Princess Hayu is fourth child and daughter of Sultan Hamengkubuwana X of Yogyakarta and his consort, Ratu Hemas. She is married to Prince Notonegoro, an executive in United Nations Development Programme Indonesia and a professional in the United Nations, New York, United States. Princess Hayu was born in Yogyakarta on 24 December 1983, she is the fourth daughter of five siblings: 1. Princess Pembayun, 2. Princess Condrokirono, 3. Princess Maduretno, 4. Princess Hayu and 5. Princess Bendara, she spend her early childhood in Yogyakarta. One of her particular interest when she was a child was game puzzles and Lego. In her adolescent days, she enjoyed sports roller-skating, she won a gold medal. Princess Hayu, attended junior high school in Australia for a year before returning to Indonesia, she continued her studies at SMAN 3 Padmanaba Highschool Yogyakarta, a high school, attended by her husband Prince Notonegoro. After spending a year in Padmanaba Highschool, she moved to Singapore and went to the International School of Singapore.
Following her graduation from high school, Hayu decided to study Information Technology. She took a Computer Science Major at Stevens Institute of Technology, in the US, before moving to Bournemouth University in England to study Design and IT Project Management. Hayu's marriage to Prince Notonegoro received heavy public attention since the engagement was announced on 20 June 2013 The couple had been dating for 10 years and knew each other from young age as their mothers are friends. Hayu's mother Ratu Hemas requested Noto to help her daughter when she started attending college in the US. Notonegoro, pursuing a graduate study in the US at that time, met the princess in New York and the romance began there. Since Hayu was the last one to get married, the wedding was arranged as a cultural event for the people in Yogyakarta. While the previous royal weddings only involved a parade of five royal horse carriages, Hayu's wedding had twelve horse carriages to transport all the member of the Royal Family of Yogyakarta.
The wedding manage to boost tourism in Yogyakarta, a touristic destination in the first place. On 22 October 2013, Princess Hayu was married to Prince Notonegoro; the royal wedding of Yogyakarta Palace was conducted in three consecutive days. Thousands of guests attended the royal wedding including the President of the Republic of Indonesia Mr. Susilo Bambang YudhoyonoConsistent with the Muslim tradition, the wedding solemnisation ritual Ijab qabul was conducted by the Sultan himself without the presence of the bride; the wedding vow was conducted in archaic Javanese language which translates as: "I, Prince Notonegoro, today carry out your Highness's command to marry your daughter Gusti Kanjeng Ratu Hayu with the Holy Quran and a set of prayer outfits as a dowry." At the culmination of the wedding Princess Hayu and Prince Notonegoro were paraded in the city. Thousands of people turned out to witness this parade. Following her graduation from college, Princess Hayu worked at a software house in Jakarta as a project manager for internet banking.
After three years in this business, she moved to her hometown Yogyakarta and became a game producer for Gameloft, a global game company. She is now serve as the chief of Tepas Tandha Yekti, a new department in the Palace which manages IT and documentation affairs. Hayu's figure as a professional worker has changed people's perceptions about the role and status of women in the Javanese royal court. Princess Hayu was seen as a modern independent woman which negates the image of woman being subservient in Javanese culture among royals. Hayu's professional career 2007-2008: Microsoft Indonesia – Internship Programme 2009-2012: Aprisma Indonesia – Project Manager 2012-2013: Gameloft Indonesia – HD Game Producer 2012–present: Tepas Tandhayekti – Penghageng 24 December 1983 – 7 March 1989: Princess Nurabra Juwita 7 March 1989 – 12 August 2013: The Princess Nurabra Juwita 12 August 1989 – present: The Princess Hayu Hayu and Notonegoro's wedding A Royal Wedding in Indonesia The Royal Wedding Indonesia gets set Indonesia Royal Wedding Indonesia celebrate wedding of Sri Sultan Hamengkubowono X's daughter Thv11.com 27 photos from the Royal Wedding in Indonesia Pictures of Gusti Kanjeng Ratu Hayu gets married Video on YouTube, Yogyakarta Royal Wedding 2013 Video on YouTube, Parade Royal Wedding Yogyakarta 2013
Kraton or Keraton is the Javanese word for a royal palace. Its name is derived from ka-ratu-an. Ratu is the traditional honorific title to refer the "ruler". In Java, the palace of a prince is called dalem; the general word to designate a palace is istana, as in Malay. Kraton that function as the residence of a royal family include: Yogyakarta region Kraton Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat. Puro Pakualaman. Surakarta region Kraton Surakarta Hadiningrat. Puro Mangkunegaran. Cirebon area Kraton Kasepuhan. Kraton Kanoman. Kraton Kacirebonan; the locations of former kraton have been determined by archaeological efforts. Former kraton include: Kraton Ratu Boko, east of Yogyakarta in the Prambanan area; the structure dates from 9th century and is thought to belong to the Sailendra or Mataram Kingdom, however local inhabitants named this site after King Boko, the legendary king in Loro Jongrang folklore. Kraton of Majapahit in Trowulan, the capital of the former Majapahit. Sites such as Pendopo Agung Majapahit are thought to be remnants of the Kraton of Majapahit.
In Banten region there are remnants of the Sultanate of Banten's palaces: Kraton Surosowan, former royal palace of Sultanate of Banten. Kraton Kaibon, the former palace of queen mother. In Surakarta and Yogyakarta region, there is the remnants of Sultanate of Mataram palaces: Kota Gede remains of a palace from the 16th century. Karta and Plered, there are remains of palaces from the 17th century. Kraton Kartasura on the outskirt of Surakarta, remains of palace and city wall dated from 17th century; the term kraton'palace' is used as a way to refer to the court which it houses. This is the case for native Indonesian states where the succession is disputed, giving issue to two or more branches of the dynasty, or rivaling dynasties, each setting up an alternative court, while competing for the same state, but only controlling part of it. An example is the West-Javan state of Cirebon, founded in 1478 and since 1662 was ruled from three Kraton: Kraton Kasepuhan, using as the ruler's style Sultan Kraton Kanoman, style Sultan Kraton Kacirebonan, style Sultan List of palaces Istana Cirebon Yogyakarta Surakarta Crown jewels for current palaces outside of Java but in Indonesia List of Indonesian monarchies Palaces Miksic, John, et al.
Karaton Surakarta. A look into the court of Surakarta Hadiningrat, central Java Marshall Cavendish Editions Singapore ISBN 981-261-226-2 WorldSatesmen - Indonesia - Princely States
Princess Mangkubumi is the first child and daughter of Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono X of Yogyakarta and his consort, Ratu Hemas. On 5 May 2015 she was proclaimed Crown Princess by her father, she married a businessman and philanthropist. Princess Mangkubumi was born in Bogor on 24 February 1972, she is the first of five siblings. She spend her early childhood in Yogyakarta, she went to BOPKRI 1 high school and continued her high school education in ISS International School in Singapore. She went to college in California, USA, before completing her undergraduate study in Griffith University in Brisbane, Australia. Princess Mangkubumi married Prince Wironegoro on May 28, 2002. Since she is the first princess this gained a lot of public attention; the Javanese rituals and ceremonies in this wedding have been codified as future reference for the wedding of her younger siblings. Before the wedding, in line with the palace tradition, new name and title were bestowed by the Sultan to the first princess. Known as Gusti Raden Ajeng Nurmalitasari, the Princess was dubbed Gusti Kanjeng Ratu Pembayun the customary title awarded to the first daughter of the Sultan.
This title was bestowed in a ceremony. In the meanwhile, the bridegroom was bestowed a new name and title Kanjeng Pangeran Haryo Wironegoro. With the new title, the princess assume new office as the most senior princess who take precedence over other female family members and relatives of the Sultan, she is charged with the responsibilities to lead all female royal staff. The wedding ceremonies started with the ritual called "Nyantri", whereby the bridegroom Prince Wironegoro enter the palace on May 27, 2002. In line with the tradition, The Sultan himself officiated the wedding between his daughter and Prince Wironegoro; the ceremony "panggih" as the main event of the wedding was witnessed by the country's high level officials including the president Megawati Soekarnoputri as well as ambassadors from other countries. After the panggih ceremonies, both brides and groom were paraded in a kirab ceremony; as the oldest princess, Mangkubumi has to go around the palace wall on the royal carriage Kanjeng Kyai Jongwiyat.
This wedding parade has never been conducted since the reign of the 8th Sultan. Therefore, hundreds of thousands of people from around the country come to witness the procession; this wedding ceremony follows hundred of years traditions and further replicated during the wedding of her younger sisters Princess Maduretno, Princess Hayu dan Princess Bendoro She has two children: 1) R. A. Artie Ayya Fatimasari Wironegoro and 2) R. M. Drasthya Wironegoro, her firstborn "Artie" has gone through rites of passage tetesan on 22 December 2013 and tarapan both rituals signify her daughter has reached the age of majority. Princess Mangkubumi established the Animal Conservation Center Yogyakarta to protect animals the orang utan, she works with private sector and media from Luxembourg. She is active in conservation of the Javanese eagle. Princess Mangkubumi has served as the chairman of Karangtaruna of Yogyakarta Province for 10 years where she directed to organization to harness leadership and improved livelhood of youth.
In collaboration with UNFPA and national agency for family planning she is active on promoting youth reproduction health and gender equality. She sits as honorary board member of the Red Cross Chapter; as an activist in social works, Princess Mangkubumi has been awarded the honor "Wanita Tak Terpatahkan" for her works in empowering women in the remote villages. In 2015, Princess Pembayun was elected as the head of the Scout Movement for the Province of Yogyakarta. In the interview that took place right after her official appointment, she mentioned her intention to promote Scout Movement in Yogyakarta and widen their outreach, she mentioned her intention to further promote Scout Movement for disaster preparedness and awareness. At the beginning of 2012, Princess Mangkubumi present a proposal to establish Yogyakarta as the first cyber province; this proposal was further revealed. In the same forum she further commit herself to bring mobilize 1 million student for deforestation. Apart from being involved in various social activities, Princess Mangkubumi serves as Director of PT.
Yogyakarta Tembakau Indonesia, established to reduce the number of unemployment in the region. She is director of PT. Yarsilk Gora Mahottama, President Commissioner of PT Madubaru. In August 2015 the chamber of commerce of Yogyakarta elected Mangkubumi as the chairman. In her inaugural speech she mentioned her vision to advance the economy of yogyakarta by promoting local industry and reducing dependency to foreign support. Corporate position President Commissioner - PT Madubaru President Commissioner - PT Mataram Mitra Manunggal President Commissioner - PT Yogyakarta Tembakau Indonesia President Director PT Yarsilk Gora Mahottama Roles and positions in organizations 2002–2012: Head of Karang Taruna Yogyakarta Province 2003–2011: Head of BPD AKU Yogyakarta Province 2003–2008: Vice Chairman International Association of Wild Silk Moth 2005–2009: Head of Cooperation Aku Sejahtera 2006–2010: Head of advisory board Royal Silk Association 2002–2006: Vice Chairman Natural Silk Community 2002–2006: Vice Chairman Handicraft association 2006–2010: Chairman Wilderness Silk Community Indonesia 2006–2011: Head of Market traders association DIY
An heir apparent or heiress apparent is a person, first in a line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person. An heir presumptive, by contrast, is someone, first in line to inherit a title but who can be displaced by the birth of a more eligible heir. Today these terms most describe heirs to hereditary titles or offices when only inheritable by a single person. Most monarchies refer to the heir apparent of their thrones with the descriptive term of crown prince but these heirs may be accorded with a more specific substantive title, such as Prince of Orange in the Netherlands, Duke of Brabant in Belgium, Prince of Asturias in Spain, or Prince of Wales in the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. In France the title was le Dauphin, in Imperial Russia; the term is used metaphorically to indicate an "anointed" successor to any position of power, e.g. a political or corporate leader. This article describes the term heir apparent in a hereditary system regulated by laws of primogeniture—as opposed to cases where a monarch has a say in naming the heir.
In a hereditary system governed by some form of primogeniture, an heir apparent is identifiable as the person whose position as first in the line of succession to a title or office is secure, regardless of future births. An heir presumptive, by contrast, can always be "bumped down" in the succession by the birth of somebody more related in a legal sense to the current title-holder; the clearest example occurs in the case of a holder of a hereditary title, one that can only be inherited by a single person, with no children. If at any time he were to produce children, they rank ahead of whatever more "distant" relative had been heir presumptive. Many legal systems assume childbirth is always possible regardless of health. In such circumstances a person may be, in a practical sense, the heir apparent but still speaking, heir presumptive. Indeed, when Queen Victoria succeeded her uncle King William IV, the wording of the proclamation gave as a caveat:...saving the rights of any issue of his late Majesty King William IV, which may be born of his late Majesty's consort.
This provided for the possibility that William's wife, Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, was pregnant at the moment of his death, since such a posthumous child, regardless of its sex, would have displaced Victoria from the throne. Adelaide was 44 at the time, so pregnancy was possible if unlikely. Daughters may inherit titles that descend according to male-preference primogeniture, but only in default of sons; that is, both female and male offspring have the right to a place somewhere in the order of succession, but when it comes to what that place is, a female will rank behind her brothers regardless of their ages or her age. Thus even an only daughter will not be heir apparent, since at any time a brother might be born who, though younger, would assume that position. Hence, she is an heir presumptive. For example, Queen Elizabeth II was heir presumptive during the reign of her father, King George VI, because at any stage up to his death, George could have fathered a legitimate son. In a system of absolute primogeniture that disregards gender, female heirs apparent occur.
As succession to titles, positions, or offices in the past most favoured males than females, females considered to be an heir apparent were rare. Absolute primogeniture was not practised by any modern monarchy for succession to their thrones until the late twentieth century with Sweden being the first to adopt absolute primogeniture in 1980 and other Western European monarchies following suit. Since the adoption of absolute primogeniture by contemporary Western European monarchies, examples of female heirs apparent include: Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden, Princess Catharina-Amalia of the Netherlands, Princess Elisabeth of Belgium. Princess Ingrid Alexandra of Norway is heir apparent to her father, Victoria herself has a female heir apparent in her oldest child, Princess Estelle. Victoria was not heir apparent from birth, but gained the status in 1980 following a change in the Swedish Act of Succession, her younger brother Carl Philip was thus heir apparent for a few months. In 2015, pursuant to the 2011 Perth Agreement, the Commonwealth realms changed the rules of succession to the 16 thrones of Elizabeth II to absolute primogeniture, except for male heirs born before the Perth Agreement.
The effects are not to be felt for many years. But in legal systems that apply male-preference primogeniture, female heirs apparent are by no means impossible: if a male heir apparent dies leaving no sons but at least one daughter the eldest daughter would replace her father as heir apparent to whatever throne or title is concerned, but only when it has become clear that the widow of the deceased is not pregnant; as the representative of her father's line she would assume a place ahead of any more distant relatives. Such a situation has not to date occurred with the British throne.
Hamengkubuwono IX or HB IX. Born as Raden Mas Dorodjatun in Sompilan, Yogyakarta to Gusti Pangeran Haryo Puruboyo and Raden Ajeng Kustillah, when he was three years old he was named Crown Prince to the Yogyakarta Sultanate after his father ascended to the throne and became Sultan Hamengkubuwono VIII. Hamengkubuwono IX had a Western education; when he was four, he was sent away to live with a Dutch family. After completing his primary and secondary education in 1931, Hamengkubuwono IX left Dutch East Indies to attend the Leiden University in the Netherlands. There Hamengkubuwono IX took Indonesian economics, he returned to his native land in 1939. With the death of Hamengkubuwono VIII in October 1939, Hamengkubuwono ascended to the throne with a coronation ceremony on 18 March 1940, his full title in Javanese was Sampéyan Dalêm Ingkang Sinuwún Kanjêng Sultan Hamêngkubuwónó Sénópati Íng Alogó Ngabdurråkhman Sayidin Panåtågåmå Khålifatullåh Ingkang Kapíng Sångå. In English, his title would be: His Highness Sultan Hamengkubuwono the Ninth, Commander-in-chief in war, Servant of the Most Gracious and Caliph that Safeguards the Religion.
During his coronation speech, Hamengkubuwono recognized his Javanese origins and said "Even though I have tasted Western Education, I am still and will always be a Javanese."The 28-year-old young Sultan negotiated terms and conditions with the 60-year-old governor, Dr Lucien Adam, for four months from November 1939 to February 1940. The main points of contention were: The Sultan did not agree that his prime minister would be be an employee of the Netherlands to avoid a conflict of interest; the Sultan did not agree. The Sultan did not agree; the Sultan agreed to the proposal by the government of the Netherlands, in February 1942, the Netherlands surrendered Indonesia to the invading Japanese army. In 1942, the Dutch Colonial Government in Indonesia was defeated by the Japanese Imperial Army; as the Japanese Imperial Army consolidated their hold on Indonesia, many suggested that Hamengkubuwono IX evacuate himself and seek asylum in Australia or the Netherlands. Hamengkubuwono IX refused this offer, insisting that Sultan had to stay close to his people in times of crisis.
In fact, he saved his people from being sent to Burma to become romusha forced-laborers, by asking the Japanese to allow the building of a water canal. Directly after the declaration of Indonesian independence at 17 August 1945, Hamengkubuwono IX together with Paku Alam VIII, the Prince of Pakualaman decided to support the newly formed Republic. Hamengkubuwono IX's support was recognized by the Central Government with an appointment to the Life-Governorship of Yogyakarta with Paku Alam VIII as vice governor. Yogyakarta's status was upgraded to that of Special Region. In addition, Hamengkubuwono IX served as Yogyakarta's military governor and was minister of the state from 1945 to 1949; the Dutch returned to lay claim to their former colony. Hamengkubuwono IX played a vital role in the resistance. In early 1946, the capital of Indonesia was relocated to Yogyakarta, in that time the Sultan gave the new government some funds; when Indonesia first sought a diplomatic solution with the Dutch Government, Hamengkubuwono IX was part of the Indonesian delegation.
On 21 December 1948, the Dutch occupied Yogyakarta and arrested Soekarno and Hatta, Indonesia's first president and vice president. Hamengkubuwono IX continued to serve as governor; the Dutch intended to make Yogyakarta the capital of the new Indonesian federal state of Central Java and to appoint the sultan as head of state, but Hamengkubuwono refused to cooperate. The Dutch viewed him with suspicion and at one stage began to entertain the idea that Hamengkubuwono IX was either planning to make Yogyakarta a autonomous region or setting his eyes on the leadership of the Republic. In early 1949, Hamengkubuwono IX conceived the idea of a major offensive to be launched against Yogyakarta and the Dutch troops occupying it; the purpose of this offensive was to show to the world that Indonesia still existed and that it was not ready to surrender. The idea was suggested to General Sudirman, the Commander of the Indonesian Army and received his approval. In February 1949, Hamengkubuwono IX had a meeting with Lieutenant Colonel Suharto, the man chosen by Sudirman to be the field commander for the offensive.
After this discussion, preparations were made for the offensive. This involved intensified guerilla attacks in villages and towns around Yogyakarta so as to make the Dutch station more troops outside of Yogyakarta and thin the numbers in the city itself. On 1 March 1949 at 6 am, Suharto and his troops launched the 1 March General Offensive; the offensive caught the Dutch by surprise. For his part, Hamengkubuwono IX allowed his palace to be used as a hide out for the troops. For 6 hours, the Indonesian troops had control of Yogyakarta before retreating; the offensive was inspiring demoralized troops all around Indonesia. On 30 June 1949, the retreating Dutch forces handed over authority over Yogyakarta to Hamengkubuwono. On 27 December after the transfer of sovereignty was signed by Queen Juliana in Dam Palace in Amsterdam, High Commissioner A. H. J. Lovink transferred his powers to Hamengkubuwono during a ceremony in Jakarta in Koningsplein Palace renamed Merdeka Palace. After Indonesia's Independence wa
President of Indonesia
The President of the Republic of Indonesia is the head of state and head of government of the Republic of Indonesia. The president leads the executive branch of the Indonesian government and is the commander-in-chief of the Indonesian National Armed Forces. On 20 October 2014, Joko Widodo became the current president of Indonesia; the Indonesian presidency was established during the formulation of the 1945 Constitution by the Investigating Committee for Preparatory Work for Independence. The office was first filled on 18 August 1945 when Sukarno was elected by acclamation by the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence because according to the Provisional Act Section 3, "President and the Vice President for the first time elected by PPKI." The body responsible for the presidential elections, the People's Consultative Assembly, had not yet been formed. On 16 October 1945, Vice-President Mohammad Hatta announced a vice-presidential decree which turned the Central National Committee of Indonesia equal status with that of the president.
On 11 November 1945, the KNIP made the decision to separate the role of Head of State with that of Head of Government. Although a new constitution had not been set up yet, Indonesia was now a de facto parliamentary democracy with the president as a ceremonial Head of State whose function was to ask the prime minister as the Head of the Government to form a new Cabinet. During the Indonesian National Revolution, both Sukarno and Hatta were captured by the Dutch in Yogyakarta on 18 December 1948. Sukarno gave a mandate for Sjafruddin Prawiranegara to form an emergency Government; this was done and the Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia was formed in Sumatra with Prawiranegara as its chairman. Prawiranegara handed back his mandate to Sukarno on 13 July 1949. On 17 December 1949, Sukarno was elected president of the Republic of the United States of Indonesia and presidential mandate passed to Assaat; when it became clear that RIS was going to be replaced by a unitary state, Asaat stepped down from the presidency and Sukarno once again became president on 15 August 1950.
Indonesia now adopted the constitution, intended for RIS. Known as the Provisional Constitution, the document confirmed the president's role as the head of state, but limited him to a ceremonial role, he appointed a prime minister on the advice of formateurs. Despite his limited constitutional role, Sukarno commanded great moral authority. Nonetheless, he was never content with the role of ceremonial sead of State, grew disenchanted with western-style parliamentary democracy. In the early 1950s, he began calling for the implementation of "Guided Democracy," in which decisions would be made after lengthy deliberation with a view toward achieving a consensus under presidential "guidance." The rest of the decade saw a series of unstable governments. Taking advantage of the situation, Sukarno made a speech in April 1959 and suggested that Indonesia return to the 1945 Constitution; the People reacted enthusiastically and there was strong pressure on the Constitutional Assembly, the body responsible for formulating a new constitution, to adopt the 1945 Constitution.
When the assembly did not budge, Sukarno issued a presidential decree on 5 July 1959 declaring that Indonesia was returning to the 1945 Constitution. That document made the president head of government as well as head of state. In May 1963, the People's Consultative Assembly appointed Sukarno president for Life. Although Indonesia had re-adopted the 1945 Constitution, it did not mean that it was adhered to; the MPR, which at this stage was still on a provisional basis, was subservient to the president despite its status of the Nation's highest Governing Body. It was only in 1966, when the political tide began to turn against Sukarno that the MPRS nominally regained its rightful constitutional status. All throughout his rise to power, General Suharto seemed determined to do things constitutionally and that determination seemed to continue when he became president in 1967. Suharto allowed the MPR to execute its constitutional duty of formulating the Broad Outlines of State Policy whilst he as the president would be responsible for implementing GBHN.
Suharto made it a presidential obligation to deliver accountability speeches towards the end of his terms. During the speech, Suharto outlined the achievements that his administration had made and how those achievements had adhered to the GBHN set by the MPR. Despite the constitutional and democratic façade, Suharto made sure that the MPR was subservient to him. In 1969, a law was passed that required appointments to the MPR to be made official by the president, he took measures that emasculated the opposition parties. For example, he had the power to issue governmental regulations in lieu of law, which nominally had to be approved by the House of People's Representatives. However, given the DPR's infrequent sessions and the near-total dominance of the pro-government political grouping, such approval was a mere formality. Thus, for all intents and purposes, Suharto ruled by decree for most of his tenure. For the better part of Suharto's rule, he held all governing power in the nation. Suharto fell from power in May 1998 and the presidency experienced changes as a result of the reform movement.
Compared to Suharto, who had all of his accountability speeches accepted, B. J. Habibie had his only accountability speech rejected. Abdurrahman Wahid became the first president who had to beat another candidate to be elected, as Sukarno and Suharto had been sole candidates; as a result of this, Wahid was the
The Javanese people are an ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Java. With 100 million people, they form the largest ethnic group in Indonesia, they are predominantly located in the central to eastern parts of the island. There are significant numbers of people of Javanese descent in most provinces of Indonesia, Singapore, Saudi Arabia and the Netherlands; the Javanese ethnic group has many sub-groups, such as the Mataram, Osing, Samin, Banyumasan, etc. A majority of the Javanese people identify themselves as Muslims, with a minority identifying as Christians and Hindus. However, Javanese civilization has been influenced by more than a millennium of interactions between the native animism Kejawen and the Indian Hindu—Buddhist culture, this influence is still visible in Javanese history, culture and art forms. With a sizeable global population, the Javanese are considered significant as they are the fourth largest ethnic group among Muslims, in the world, after the Arabs and Punjabis.
Like most Indonesian ethnic groups, including the Sundanese of West Java, the Javanese are of Austronesian origins whose ancestors are thought to have originated in Taiwan, migrated through the Philippines to reach Java between 1,500BC and 1,000BC. However, according to recent genetic study, Javanese together with Sundanese and Balinese has equal ratio of genetic marker shared between Austronesian and Austroasiatic heritages. Hindu and Buddhist influences arrived through trade contacts with the Indian subcontinent. Hindu and Buddhist - traders and visitors, arrived in the 5th century; the Hindu and Javanese faiths blended into a unique local philosophy. The cradle of Javanese culture is described as being in Kedu and Kewu Plain in the fertile slopes of Mount Merapi as the heart of the Medang i Bhumi Mataram kingdom; the earliest Sanjaya and Sailendra dynasties had their power base there. The centre of Javanese culture and politics was moved towards the eastern part of the island when Mpu Sindok moved the capital of the kingdoms eastward to the valleys of the Brantas River in the 10th century CE.
The move was most caused by the volcanic eruption of Merapi and/or invasion from Srivijaya. The major spread of Javanese influence occurred under King Kertanegara of Singhasari in the late 13th century; the expansionist king launched several major expeditions to Madura, Bali in 1284, Borneo and most to Sumatra in 1275. Following the defeat of the Melayu Kingdom, Singhasari controlled trade in the Strait of Malacca. Singhasari dominance was cut short in 1292 by Kediri's rebellion under Jayakatwang, killing Kertanegara. However, Jayakatwang's reign as king of Java soon ended as he was defeated by Kertanegara's son-in-law, Raden Wijaya with the help of invading Mongol troops in March 1293. Raden Wijaya would establish Majapahit near the delta of the Brantas River in modern-day Mojokerto, East Java. Kertanegara policies were continued by the Majapahits under King Hayam Wuruk and his minister Gajah Mada. Various kingdoms of Java were involved in the spice trade in the sea route of the Silk Road. Although not major spice producers, these kingdoms were able to stockpile spice by trading for it with rice, of which Java was a major producer.
Majapahit is regarded as the greatest of these kingdoms. It was both a maritime power, combining wet-rice cultivation and foreign trade; the ruin of their capital can be found in Trowulan. Islam gained its foothold in port towns on Java's northern coast such as Gresik, Ampel Denta, Tuban and Kudus; the spread and proselytising of Islam among the Javanese was traditionally credited to Wali Songo. Java underwent major changes as Islam spread. Following succession disputes and civil wars, Majapahit power collapsed. After this collapse, its various dependencies and vassals broke free; the Sultanate of Demak became the new strongest power, gaining supremacy among city-states on the northern coast of Java. Aside from its power over Javanese city-states, it gained overlordship of the ports of Jambi and Palembang in eastern Sumatra. Demak played a major role in opposing the newly arrived colonial power, the Portuguese. Demak twice attacked the Portuguese following their capture of Malacca, they attacked the allied forces of the Portuguese and the Sunda Kingdom, establishing in the process the Sultanate of Banten.
Demak was succeeded by the Kingdom of Pajang and the Sultanate of Mataram. The centre of power moved from coastal Demak, to Pajang in Blora, further inland to Mataram lands in Kotagede, near present-day Yogyakarta; the Mataram Sultanate reached its peak of power and influence during the reign of Sultan Agung Hanyokrokusumo between 1613 and 1645. In 1619 the Dutch established their trading headquarter in Batavia. Java fell to the Dutch East India Company, which would eventually control most of Maritime Southeast Asia; the internal intrigue and war of succession, in addition to Dutch interference, caused the Mataram Sultanate to break up into Surakarta and Yogyakarta. The further separation of the Javanese realm was marked by the establishment of the Mangkunegaran and Pakualaman princedom. Although the real political power in those days lay with the colonial Dutch, the Javanese kings, in their keratons, still held prestige as the supposed power centre of the Javanese realm in and around Surakarta and Yogyakarta.
Dutch rule was interrupted by British rule in the early 19th century. While short, the British administration led by Stamford Raffles was significant, included t