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A yo-yo is a toy consisting of an axle connected to two disks, a string looped around the axle. It has some similarities to a slender spool. A yo-yo is played by holding the free end of the string known as the handle allowing gravity to spin the yo-yo and unwind the string; the player allows the yo-yo to wind itself back to the player's hand, exploiting its spin. This is called "yo-yoing". In the simplest play, the string is intended to be wound on the spool by hand. One of the most basic tricks is called the sleeper, where the yo-yo spins at the end of the string for a noticeable amount of time before returning to the hand; the word yoyo comes from the Ilocano term yóyo, or a cognate word from the Philippines. A Greek vase painting from 440 BC shows a boy playing with a yo-yo. Greek records from the period describe toys painted terra cotta; the terra cotta disks were used to ceremonially offer the toys of youth to certain gods when a child came of age—discs of other materials were used for actual play.

In 1928, Pedro Flores, a Filipino immigrant to the United States, opened the Yo-yo Manufacturing Company in Santa Barbara, California. The business started with a dozen handmade toys; the principal distinction between the Filipino design popularized by Flores and more primitive yo-yos is in the way the yo-yo is strung. In older yo-yo designs, the string is tied to the axle using a knot. With this technique, the yo-yo just goes back-and-forth. In Flores's design, one continuous piece of string, double the desired length, is twisted around something to produce a loop at one end, fitted around the axle. Termed a looped slip-string, this minor modification allows for a far greater variety and sophistication of motion, thanks to increased stability and suspension of movement during free spin. Shortly thereafter, an entrepreneur named Donald F. Duncan recognized the potential of this new fad and purchased the Flores yo-yo Corporation and all its assets, including the Flores name, transferred to the new company in 1932.

The name "Yo-yo" was registered in 1932 as a trademark by Sam Dubiner in Vancouver and Harvey Lowe won the first World Yo-Yo Contest in London, England. In 1932, Swedish Kalmartrissan yo-yos started to be manufactured as well. In 1933 yo-yos were banned in Syria, because many locals superstitiously blamed the use of them for a severe drought. In 1946, the Duncan Toys Company opened a yo-yo factory in Wisconsin; the Duncan yo-yo was inducted into the National Toy Hall of Fame at The Strong in Rochester, New York, in 1999. Declining sales after the Second World War prompted Duncan to launch a comeback campaign for his trademarked "Yo-Yo" in 1962 with a series of television advertisements. In a trademark case in 1965, a federal court's appeals ruled in favor of the Royal Tops Company, determining that yo-yo had become a part of common speech and that Duncan no longer had exclusive rights to the term; as a result of the expenses incurred by this legal battle as well as other financial pressures, the Duncan family sold the company name and associated trademarks in 1968 to Flambeau, which had manufactured Duncan's plastic models since 1955.

As of 2014, Flambeau Plastics continued to run the company. As popularity spread through the 1970s and 1980s, there were a number of innovations in yo-yo technology regarding the connection between the string and the axle. In 1979, dentist and yo-yo celebrity Tom Kuhn patented the “No Jive 3-in-1” yo-yo, creating the world's first "take-apart" yo-yo, which enabled yo-yo players to change the axle. Swedish bearing company SKF manufactured novelty yo-yos with ball bearings in 1984. In 1990, Kuhn introduced the SB-2 yo-yo that had an aluminum transaxle, making it the first successful ball-bearing yo-yo. In all transaxle yo-yos, ball bearings reduce friction when the yo-yo is spinning, enabling longer and more complex tricks. Subsequent yo-yoers used this ability to their advantage, creating new tricks that had not been possible with fixed-axle designs. There are many new types of ball bearings in the market which deviate from the original design and/or material of the standard stainless steel ball bearing.

For example, a certain type of bearing has an inward facing curved surface, to prevent the string from rubbing on the sides of the yo-yo, which would cause unwanted friction when performing intricate string tricks. Other manufacturers replicate this with a similar inwardly curved surface, but use minor modifications; some high-end bearings use ceramic composites in the balls of the bearing, to reduce internal friction, again making for a smoother spinning yo-yo. Precious materials such as ruby have been used as a material in prototype ball bearings for its properties such as extreme hardness; the material was first tested in a prototype bearing made by Wolf Yoyo Works in May 2018. The sleeper is one of the most common yo-yo throws and is the basis for nearly all yo-yo throws other than looping. Keeping a yo-yo spinning while remaining at the end of its uncoiled string is known as sleeping. While the yo-yo is in the "sleeping" state at the end of the string

John Shy

John Willard Shy is a military historian and professor emeritus at the University of Michigan. Shy is part of a group of military historians who examined the interplay of the military and society in the colonial and revolutionary periods of American history. Shy attended the United States Military Academy, graduating in the class of 1952, he received his master's degree from University of Vermont in 1957. Shy graduated with his PhD from Princeton in 1961. Shy specializes in the American Revolutionary periods; the University of Michigan presented him with the Distinguished Faculty Achievement Award in 1994. Shy received the Morison Prize from the Society for Military History in 2002. Shy gave the 2008 George C. Marshall Lecture in Military History. Paret and John W. Shy. Guerrillas in the 1960's. New York: Published for the Center of International Studies, Princeton University, by Praeger, 1962. OCLC 275746 Shy, John W. Toward Lexington. Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press, 1965. Shy, John W.

A People Numerous and Armed: Reflections on the Military Struggle for American Independence. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976. ISBN 0195020138 Gilbert and John W. Shy. Winding Down: The Revolutionary War Letters of Lieutenant Benjamin Gilbert of Massachusetts, 1780-1783: from His Original Manuscript Letterbook in the William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Michigan.: University of Michigan Press, 1989. ISBN 0472101129 John Shy on IMDb

Jill Colucci

Jill Colucci is an American songwriter and vocalist. She rose to prominence in 1988, singing the main scores to the film Mystic Pizza, she sang the ABC promo campaigns Something's Happening and America's Watching ABC. She performed "The Funny Things You Do", the main theme song of America's Funniest Home Videos hosted by Bob Saget. Colucci's prolific credits extended to Toyota, where she was the original vocalist of the auto maker's "I Love What You Do For Me" campaign in 1989 and she performed the title theme song of the short-lived NBC-TV series Brand New Life; the following year, as she continued to sing for ABC, she sang for The Disney Channel's Celebrate Me Home promotions. She sang for promotional videos for the Apple II entitled "Apple ][ Forever" in 1984. Colucci has co-written four country music hits: "I'm Gonna Be Somebody" and "Anymore" by Travis Tritt, "No One Else on Earth" by Wynonna Judd, "He Would Be Sixteen" by Michelle Wright, she won the Billboard Song of the Year award for Judd's song.

In 1993, she released a CD called No Regrets, which included her versions of those four songs and several other tracks that she had written for other artists. Colucci first entered into the music industry at age 5, when she was still with her family singing along to Brenda Lee albums. While acting with her brother, the two of them began to perform, with her singing and her brother playing the accordion. By age 7, Colucci was the winner of the televised talent competition on The Gene Carroll Show. Official website Jill Colucci at Nashville Underground

Tin Soldier (song)

"Tin Soldier" is a song released by the English rock band Small Faces on 2 December 1967, written by Steve Marriott. The song peaked at number nine in number 38 in Canada, it has since been covered by many other notable rock artists. Tin Soldier was written by Steve Marriott for singer P. P. Arnold, but Marriott liked it so much he kept it himself, it was a song that he wrote to Jenny Rylance. P. P. Arnold can be heard singing backing vocals on the song and performed as guest singer at television recordings of the song; the song signalled a return to the band's R&B roots whilst continuing their forays into psychedelic rock and other musical experiments. When Tin Soldier was released the BBC informed the band that the last line of the song had to be removed from all TV and radio broadcasts, mistakenly believing that Marriott sang "sleep with you", when in fact the lyric is "sit with you". Marriott explained. Tin Soldier reached number nine in the UK Singles Chart and remains one of Small Faces' best known songs.

Talking about the song, the influence of his wife Jenny, Marriott stated: The meaning of the song is about getting into somebody's mind—not their body. It refers to a girl I used to talk to all the time and she gave me a buzz; the single was to give her maybe other people as well. I dig it. There's no great message and no physical scenes; the song seems to have been influenced by Hans Christian Andersen's fairy tale The Steadfast Tin Soldier, the story of an imperfect tin soldier's desire for a paper ballerina. The opening lyric is "I am a little tin soldier that wants to jump into your fire". Upon reaching No. 73 in the USA with this single, their label Immediate Records abandoned its attempts to penetrate the American market. "Tin Soldier" would be the last song performed live by the Small Faces during their original incarnation. In 1997, some 30 years after the song's original release, Mojo voted "Tin Soldier" the tenth best single of all time, in a readers' poll; the poll placed it ahead of anything by The Rolling Stones.

The song has been much mentioned over the years by Paul Weller and featured in Noel Gallagher's personal all-time top ten song list. Steve Marriott – lead and backing vocals and electric guitars Ronnie Lanebass guitar, backing vocals Ian McLagan – acoustic and electric pianos, Hammond organ, backing vocals Kenney Jones – drumsAdditional personnelP. P. Arnold – backing vocals The song has been covered by Quiet Riot, Lou Gramm, Uriah Heep, Todd Rundgren, The Guess Who, Paul Weller and Humble Pie Scorpions made a cover of the song for their 2011 album Comeblack. Progressive rock band Transatlantic covered this song on their 2014 album Kaleidoscope, on disc 2 of the special edition. In October 2007 Tim Rogers, of You Am I, Talei Wolfgramm performed the track on Australian music quiz show RocKwiz. In 1998 the Argentine musician Charly Garcia recorded a version, in Spanish, for his album El aguante Small Faces discography Small Faces official website

Voelcker & Dixon

Voelcker & Dixon was an architectural firm based in Wichita Falls, Texas which designed numerous county courthouses in Texas and some works elsewhere. At least two of their works, the Jack County Courthouse, in Jacksboro and the Chicot County Courthouse, in Arkansas, are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, it was a partnership of Jesse L. Dixon. Voelcker worked as an architect from at least 1916 and had extensive experience in public buildings in the Art Deco and Art Moderne styles, having designed eleven county courthouses in Texas. Herbert Voelcker was born in 1888 in Texas, he earned an Architectural Engineering degree from Texas A&M College in 1909. He worked in Waco, Fort Worth, Austin before finding employment with Lewis and Kitchen's Kansas City and Chicago offices, he came to Wichita Falls in 1916, where he first worked with E. S. Fields, he established the partnership with J. L. Dixon in 1918. About J. L. Dixon, little is known, the firm's archives are now owned by Gary Baker and associates.

From the National Register of Historic Places registration made in 2012: Voelcker & Dixon was the premier architectural firm in Wichita Falls during the city's "golden age" after the discovery of the nearby Burkburnett Oil Field in 1918, which led to the establishment of nine refineries and 47 factories by 1920. The firm is credited with several major commercial buildings in downtown Wichita Falls, as well as public buildings, including the Wichita Fall Hospital, Wichita Falls City Hall and Municipal Auditorium, the U. S. Court House and Post Office, Hardin Junior College Administration Building, the Psychopathic Ward of the Wichita Falls State Psychopathic Hospital; the variety of these large scale-buildings in style and function displays the firm's versatility, employing elements of various period styles with contemporary construction techniques. The refined eclectic but traditional architectural vocabulary of their 1920s buildings gave way to the modernistic mode by the end of the decade, when they began to produce designs for numerous north Texas county courthouses built with federal funding during the Great Depression.

Voelcker & Dixon designed ten county courthouses in north Texas between 1928 and 1940. Most of these followed the modem idiom, blending a mix of traditional and contemporary forms in the Modern Classical style; the 1928 Wilbarger County Courthouse is the most conservative of these, tied to Beaux Arts tradition with a gray limestone facade featuring a piano nobile with a prominent 2-story attached Ionic colonnade supporting a molded entablature, corner pavilions with pediment windows. The Callahan County Courthouse of 1929 is a much simplified version of this form, composed of buff brick with low-profile brick pilasters and limited cast stone ornament; the firm's modernistic Cottle County Courthouse of 1930 is a departure from their previous work, with dramatic stepped massing and the incorporation of large-scale and stylized figurative sculpture into the building facade, demonstrating an understanding and appreciation of contemporary design elsewhere in the United States, in particular the 1924 design of the Nebraska State Capitol by Bertram Goodhue.

Voelcker and Dixon's seven other Texas courthouses designed through 1940 -including the Jack County Courthouse - are good examples of Modern Classicism, with varying degrees of low-relief sculpture. The designs for these courthouses are much simpler than their earlier examples, with a tendency towards a single massive block with simple projecting pavilions or a single block broken by vertical windows. Works by either architect or the firm include: Wichita Fall Hospital Wichita Falls City Hall and Municipal Auditorium Wilbarger County Courthouse Callahan County Courthouse Cottle County Courthouse U. S. Court House and Post Office Hardin Junior College Administration Building Psychopathic Ward of the Wichita Falls State Psychopathic Hospital Jack County Courthouse, 100 N. Main St. Jacksboro, TX, NRHP-listed Waller County Courthouse Chicot County Courthouse, Lake Village, Arkansas. A contributing building in NRHP-listed Lake Village Commercial Historic District


Magnetity is a rural locality under the administrative jurisdiction of the urban-type settlement of Kildinstroy in Kolsky District of Murmansk Oblast, located beyond the Arctic Circle. Population: 124. Мурманская областная Дума. Закон №577-01-ЗМО от 29 декабря 2004 г. «О статусе, наименованиях и составе территорий муниципального образования Кольский район и муниципальных образований, входящих в его состав», в ред. Закона №1601-01-ЗМО от 24 апреля 2013 г. «Об упразднении некоторых населённых пунктов Мурманской области и о внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Мурманской области». Вступил в силу 1 января 2005 г. Опубликован: "Мурманский Вестник", №249, стр. 5, 30 декабря 2004 г