wrote his Ph. D. thesis on the epistemology and metaphysics of the German philosopher Hermann Cohen. Contrary to most biographies, which erroneously state that in 1931, he received his degree, he passed his oral doctor's examination on July 24, 1930, but graduated with a doctorate only on December 19, 1932, as he had requested an extension to allow him to expand his thesis. Documents exist to support this assertion, located by Marc B. Shapiro in the University of Berlin archives. In 1931, he married Tonya Lewit, who had earned a Ph. D. in Education from Jena University. Rabbi Chaim Ozer Grodzinski served as his mesader kiddushin in Vilna. During his years in Berlin, Soloveitchik became a close disciple of Rabbi Hayyim Heller, who had established an institute for advanced Jewish Studies from an Orthodox perspective in the city, he made the acquaintance of other young scholars pursuing a similar path to his own.
One such figure was Rabbi Yitzchok Hutner, who would become the rosh yeshiva of the Yeshiva Rabbi Chaim Berlin in Brooklyn, New York. Both of them developed a system of thought that bridged the Eastern European way of traditional scholarship with the new forces of modernity in the Western World. Among the other personalities with whom he came into contact were Professor Alexander Altmann, Rabbi Dr. Yehiel Yaakov Weinberg, Rector of the Hildesheimer Rabbinical Seminary, Professor Yeshayahu Leibowitz. In 1932, Soloveitchik emigrated to America and settled in Boston, where he referred to himself as "The Soloveitchik of Boston", he pioneered the Maimonides School, one of the first Hebrew day schools in Boston in 1937. When the school's high school was founded in the late 1940s, he instituted a number of innovations in the curriculum, including teaching Talmud to boys and girls studying in classes together, he involved himself in all manner of religious issues in the Boston area. He was at times both a rabbinical supervisor of kosher slaughtering - shechita - and an educator, gladly accepting invitations to lecture in Jewish and religious philosophy at prestigious New England colleges and universities.
His son-in-law, Rabbi Professor Isadore Twersky, was an internationally renowned expert on the writings of Maimonides, succeeded Professor Harry Austryn Wolfson to the Nathan Littauer chair of Jewish History and Literature at Harvard University. Joseph Soloveitchik succeeded his father, Moses Soloveichik, as the head of the RIETS rabbinical school at Yeshiva University in 1941, he taught there until 1986, when illness kept him from continuing, was considered the top Rosh Yeshiva from the time he began teaching there until his death in 1993. He was the first occupant of the Leib Merkin Distinguished Professorial Chair in Talmud and Jewish Philosophy at RIETS, he ordained over 2,000 rabbis, many of whom are among the leaders of Orthodox Judaism and the Jewish people today. In addition, he gave public lectures that were attended by thousands from throughout the greater Jewish community, as well as regular classes at other New York institutions. Rav Soloveitchik advocated more i
Rabbi Wolf Gold was a rabbi, Jewish activist, one of the signatories of the Israeli declaration of independence Born in Szczuczyn he was a descendant on his father's side from at least eight generations of rabbis. Gold's first teacher was Rabbi Yehoshuah Goldwasser, he studied at the Mir yeshiva under Rabbi Eliyahu Baruch Kamei. From there Gold moved on to study in Lida at Yeshiva Torah Vo'Da'as - the yeshiva of Rabbi Yitzchak Yaacov Reines where Torah was combined with secular studies. Gold was ordained as a Rabbi at the age of 17 by Rabbi Eliezer Rabinowitz of Minsk, succeeded his father-in-law Rabbi Moshe Reichler, as rabbi in Juteka. At the age of 18, he moved to the United States, where he served as rabbi in several communities including South Chicago, Pennsylvania, Congregation Beth Jacob Ohev Sholom in Williamsburg, San Francisco and Congregation Shomrei Emunah of Borough Park, Brooklyn, he was a pioneer in establishing Orthodox Judaism in the United States. He founded the Williamsburg Talmud Torah, in 1917 founded Yeshiva Torah Vodaas.
He started the Beth Moshe hospital and an orphanage in Brooklyn and founded a Hebrew teachers training college in San Francisco. In 1914, Rabbi Gold invited Rabbi Meir Berlin, secretary of the World Mizrachi, to come to New York to organize a branch of Mizrachi in the United States. For the next 40 years, Rabbi Gold traveled throughout the United States and Canada organizing chapters of the Mizrachi movement and became president of American Mizrachi in 1932. In 1935, he emigrated to Palestine, where he became the head of the Department of Torah Education and Culture in the Diaspora in which capacity he was instrumental in establishing new educational institutions within the Diaspora, devoting himself to the educational needs of North African Jewry. During World War II, he was involved in the widespread Zionist opposition to the British White Paper of 1939 and worked to rescue European Jewry from the Holocaust. In 1943, he traveled to the United States where he participated as a speaker on behalf of European Jewry at the Rabbis' march in Washington.
He was a member of the Jewish Agency Executive, heading the Department for Jerusalem Development. He served as Vice-President of the Provisional State Council and went on to sign the Israeli declaration of independence in 1948, he served on the founding committee of Bar-Ilan University. On 8 April 1956, Rabbi Gold died in Jerusalem and was buried near his lifelong friend Rabbi Meir Berlin. Two years after his death in Jerusalem, a Jewish woman’s teacher training seminary was established in the city and named after him; the Central Zionist Archives in Jerusalem site. Office of Rabbi Ze'ev Gold