Yiddish is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews. It originated during the 9th century in Central Europe, providing the nascent Ashkenazi community with a High German-based vernacular fused with elements taken from Hebrew and Aramaic as well as from Slavic languages and traces of Romance languages. Yiddish writing uses the Hebrew alphabet; the earliest surviving references date from the 12th century and call the language לשון־אַשכּנז or טײַטש, a variant of tiutsch, the contemporary name for Middle High German. Colloquially, the language is sometimes called מאַמע־לשון, distinguishing it from לשון־קודש, meaning Hebrew and Aramaic; the term "Yiddish", short for Yidish Taitsh, did not become the most used designation in the literature until the 18th century. In the late 19th and into the 20th century the language was more called "Jewish" in non-Jewish contexts, but "Yiddish" is again the more common designation today. Modern Yiddish has two major forms. Eastern Yiddish is far more common today.
It includes Southeastern and Northeastern dialects. Eastern Yiddish differs from Western both by its far greater size and by the extensive inclusion of words of Slavic origin. Western Yiddish is divided into Southwestern and Northwestern dialects. Yiddish is used in a number of Haredi Jewish communities worldwide; the term "Yiddish" is used in the adjectival sense, synonymously with "Jewish", to designate attributes of Yiddishkeit. Prior to the Holocaust, there were 11–13 million speakers of Yiddish among 17 million Jews worldwide. 85% of the 6 million Jews who died in the Holocaust were Yiddish speakers, leading to a massive decline in the use of the language. Assimilation following World War II and aliyah, immigration to Israel, further decreased the use of Yiddish both among survivors and among Yiddish-speakers from other countries. However, the number of speakers is increasing in Hasidic communities; the established view is that, as with other Jewish languages, Jews speaking distinct languages learned new co-territorial vernaculars, which they Judaized.
In the case of Yiddish, this scenario sees it as emerging when speakers of Zarphatic and other Judaeo-Romance languages began to acquire varieties of Middle High German, from these groups the Ashkenazi community took shape. What German base lies behind the earliest form of Yiddish is disputed. In Max Weinreich's model, Jewish speakers of Old French or Old Italian who were literate in either liturgical Hebrew or Aramaic, or both, migrated through Southern Europe to settle in the Rhine Valley in an area known as Lotharingia extending over parts of Germany and France. Both Weinreich and Solomon Birnbaum developed this model further in the mid-1950s. In Weinreich's view, this Old Yiddish substrate bifurcated into two distinct versions of the language and Eastern Yiddish, they retained the Semitic vocabulary and constructions needed for religious purposes and created a Judaeo-German form of speech, sometimes not accepted as a autonomous language. Linguistic research has finessed the Weinreich model or provided alternative approaches to the language's origins, with points of contention being the characterization of its Germanic base, the source of its Hebrew/Aramaic adstrata, the means and location of this fusion.
Some theorists argue. The two main candidates for the germinal matrix of Yiddish, the Rhineland and Bavaria, are not incompatible. There may have been parallel developments in the two regions, seeding the Western and Eastern dialects of Modern Yiddish. Dovid Katz proposes that Yiddish emerged from contact between speakers of High German and Aramaic-speaking Jews from the Middle East; the lines of development proposed by the different theories do not rule out the others. In more recent work, Wexler has argued that Eastern Yiddish is unrelated genetically to Western Yiddish. Wexler's model has been met with little academic support, strong critical challenges among historical linguists. By the 10th century, a distinctive Jewish culture had formed in Central Europe which came to be called אַשכּנזי Ashkenazi, from Hebrew: אַשכּנז Ashkenaz, the medieval Hebrew name for northern Europe and Germany. Ashkenaz was centered on the Rhineland and the Palatinate, in what is now the westernmost part of Germany.
Its geographic extent did not coincide with the German pri
Josh Nathanial Allen is an American football center who plays for the Dallas Renegades of the XFL. He played college football at the University of Louisiana at Monroe and attended Cedar Hill High School in Cedar Hill, Texas, he has been member of the Tampa Bay Buccaneers, Green Bay Packers, San Francisco 49ers, Arizona Cardinals, Arizona Hotshots. Allen played high school football for the Cedar Hill High School Longhorns, he earned first team all-district honors in 2009 and was selected to play in the Team USA vs. World All-Star Game, he helped lead the Longhorns to the 2009 district championships. Allen played center his senior year, he lettered in powerlifting and track & field. Allen played for the Louisiana–Monroe Warhawks from 2010 to 2013. Allen signed with the Tampa Bay Buccaneers on May 12, 2014 after going undrafted in the 2014 NFL Draft, he was released by the Buccaneers on August 31, 2014. Allen was signed to the Green Bay Packers' practice squad on September 3, 2014, he was released by the Packers on September 23, 2014.
Allen was signed to the Tampa Bay Buccaneers' practice squad on September 25, 2014. He was promoted to the active roster on November 29, 2014, he made his NFL debut on December 2014 against the Carolina Panthers. Allen was cut by the Buccaneers on September 1, 2015. On September 2, 2015, he was placed on injured reserve. On September 9, 2015, he was waived from injured reserve. On November 18, 2015, Allen was signed to the Buccaneers' practice squad. On January 5, 2016, Allen signed a reserve/future contract with the Buccaneers. On September 3, 2016, Allen was released by the Buccaneers as part of final roster cuts; the next day, he was signed to the Buccaneers' practice squad. He was promoted to the active roster on November 22, 2016, he was released on December 10, 2016. Allen was claimed off waivers by the 49ers on December 12, 2016, he was released on December 21, 2016. On December 27, 2016, Allen was re-signed to the Buccaneers' practice squad, he signed a reserve/future contract with the Buccaneers on January 2, 2017.
He was waived on September 2, 2017. Allen was signed to the Calgary Stampeders' practice roster in October 2017. On January 2, 2018, Allen signed a reserve/future contract with the Arizona Cardinals, he was waived on September 1, 2018. In 2019, Allen joined the Arizona Hotshots of the Alliance of American Football; the league ceased operations in April 2019. Allen was drafted in the 6th round in phase two in the 2020 XFL Draft by the Dallas Renegades. Think NFL life's fair? Josh Allen says'hello'
The Old Town Transit Center is an intermodal transportation station located in the Old Town neighborhood of San Diego, California. It is served by the San Diego Trolley, Coaster commuter rail, Amtrak's Pacific Surfliner, as well as numerous San Diego Metropolitan Transit System bus lines; the Old Town Transit Center was built in the early 1990s, San Diego Trolley's North/South Line was extended here on June 16, 1996. In November 1997, the line, renamed the Blue Line, was extended into Mission Valley; when the Green Line service was introduced with the opening of the Mission Valley East extension on July 10, 2005, the Blue Line's northern terminus was pushed back to this station, which served as the Green Line's western terminus. During a system redesign on September 2, 2012, as part of the Trolley Renewal Project, MTS extended the western terminus of the Green Line from this station to 12th & Imperial Bayside Terminal and shortened the Blue Line's northern terminus to America Plaza; the Special Event Line was eliminated.
The Old Town Transit Center hosts passenger trains operating on Amtrak's Pacific Surfliner intercity rail route and on the San Diego Coaster commuter rail line. Of the 22 weekday Amtrak Pacific Surfliner trains operating in San Diego, 18 of them stop at the Old Town Transit Center, though the Surfliner trains operating at Old Town do not offer checked luggage service, stop at Old Town to board passengers or detrain passengers only, respectively. Amtrak ridership at Old Town Transit Center has exploded over the last two years. In Fiscal Year 2011, there were just 22,867 detrainings at Old Town. In Fiscal Year 2012, boardings and detrainings at Old Town rose to 61,118, a 167% increase over FY2011; as of Fiscal Year 2013, the Amtrak ridership figure has continued to rise, to 135,749 boardings and detrainings, a further 122% increase over FY2012. Of the 74 California stations served by Amtrak, the Old Town Transit Center was the 25th-busiest in Fiscal Year 2013, boarding or detraining an average of 372 passengers daily.
Old Town Transit Center is a light rail station on the San Diego Trolley's Green Line. This station served as that line's terminus, until a system realignment on September 2012 extended the Green Line though Old Town to Downtown San Diego. Once the Trolley's Mid-Coast extension is completed, the Blue Line will be re-extended through this station to serve the University City area, so the Blue Line will once again serve Old Town by 2021. In July 2015, a 30-year naming rights agreement between MTS and UC San Diego Health was announced. Old Town operates as a bus transit center for San Diego Metropolitan Transit System's routes 8, 9, 10, 28, 30, 35, 44, 88, 105, 150. There is an underground pedestrian tunnel linking bus terminals on both sides of the station with the trolley/train areas. Old Town is served by university shuttles for University of California, San Diego and University of San Diego; the station is located at the intersection of Rosecrans Street/Taylor Street and Pacific Highway, adjacent to Old Town San Diego State Historic Park.
Free parking for up to 24-hours is available in the Transit Center lots. List of San Diego Trolley stations San Diego - Old Town, CA – Amtrak COASTER Stations Old Town Transit Center Old Town San Diego Amtrak Station Old Town San Diego State Historic Park San Diego-Old Town --Great American Stations