Prince Tokugawa Yoshinobu was the 15th and last shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan. He was part of a movement which aimed to reform the aging shogunate, but was unsuccessful. After resigning in late 1867, he went into retirement, avoided the public eye for the rest of his life. Tokugawa Yoshinobu was born as the seventh son of Tokugawa Nariaki, daimyō of Mito. Mito was one of the gosanke, the three branch families of the Tokugawa clan which were eligible to be chosen as shōgun, his birthname was Matsudaira Shichirōmaro His mother, Princess Arisugawa Yoshiko, was a member of the Arisugawa-no-miya, a cadet branch of the imperial family. Shichirōmaro was brought up under spartan supervision and tutelage. While his father Nariaki respected the second Mito Tokugawa Mitsukuni who had sent off the second and younger sons from Edo to Mito to raise them, Shichirōmaro was seven months old when he arrived in Mito in 1838, he was taught in the literary and martial arts, as well as receiving a solid education in the principles of politics and government at Kōdōkan.
At the instigation of his father, Shichirōmaro was adopted by the Hitotsubashi-Tokugawa family in order to have a better chance of succeeding to the shogunate and changed his first name to Akimune. He became family head in 1847, coming of age that year, receiving court rank and title, taking the name Yoshinobu. Upon the death of the 13th shōgun, Iesada, in 1858, Yoshinobu was nominated as a potential successor, his supporters touted his efficiency in managing family affairs. However, the opposing faction, led by Ii Naosuke, won out, their candidate, the young Tokugawa Yoshitomi, was chosen, became the 14th shōgun Iemochi. Soon after, during the Ansei Purge and others who supported him were placed under house arrest. Yoshinobu himself was made to retire from Hitotsubashi headship; the period of Ii's domination of the Tokugawa government was marked by mismanagement and political infighting. Upon Ii's assassination in 1860, Yoshinobu was reinstated as Hitotsubashi family head, was nominated in 1862 to be the shōgun's guardian, receiving the position soon afterwards.
At the same time, his two closest allies, Matsudaira Yoshinaga and Matsudaira Katamori, were appointed to other high positions: Yoshinaga as chief of political affairs, Katamori as Guardian of Kyoto. The three men took numerous steps to quell political unrest in the Kyoto area, gathered allies to counter the activities of the rebellious Chōshū Domain, they were instrumental figures in the kōbu gattai political party, which sought a reconciliation between the shogunate and the imperial court. In 1864, Yoshinobu, as commander of the imperial palace's defense, defeated the Chōshū forces in their attempt to capture the imperial palace's Hamaguri Gate in what is called the Kinmon Incident; this was achieved by use of the forces of the Aizu–Satsuma coalition. After the death of Tokugawa Iemochi in 1866, Yoshinobu was chosen to succeed him, became the 15th shōgun, he was the only Tokugawa shōgun to spend his entire tenure outside of Edo: he never set foot in Edo Castle as shōgun. Upon Yoshinobu's ascension as shōgun, major changes were initiated.
A massive government overhaul was undertaken to initiate reforms that would strengthen the Tokugawa government. In particular, assistance from the Second French Empire was organized, with the construction of the Yokosuka arsenal under Léonce Verny, the dispatch of a French military mission to modernize the armies of the bakufu; the national army and navy, formed under Tokugawa command, were strengthened by the assistance of the Russians, the Tracey Mission provided by the British Royal Navy. Equipment was purchased from the United States; the outlook among many was that the Tokugawa shogunate was gaining ground towards renewed strength and power. Fearing the renewed strengthening of the Tokugawa shogunate under a strong and wise ruler, samurai from Satsuma, Chōshū and Tosa formed an alliance to counter it. Under the banner of sonnō jōi coupled with a fear of the new shōgun as the "Rebirth of Ieyasu" who would continue to usurp the power of the Emperor, they worked to bring about an end to the shogunate, though they varied in their approaches.
In particular, Tosa was more moderate. To this end, Yamanouchi Toyonori, the lord of Tosa, together with his advisor, Gotō Shōjirō, petitioned Yoshinobu to resign in order to make this possible. On November 9, 1867, Yoshinobu tendered his resignation to the Emperor and formally stepped down ten days returning governing power to the Emperor, he withdrew from Kyoto to Osaka. However, Satsuma and Chōshū, while supportive of a governing council of daimyōs, were opposed to Yoshinobu leading it, they secretly obtained an imperial edict calling for the use of force against Yoshinobu and moved a massive number of Satsuma and Chōshū troops into Kyoto. There was a meeting called at the imperial court, where Yoshinobu was stripped of all titles and land, despite having taken no action that could be construed as aggressive or criminal. Any who would have opposed this were not included in the meeting. Yoshinobu opposed this action, composed a message of protest, to be delivered to the imperial court.
Battle of Toba–Fushimi
The Battle of Toba–Fushimi occurred between pro-Imperial and Tokugawa shogunate forces during the Boshin War in Japan. The battle started on 27 January 1868, when the forces of the shogunate and the allied forces of Chōshū, Satsuma and Tosa Domains clashed near Fushimi, Kyoto; the battle lasted for four days. On 4 January 1868, the restoration of imperial rule was formally proclaimed. Shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu had earlier resigned his authority to the emperor, agreeing to "be the instrument for carrying out" imperial orders; the Tokugawa shogunate had ended. However, while Yoshinobu's resignation created a nominal void at the highest level of government, his apparatus of state continued to exist. Moreover, the Tokugawa family remained a prominent force in the evolving political order, a prospect hard-liners from Satsuma and Chōshū found intolerable. Although the majority of fifteen-year-old Emperor Meiji's consultative assembly was happy with the formal declaration of direct rule by the court and tended to support a continued collaboration with the Tokugawa, Saigō Takamori physically threatened members of the assembly into ordering the confiscation of Yoshinobu's lands.
Although he agreed to the court's demands, on 17 January 1868, Yoshinobu declared "that he would not be bound by the proclamation of the restoration and called on the court to rescind it". On 24 January, after considerable provocation by Satsuma rōnin in Edo, from his base at Osaka Castle decided to prepare an attack on Kyoto, ostensibly to dislodge the Satsuma and Chōshū elements dominating the court and "freeing" young Emperor Meiji from their influence; the battle started when shogunate forces moved in the direction of Kyoto to deliver a letter from Yoshinobu, warning the Emperor of the intrigues plotted by Satsuma and the court nobles who supported it, such as Iwakura Tomomi. The 15,000-strong shogunal army outnumbered the Satsuma–Chōshū army by 3 to 1, consisted of men from the Kuwana and Aizu Domains, reinforced by Shinsengumi irregulars. Although some of its members were mercenaries, such as the Denshūtai, had received training from French military advisers; some of the men deployed in the front lines were armed with pikes and swords.
For example, the troops of Aizu had a combination of modern soldiers and samurai, as did the troops of Satsuma to a lesser degree. The Bakufu had fully equipped troops and Chōshū troops were the most modern and organized of all. According to historian Conrad Totman: "In terms of army organization and weaponry, the four main protagonists rank in this order: Chōshū was best. There was no defined intent to fight on the part of the shogunate troops, attested by the many empty rifles of the men in the vanguard. Motivation and leadership on the part of the shogunate seems to have been lacking. Although the forces of Chōshū and Satsuma were outnumbered, they were modernized with Armstrong howitzers, Minié rifles and one Gatling gun; the shogunate forces had been lagging in term of equipment, although a core elite force had been trained by the French military mission to Japan. The Shogun relied on troops supplied by allied domains, which were not as advanced in terms of military equipment and methods, making up an army that had both modern and outdated elements.
The British Navy supportive of Satsuma and Chōshū, maintained a strong fleet in Osaka harbour, a factor of uncertainty which forced the shogunate to maintain the garrison at Osaka with a significant part of its forces in reserve rather than commit them to the offensive in Kyōto. This foreign naval presence was related to the protection orders for the foreign settlements at Hyōgo, the recent opening of the ports of Hyōgo and Ōsaka by decree to foreign trade three weeks earlier on 1 January 1868. Amongst the foreign navies in Osaka bay were Admiral Henry Keppel and Admiral Henry H. Bell, of whom the latter was killed on 11 January 1868. Following the death of American Admiral Bell, the departure of Admiral Keppel for Yokohama the same day, the death of the British Consul at Hyōgo within the previous two weeks, the lines of communication having been broken between Totsubashi and the Imperial Seat, the prelude to the Boshin War had set in. Tokugawa Yoshinobu was in bed with a severe chill, could not participate directly in the operations.
On 27 January 1868 Tokugawa Yoshinobu, based at Osaka Castle, south of Kyoto, started to move his troops north to Kyoto, through two main roads, one being the Toba road, the other the Fushimi road. Altogether about 13,000 troops were moving forward, although they were spread out, leaving about 8,500 for the action at Toba–Fushimi; the overall commander of the operation was Takenaka Shigekata. The shogunate forces move in the direction of Toba under the command of Vice-Commander Ōkubo Tadayuki, making a total of 2,000 to 2,500 troops. At around 17:00, the shogunate vanguard, made up of about 400 men of the Mimawarigumi, armed with pikes and some firearms, under Sasaki Tadasaburo, approached a Satsuma-manned barrier post at the Koeda Bridge, Toba, they were followed by two infantry battalions, rifles empty as they did not expect a fight, under Tokuyama Kōtarō, further south by eight companies from Kuwana with four cannons. Some Matsuyama and Takamatsu troops and a few others were participating, but Bakufu cavalry and artillery seem to have been absent.
The Shōgun was the military dictator of Japan during the period from 1185 to 1868. The shogunate was their government. In most of this period, the shōguns were the de facto rulers of the country, although nominally they were appointed by the Emperor as a ceremonial formality; the shōguns held absolute power over territories through military means. An unusual situation occurred in the Kamakura period upon the death of the first shōgun, whereby the Hōjō clan's hereditary titles of shikken and tokusō dominated the shogunate as dictatorial positions, collectively known as the Regent Rule; the shōguns during this 134-year period met the same fate as the Emperor and were reduced to figurehead status until a coup d'état in 1333, when the shōgun was restored to power in the name of the Emperor. Shōgun is the short form of Sei-i Taishōgun, the individual governing the country at various times in the history of Japan, ending when Tokugawa Yoshinobu relinquished the office to Emperor Meiji in 1867; the tent symbolized the field commander but denoted that such an office was meant to be temporary.
The shōgun's officials were collectively the bakufu, were those who carried out the actual duties of administration, while the imperial court retained only nominal authority. In this context, the office of the shōgun had a status equivalent to that of a viceroy or governor-general, but in reality, shōguns dictated orders to everyone including the reigning Emperor. In contemporary terms, the role of the shōgun was equivalent to that of a generalissimo; the title of Sei-i Taishōgun was given to military commanders during the early Heian period for the duration of military campaigns against the Emishi, who resisted the governance of the Kyoto-based imperial court. Ōtomo no Otomaro was the first Sei-i Taishōgun. The most famous of these shōguns was Sakanoue no Tamuramaro. In the Heian period, one more shōgun was appointed. Minamoto no Yoshinaka was named sei-i taishōgun during the Genpei War, only to be killed shortly thereafter by Minamoto no Yoshitsune. In the early 11th century, daimyō protected by samurai came to dominate internal Japanese politics.
Two of the most powerful families – the Taira and Minamoto – fought for control over the declining imperial court. The Taira family seized control from 1160 to 1185, but was defeated by the Minamoto in the Battle of Dan-no-ura. Minamoto no Yoritomo seized power from the central government and aristocracy and established a feudal system based in Kamakura in which the private military, the samurai, gained some political powers while the Emperor and the aristocracy remained the de jure rulers. In 1192, Yoritomo was awarded the title of Sei-i Taishōgun by the Emperor and the political system he developed with a succession of shōguns as the head became known as a shogunate. Yoritomo's wife's family, the Hōjō, seized power from the Kamakura shōguns; when Yoritomo's sons and heirs were assassinated, the shōgun himself became a hereditary figurehead. Real power rested with the Hōjō regents; the Kamakura shogunate lasted for 150 years, from 1192 to 1333. In 1274 and 1281, the Mongol Empire launched invasions against Japan.
An attempt by Emperor Go-Daigo to restore imperial rule in the Kenmu Restoration in 1331 was unsuccessful, but weakened the shogunate and led to its eventual downfall. The end of the Kamakura shogunate came when Kamakura fell in 1333, the Hōjō Regency was destroyed. Two imperial families – the senior Northern Court and the junior Southern Court – had a claim to the throne; the problem was solved with the intercession of the Kamakura shogunate, who had the two lines alternate. This lasted until 1331, when Emperor Go-Daigo tried to overthrow the shogunate to stop the alternation; as a result, Daigo was exiled. Around 1334 -- 1336, Ashikaga Takauji helped; the fight against the shogunate left the Emperor with too many people claiming a limited supply of land. Takauji turned against the Emperor when the discontent about the distribution of land grew great enough. In 1336 Daigo was banished again, in favor of a new Emperor. During the Kenmu Restoration, after the fall of the Kamakura shogunate in 1333, another short-lived shōgun arose.
Prince Moriyoshi, son of Go-Daigo, was awarded the title of Sei-i Taishōgun. However, Prince Moriyoshi was put under house arrest and, in 1335, killed by Ashikaga Tadayoshi. In 1338, Ashikaga Takauji, like Minamoto no Yoritomo, a descendant of the Minamoto princes, was awarded the title of sei-i taishōgun and established the Ashikaga shogunate, which lasted until 1573; the Ashikaga had their headquarters in the Muromachi district of Kyoto, the time during which they ruled is known as the Muromachi period. While the title of Shōgun went into abeyance due to technical reasons, Oda Nobunaga and his successor, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who obtained the position of Imperial Regent, gained far greater power than any of their predecessors had. Hideyoshi is considered by many historians to be among Japan's greatest rulers. Tokugawa Ieyasu seized power and established a government at Edo in 1600, he received the title sei-i taishōgun in 1603, after he forged a family tree to show he was of Minamoto descent.
The Tokugawa shogunate lasted until 1867, when Tokugawa Yoshinobu resigned as shōgun and abdicated his authority to Emperor Meiji. Ieyasu set a precedent in 1605 when he retired as shōgun in favour of his son Tokugawa Hidetada, though he maintained power from b
Inaba Masakuni was a Japanese daimyō of the late-Edo period. In the Edo period, the Makino were identified as one of the fudai or insider daimyō clans which were hereditary vassals or allies of the Tokugawa clan, in contrast with the tozama or outsider clans; the fudai Inaba clan originated in Mino Province. They claim descent from Kōno Michitaka. Masakuni was part of the cadet branch of the Inaba, created in 1588; this branch is descended from Inaba Masanari, who fought in the armies of Nobunaga and Hideyoshi. In 1619, Masanari was granted the han of Itoigawa in Echigo Province. Masanari's descendants resided successively at Odawara Domain in Sagami Province from 1632 through 1685. Masakuni's heirs and others who were descendants of Inaba Masanari settled at Yodo Domain in Yamashiro Province from 1723 through 1868; the head of this clan line was ennobled as a "Viscount" in the Meiji period. Masakuni served in a variety of positions in the Tokugawa shogunate, he was the shōgun's representative, the Kyoto shoshidai in the period spanning July 26, 1863, through May 16, 1864.
During the Battle of Toba–Fushimi, he refused the entry of pro-Shogunate forces into Yodo, thus helped tip the balance in the favor of the Satsuma and Chōshū forces. He was made a viscount in the Meiji period, served as a Shinto priest and government official. Appert, Georges and H. Kinoshita.. Ancien Japon. Tokyo: Imprimerie Kokubunsha. Hank, Patrick, ed.. Dictionary of American Family Names. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-508137-4 Meyer, Eva-Maria.. Japans Kaiserhof in de Edo-Zeit: Unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Jahre 1846 bis 1867. Münster: Tagenbuch. ISBN 3-8258-3939-7 Papinot, Jacques Edmond Joseph. Dictionnaire d'histoire et de géographie du japon. Tokyo: Librarie Sansaisha... Click link for digitized 1906 Nobiliaire du japon Sasaki, Suguru.. Boshin sensō: haisha no Meiji ishin. Tokyo: Chūōkōron-shinsha. National Diet Library: NDL call number: YDM23880, photo of Edo residence of Yodo clan
The Matsudaira clan was a Japanese samurai clan that claimed descent from the Minamoto clan. It took its name from Matsudaira village, in Mikawa Province. Over the course of its history, the clan produced many branches, most of which are in Mikawa Province. In the 16th century, the main Matsudaira line experienced a meteoric rise to success during the direction of Matsudaira Motoyasu, who changed his name to Tokugawa Ieyasu and became the first Tokugawa shōgun. Ieyasu's line formed. Other branches were formed in the decades after Ieyasu; some of those branches were of daimyō status. After the Meiji Restoration and the abolition of the han system, the Tokugawa and Matsudaira clans became part of the new nobility; the Matsudaira clan originated in Mikawa Province. Its origins are uncertain, but in the Sengoku era, the clan claimed descent from the medieval Seiwa Genji branch of the Minamoto clan. According to this claim, the founder of the Matsudaira line was Matsudaira Chikauji, who lived in the 14th century and established himself in Mikawa Province, at Matsudaira village.
In its territory in Mikawa Province, the Matsudaira clan was surrounded by much more powerful neighbors. To the west was the territory of the Oda clan of Owari Province; each generation of Matsudaira family head had to negotiate his relationship with these neighbors. Before the Edo period, there were 19 major branches of the Matsudaira clan: Takenoya, Katanohara, Ōgusa, Nagasawa, Nōmi, Fukōzu, Ogyū, Fukama, Sakurai, Tōjō, Mitsugi, Nishi-Fukama, Yata and Kaga; each of these branches took its name from the area in Mikawa. Many of the branches fought with each other, it was the main Matsudaira line residing in Okazaki Castle which rose the highest during the Sengoku period. During the headship of Matsudaira Hirotada, it was threatened by the Oda and Imagawa clans, for a time was forcibly brought into Imagawa service. After the death of Imagawa Yoshimoto and the fall from power of the Imagawa clan, Hirotada's son Matsudaira Motoyasu was successful in forming an alliance with Oda Nobunaga, the hegemon of Owari Province.
Motoyasu is better known as Tokugawa Ieyasu, who became the first Tokugawa shōgun in 1603. Several of the pre-Edo branch families survived into the Edo period; the Takiwaki-Matsudaira family became daimyōs of the Ojima Domain, from 1868 to 1871, ruled the Sakurai Domain. The Nagasawa-Matsudaira known as the Ōkōchi-Matsudaira, had several branches, one of them ruled the Yoshida Domain of Mikawa Province. A prominent Nagasawa-Matsudaira is the early Edo-period politician Matsudaira Nobutsuna; the Fukōzu-Matsudaira ruled the Shimabara Domain. The Sakurai-Matsudaira ruled the Amagasaki Domain; the Ogyū-Matsudaira had many branches. Nagai Naoyuki was a prominent Bakumatsu-era descendant of the Ogyū-Matsudaira of Okutono. Other pre-Edo branches of the family became hatamoto; the Tokugawa surname was not granted to all of the sons of the shōgun or the heads of the six main Tokugawa branches. Only the inheritor received the Tokugawa name, while all of his siblings would receive the Matsudaira surname. For example, the last shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu was not the firstborn heir of his father.
Yoshinobu was known as Matsudaira Shichirōma during his minority. Some of these sons of the 3 main Tokugawa branches, formed their own families, received their own fiefs; these included Takamatsu, Fuchū, Moriyama. Notable Matsudaira of these branches include Matsudaira Yoritoshi of Takamatsu, Matsudaira Yoritaka of Fuchū. Yoritsune Matsudaira and his son Yoriaki Matsudaira, who were 20th-century composers, were descendants of the Matsudaira of Fuchū; the Yūki-Matsudaira clan was founded by Tokugawa Ieyasu's son Yūki Hideyasu. Several branches of the Yūki-Matsudaira came into existence during the Edo period. Though the Yūki-Matsudaira retained control of Kitanoshō, the main Yūki line was not there, but in Tsuyama instead. Branches of the family ruled the Fukui, Mori, Tsuyama, Akashi and Maebashi domains. Famous Yūki-Matsudaira include Matsudaira Naritami and Matsudaira Yoshinaga, two daimyōs of the late Edo period. Matsudaira Yoshinaga in particular was important to Japanese politics of the early Meiji period, his leadership put the Fukui Domain on the side of the victors in the Boshin War.
The Hisamatsu-Matsudaira clan was founded by Tokugawa Ieyasu's half-brother Hisamatsu Sadakatsu. Due to his close relation to Ieyasu, Sadakatsu was allowed the use of the Matsudaira surname; some of the branches of the Hisamatsu-Matsudaira were allowed the use of the Tokugawa family crest, as well as being formally recognized as Tokugawa relatives, rather than being a fudai family. Branches of the Hisamatsu-Matsudaira ruled the Kuwana and Iyo-Matsuyama domains. Famous Hisamatsu-Matsudaira include the political reformer Matsudaira Sadanobu, the final Kyoto Shoshidai Matsudaira Sadaaki, shogunate politician Itakura Katsukiyo. In the Meiji era, the heads of all the Hisamatsu-Matsudaira branches received titles in the new nobility; the Ochi-Matsudaira clan was founded by
Battle of Yamazaki
The Battle of Yamazaki was fought in 1582 in Yamazaki, located in current day Kyoto Prefecture. This battle is sometimes referred to as the Battle of Mt. Tennō. In the Honnō-ji Incident Akechi Mitsuhide, a retainer of Oda Nobunaga, attacked Nobunaga as he rested in Honnō-ji, forced him to commit seppuku. Mitsuhide took over Nobunaga's power and authority around the Kyoto area. Thirteen days Toyotomi Hideyoshi met Mitsuhide at Yamazaki and defeated him, avenging his lord and taking Nobunaga's authority and power for himself; when Nobunaga died, Hideyoshi was busy fighting the Mōri clan in the Siege of Takamatsu. After betraying and defeating Nobunaga at Honnō-ji, Mitsuhide sent a letter to the Mōri; the letter contained a request for an alliance to crush Hideyoshi, but the letter's messenger was intercepted by Hideyoshi's forces and the plot was revealed. Upon hearing news that Nobunaga had been killed, that Akechi Mitsuhide had taken command of his possessions, Hashiba Hideyoshi negotiated a peace treaty with the Mōri by demanding the seppuku of Shimizu Muneharu from Takamatsu, remained careful to keep Nobunaga's death a secret.
Once the treaty was secured, on 25 June he led his troops on a forced march towards Kyoto, covering up to 40 km a day, spending the night at his Himeji Castle, reaching Amagasaki on 29 June. Niwa Nagahide and Oda Nobutaka joined him. Akechi Mitsuhide controlled two castles in the Yamazaki region. Learning of the size of Hideyoshi's army and not wanting to be caught inside a castle with his force divided, Mitsuhide resolved to prepare for battle somewhere to the south. Due to its position between a river and a mountain, Yamazaki provided Mitsuhide with choke points that could ease the number of enemies his forces would have to face at any one time. Meanwhile, Hideyoshi decided that a wooded area called Mount Tennōzan, just outside the town of Yamazaki, was key to strategic control of the road to Kyoto, he sent a detachment under Nakagawa Kiyohide to secure this area, while he led the majority of the army to Yamazaki himself. His forces gained a significant advantage. Mitsuhide arranged his army behind a small river.
On the night of 1 July, Hideyoshi general's Nakamura Kazuuji and Horio Yoshiharu, sent a number of ninja into the Mitsuhide camp, setting fire to buildings and causing fear and confusion. On the following morning, the main fighting began as Hideyoshi's men began to form up along the opposite shore of the Enmyōji-gawa from the enemy, a portion of Mitsuhide's samurai, led by Matsuda Masachika and Nabika Kamon, crossed the river, seeking to make their way up the wooded Tennōzan hill, they were driven back by arquebus fire, so Hideyoshi felt confident enough to launch the right wing of his forces, under the command of Kato Mitsuyasu and Ikeda Tsuneoki, across the river, into Mitsuhide's front lines. They made some progress, were soon joined by the left wing, with support from atop Mount Tennōzan; the majority of Mitsuhide's men fled, with the exception of the 200 men under Mimaki Kaneaki, who charged and were destroyed by Hideyoshi's larger force. Soon, panic set in among the Akechi army, Hideyoshi's army chased them back to Shōryūji, where the garrison collapsed.
Mitsuhide himself fled much further, to the town of Ogurusu, where he was killed by a gang of bandits. The Battle of Yamazaki is the final stage of Akechi Mitsuhide in Samurai Warriors and the first stage of Toyotomi Hideyoshi in Samurai Warriors 2, it features as a campaign map in The Conquerors expansion of the real-time strategy game Age of Empires II. The battle is the basis for the Sonny Chiba martial arts film Shogun's Ninja