Among animals which produce eggs, the yolk is the nutrient-bearing portion of the egg whose primary function is to supply food for the development of the embryo. Some types of egg contain no yolk, for example because they are laid in situations where the food supply is sufficient or because the embryo develops in the parent's body, which supplies the food through a placenta. Reproductive systems in which the mother's body supplies the embryo directly are said to be matrotrophic. In many species, such as all birds, most reptiles and insects, the yolk takes the form of a special storage organ constructed in the reproductive tract of the mother. In many other animals very small species such as some fishes and invertebrates, the yolk material is not in a special organ, but inside the egg cell; as stored food, yolks are rich in vitamins, minerals and proteins. The proteins function as food in their own right, in regulating the storage and supply of the other nutrients. For example, in some species the amount of yolk in an egg cell affects the developmental processes that follow fertilization.
The yolk is not living cell material like protoplasm, but passive material, to say deutoplasm. The food material and associated control structures are supplied during oogenesis; some of the material is stored more or less in the form in which the maternal body supplied it as processed by dedicated non-germ tissues in the egg, while part of the biosynthetic processing into its final form happens in the oocyte itself. Apart from animals, other organisms, like algae, specially in the oogamous, can accumulate resources in their female gametes. In gymnosperms, the remains of the female gametophyte serve as food supply, in flowering plants, the endosperm. In avian eggs, the yolk is a hue of yellow in color, it is spherical and is suspended in the egg white by one or two spiral bands of tissue called the chalazae. The yolk mass, together with the ovum proper are enclosed by the vitelline membrane, whose structure is different from a cell membrane; the yolk is extracellular to the oolemma, being not accumulated inside the cytoplasm of the egg cell, contrary to the claim that the avian ovum and its yolk are a single giant cell.
After the fertilization, the cleavage of the embryo leads to the formation of the germinal disc. As food, the chicken egg yolk is a major source of minerals, it contains all of the egg's fat and cholesterol, nearly half of the protein. If left intact when an egg is fried, the yellow yolk surrounded by a flat blob of egg white creates a distinctive "sunny-side up" form. Mixing the two components together before cooking results in a pale yellow mass, as in omelets and scrambled eggs; the developing embryo inside the egg uses the yolk as sustenance. It is at times separated from the egg white for cooking, is employed as an emulsifier, is used in mayonnaise, hollandaise sauce, crème brûlée, avgolemono and ovos moles, it is used in painting as a component of traditional egg-tempera. It is used in the production of egg yolk agar plate medium, useful in testing for the presence of Clostridium perfringens. Egg yolk contains; the antibody transfers from the laying hen to the egg yolk by passive immunity to protect both embryo and hatchling from microorganism invasion.
Egg yolk can be used to make liqueurs such as eggnog. Egg yolk is used to extract egg oil which has various cosmetic and medicinal uses; the yolk makes up about 33% of the liquid weight of the egg. The yolk of one large egg (56.7 g total, 17.6 g yolk. All of the fat-soluble vitamins are found in the egg yolk. Egg yolk is one of the few foods containing vitamin D; the composition of the most prevalent fatty acids in egg yolk is: Unsaturated fatty acids: Oleic acid, 47% Linoleic acid, 16% Palmitoleic acid, 5% Linolenic acid, 2% Saturated fatty acids: Palmitic acid, 23% Stearic acid, 4% Myristic acid, 1%Egg yolk is a source of lecithin, as well as egg oil, for cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. Based on weight, egg yolk contains about 9% lecithin; the yellow color is due to lutein and zeaxanthin, which are yellow or orange carotenoids known as xanthophylls. The different yolk's proteins have distinct roles. Phosvitins are important in sequestering calcium and other cations for the developing embryo.
Phosvitins are one of the most phosphorylated proteins in nature. Lipovitellins are involved in lipid and metal storage, contain a heterogeneous mixture of about 16% noncovalently bound lipid, most being phospholipid. Lipovitellin-1 contains two chains, LV1N and LV1C. Yolks hold more than 90% of the calcium, phosphorus, thiamine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid of the egg. In addition, yolks cover all of the fat-soluble vitamins: A, D, E, K in the egg, as well as all of the essential fatty acids. A single yolk from a large egg contains 22 mg of calcium, 66 mg of phosphorus, 9.5 micrograms of selenium, 19 mg of potassium, according to the USDA. Double-yolk eggs occur when ovulation occurs too or when one yolk becomes joined with another yolk; these eggs may be the result of a young hen's r
Tobacco Factory Theatres is located on the first floor of the Tobacco Factory building on the corner of North Street and Raleigh Road, Southville in Bristol, England. The theatre itself is a studio-style space, with a low ceiling and fixed grid with structural pillars which intrude into the acting area. There is a dance studio and Box Office; the theatre can seat up to 350 people, although it has a capacity of about 250. The programme includes classic and contemporary theatre, dance, film, opera and family shows. In 2012 over 100,000 people came through the theatre doors and the theatre is attracting national critical acclaim. Tobacco was the main industry in South Bristol from the beginning of the twentieth century and at its peak around 40% of the local workforce worked in the Imperial Tobacco Factory; the relocation of Imperial Tobacco in the 1980s was devastating to the local area, causing massive unemployment and deprivation. The Tobacco Factory building itself fell into disrepair but was renewed from the late 1990s when George Ferguson acquired the building, inviting Show of Strength Theatre Company to use part of the first floor as a theatre space.
The building became a mixed-use cultural space with a café-bar and a 250-seat studio theatre, under the name of Tobacco Factory Theatre. In 2005 the Tobacco Factory Theatres became a charitable trust and in 2007 it became a Key Arts Provider of Bristol City Council, it has expanded since 2008. It now has two rehearsal spaces, it has made capital improvements, including the installation of a renewable energy system. The theatre attracts national critical acclaim, it has strong relationships with venues and with theatre companies. It is well known for productions by Shakespeare at the Tobacco Factory, inhouse family-friendly productions and a comedy line-up, as well as classic and contemporary theatre, puppetry, film and music; the theatre was redesigned in 2013 and has become one of the UK's few Theatre-in-the-Round auditoria, increasing the maximum seating capacity to 350, with improved comfort and sightlines. The theatre can still be used for thrust stage performance; the Brewery Theatre opened its doors for the first time on 29 August 2009.
An old tyre garage, the building is 160 yards down the road from the Tobacco Factory and houses the 90-seat Brewery Theatre and Brewery dance studio with sprung floor. The building is home to Mark’s Bread bakery and cafe, a Bristol Beer Factory Brewery and Visitors' centre; the Brewery Theatre is programmed with theatre from small scale touring companies to Tobacco Factory Theatre productions. The shows programmed are a range from children’s shows and magic, to clowning, comedy and classical theatre; the Last Voyage of Sinbad the Sailor Hansel and Gretel The Lost Present The Room in the Elephant Faith Fall Made in Heaven Cinderella: A Fairytale The Adventures of Pinocchio Ali Baba and The Forty Thieves A Christmas Carol The Ugly Duckling Alice Through The Looking Glass Topless Mum Tobacco Factory Theatres receives seven percent of its funding from public sources such as the Arts Council of England. They raise 85% of their income through box office receipts, bar sales and space hire, they offer various levels of membership on which they rely to allow the theatre to produce high-quality work.
The theatre is recognised by Bristol City Council as a key arts provider. The theatre received funding from the Arts Council of England for the first time in 2007. List of theatres in Bristol
This is a List of compositions by Yehuda Yannay Twelve Monophonic Dances for any wind instrument Music for Piano Permutations for solo percussion Statement for flute Continuum for piano Op. 15 Coloring Book for the Harpist Seven Late Spring Pieces for piano Im Silberwald for trombone, glass harmonica and tape Between the Raindrops for solo guitar Tangoul Mortii for contrabass solo Tangoul Mortii version for cello solo Tangoul Mortii version for viola solo Piano Portfolio I for solo piano The One-Legged Dancer for toy piano (accordion or harpsichord Three Organic Pieces for organ Hornology for horn Piano Transplant Double Transplant for piano Three Postcards from Paris for piano, an excerpt from Midwest Mythologist Incipit Vita Nova for accordion The Exquisite Viola for viola solo Bits into Pieces for piano and iPad electronics Variations for 2 flutes Interconnections for 14 instruments Random Rotated for 4 wind instruments Two Fragments for violin and piano Mutatis Mutandis for 6 players Per Se, chamber concerto for violin and 7 instruments preFIX-FIX-sufFIX for bassoon and cello Squares & Symbols and Traps for keyboard and 1 to 3 wind and/or strings Bug Piece with live insect notation The Hidden Melody for cello and French horn Brazilian Birdwhistle Event for Brazilian bird-whistle set Trio, for clarinet and piano Three Jazz Moods, for solo trumpet and saxophone, chamber ensemble with rhythm section Nine Branches of the Olive Tree, for recorders, bass clarinet and percussion M.
My Dear, a ballad for jazz violin and bass Duo for flute and cello Five Pieces for Three Players for soprano saxophone and marimba Playing for Peace for three-part violin ensemble Loose Connections for violin and double bass Marrakesh Bop for microtonal flute and guitar Trio for violin and piano My Main Squeeze for trumpet and cello Visions of Y for viola and piano Psalm for a melody instrument and piano, completion of an unfinished composition by Alexander U. Boskovich Bayannayab for two bayans or accordions Note Traffic for violin and cello Bayanette for two bayans and piano Suite for mandolin and accordion Two Alleys in Old Tel-Aviv for string quartet Aprés Rameau: Les Poulets de Mequon/The Chickens of Mequon for 2 pianos Aprés Rameau: Les Poulets de Mequon/The Chickens of Mequon for bayan and piano Summer Ostinato for two accordions Tandem Piece for horn and accordion or accordion and piano The Center Does Not Hold for saxophone quartet Rubayat, song for voice and cello, text: Omar Khayyam Spheres for soprano and 10 instruments, text: Yehuda Amichai Incantations for voice and interior piano, text: W.
H. Auden Foregroundmusic for 6 instruments and speaker, for a poem by A. Ginsberg At the End of the Parade, six poems by William Carlos Williams for baritone and six players. Eros Reminisced, song cycle for singer/pianist, text: Constantine P. Cavafy "Augentanz" and "Galgenlied" from Celan Ensembles for tenor and instruments, text Paul Celan "In Madness There Is Order" from Celan Ensembles, for voice and synthesizers, text: Paul Celan "Spiegeltanz" from Celan Ensembles, for voice, 2 marimbas, text: Paul Celan The Bogen Songs, six pieces for voice, clarinet in B♭, violoncello and accordion, text: Don Bogen Mirkamim, textures of sound for large orchestra, Concerto for Audience and Orchestra, with audience operated portable radios Five Songs for Tenor and Orchestra text: W. C. Williams. Seven Late Spring Pieces for Orchestra Concertino for Violin and Chamber Orchestra Exit Music At Century's End for chamber orchestra Piano Concerto for solo piano and 15 instruments Rhapsody for alto saxophone and wind ensemble Nuances Argentées for recorded voice and flute orchestra of 24 players Plus Avec Moins – More From Less for solo accordion and 24 flutes Mishnayot for solo voices and choir, text: Jewish prayer book.
Psukey Dezimra for solo voices and choir, text: Jewish prayer book The Chain of Proverbs cantata for youth, text: Ibn Zabara Coheleth, environment with mobile choir, wireless microphones and voice controlled filters, text: Ecclesiastes Dawn for mixed choir, text: Arthur Rimbaud Departure for nine voices and five instruments, text: Arthur Rimbaud A Noiseless Patient Spider for women's choir or eight solo voices, text: Walt Whitman Tombeau de Satie in memory of Thomas Trobaugh, text: Dona Nobis Pacem Le Campane di Leopardi for mixed choir and tuned glasses, text: Giacomo Leopardi Yigdal for cantor and choir followed by an organ variation, text: Hebrew prayer book Three Hebrew Aphorisms from the Mishna and the Talmud for five-part unaccompanied mixed choir The Wheel of Light for three choral or solo voices, text: Rabbi Naftali Hertz of Bacharach Wraphap a theatre piece for actress, amplified aluminum sheet and Yannachord Houdini's Ninth, a theatre piece for a double bass and escape artist The Urbana Christal Lake Park Gathering for any number of mallet players Autopiano, or Piano Minus Pianist for an actor and