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Yom Kippur

Yom Kippur known as the Day of Atonement, is the holiest day of the year in Judaism. Its central themes are repentance. Jews traditionally observe this holy day with an approximate 25-hour period of fasting and intensive prayer spending most of the day in synagogue services. Yom means'day' in Hebrew and Kippur comes from a root that means'to atone'. Yom Kippur is expressed in English as "Day of Atonement". Kippur can mean to cleanse, with the Yom Kippur procedures in the Temple cleansing the people of sin. Yom Kippur is "the tenth day of seventh month" and is regarded as the "Sabbath of Sabbaths". Rosh Hashanah is the first day of that month according to the Hebrew calendar. On this day forgiveness of sins is asked of God. Yom Kippur completes the annual period known in Judaism as the High Holy Days or Yamim Nora'im that commences with Rosh Hashanah. According to Jewish tradition, God inscribes each person's fate for the coming year into a book, the Book of Life, on Rosh Hashanah, waits until Yom Kippur to "seal" the verdict.

During the Days of Awe, a Jew tries to amend their behavior and seek forgiveness for wrongs done against God and against other human beings. The evening and day of Yom Kippur are set aside for public and private petitions and confessions of guilt. At the end of Yom Kippur, one hopes; the Yom Kippur prayer service includes several unique aspects. One is the actual number of prayer services. Unlike a regular day, which has three prayer services, or a Shabbat or Yom Tov, which have four prayer services, Yom Kippur has five prayer services; the prayer services include private and public confessions of sins and a unique prayer dedicated to the special Yom Kippur avodah of the Kohen Gadol in the Holy Temple in Jerusalem. As one of the most culturally significant Jewish holidays, Yom Kippur is observed by many secular Jews who may not observe other holidays. Many secular Jews attend synagogue on Yom Kippur—for many secular Jews the High Holy Days are the only times of the year during which they attend synagogue—causing synagogue attendance to soar.

Erev Yom Kippur is the day preceding Yom Kippur, corresponding to the ninth day of the Hebrew month of Tishrei. This day is commemorated with additional morning prayers, asking others for forgiveness, giving charity, performing the kapparot ritual, an extended afternoon prayer service, two festive meals. Leviticus 16:29 mandates establishment of this holy day on the 10th day of the 7th month as the day of atonement for sins, it calls it the Sabbath of a day upon which one must afflict one's soul. Leviticus 23:27 decrees. Five additional prohibitions are as detailed in the Jewish oral tradition; the number five is a set number, relating to: In the Yom Kippur section of the Torah, the word soul appears five times. The soul is known by five separate names: soul, spirit, living one and unique one. Unlike regular days, which have three prayer services, Yom Kippur has five- Maariv, Mussaf and Neilah The Kohen Gadol rinsed himself in the mikveh five times on Yom Kippur; the prohibitions are the following: No eating and drinking No wearing of leather shoes No bathing or washing No anointing oneself with perfumes or lotions No marital relationsA parallel has been drawn between these activities and the human condition according to the Biblical account of the expulsion from the garden of Eden.

Refraining from these symbolically represents a return to a pristine state, the theme of the day. By refraining from these activities, the body can still survive; the soul is considered to be the life force in a body. Therefore, by making one’s body uncomfortable, one’s soul is uncomfortable. By feeling pain one can feel; this is the purpose of the prohibitions. Total abstention from food and drink as well as keeping the other traditions begins at sundown, ends after nightfall the following day. One should add a few minutes to the beginning and end of the day, called tosefet Yom Kippur, lit. "addition to Yom Kippur". Although the fast is required of all healthy men over 13 or women over 12, it is waived in the case of certain medical conditions. All Jewish holidays involve meals, but since Yom Kippur involves fasting, Jewish law requires one to eat a large and festive meal on the afternoon before Yom Kippur, after the Mincha prayer; this meal is meant to make up for the inability to eat a large meal on the day of Yom Kippur instead, due to the prohibition from eating or drinking.

Wearing white clothing, is traditional to symbolize one's purity on this day. Many Orthodox men immerse themselves in a mikveh on the day before Yom Kippur. In order to gain atonement from God, one must: Pray Repent of one's sins Give to charity Before sunset on Yom Kippur eve, worshipers gather in the synagogue; the Ark is opened and two people take from it two Sifrei Torah. They take their places, one on each side of the Hazzan, the three recite: In the tribunal of Heaven and the tribunal of earth, we hold it lawful to pray with transgressors; the cantor chants the Kol Nidre pra

Penonomé District

Penonomé District is a district of Coclé Province in Panama. The population according to the 2000 census was 72,448; the district covers a total area of 1700 km². The capital lies at the city of Penonomé. Penonomé District is divided administratively into the following corregimientos: Penonomé Cañaveral Coclé Chiguirí Arriba El Coco Pajonal Río Grande Río Indio Toabré Tulú El Valle de San Miguel Vista Hermosa Los Uveros El Silencio

Masindi–Biso Road

Masindi–Biso Road is a road in the Western Region of Uganda, connecting the city of Masindi, in Masindi District and the town of Biso, in Buliisa District in the oil-rich Albertine Graben. The road starts at the district capital and the largest city in Masindi District, it takes a general westerly direction, looping around the southern edges of Budongo Forest Reserve up to the settlement of Nyamegita 30 kilometres west of Masindi. At Nyamegita, the road turns north-westwards, goes through the forest reserve and through the settlement of Busingiro to end at Biso, having traveled a total distance of 52 kilometres; the geographical coordinates of this road between Masindi and Nyemigita are 01°39'31.0"N, 31°36'17.0"E. This road is one of 12 roads earmarked for development, upgrade to class II bitumen surface, by the Ugandan government, in preparation for construction of Uganda Oil Refinery East African Crude Oil Pipeline and Kabaale International Airport. All this activity is in preparation for Uganda's first oil, expected in 2023.

The twelve roads are collectively referred to as the "Oil Roads". The government of Uganda has earmarked this road and two other roads for upgrading through the conversion of the existing gravel road to bitumen surface and the building of bridges and drainage channels. China Railway Seventh Group has been contracted by the Uganda National Roads Authority, to upgrade Hohwa–Nyairongo–Kyarushesha–Butole Road Kabaale–Kizirafumbi Road and Masindi–Biso Road; the three roads are budgeted to cost USh504 billion. The contractor agreed to proceed for one year, without upfront payment. After one year, the government will pay for any completed work and pay for any subsequent work, as completed. In the meantime, the government is expected to search for a lender to fund the construction. Construction of all three roads is expected to last three years. Economy of Uganda Uganda National Road Authority Homepage Oil Sparks Roads Upgrade List of Oil Roads As of 11 December 2017

Paul Grayson (cricketer)

Adrian Paul Grayson is a former English cricketer who played first-class cricket for Yorkshire and Essex. Following his playing retirement he served as Essex's head coach from 2007 to 2015. Grayson made his first-class debut for Yorkshire in 1990. Having been released in 1995, he joined Essex and was awarded his county cap in his first season, 1996. Grayson played for England at the ICC knock out Competition, he was out for a golden duck, his five overs went for 20 runs. He played his second ODI a year having been chosen for the squad to tour Zimbabwe. Grayson retired from first-class cricket at the end of 2005, having scored 8,655 runs at 31.70, taken 136 wickets at 44.39. In July 2007, he became the head coach at Essex, having played for, coached, their second XI; the Cricketers' Who's Who 2011 stated "Grayson is a progressive coach with sound, modern methods to dealing with today's players. Approachable and authoritative, his coaching style leans on his experiences as a Yorkshire player, latterly as a canny left-arm spinping allrounder with the county he now coaches".

He talked on BBC Radio Essex during County Championship and CB40 games. Grayson left Essex by mutual consent in August 2015. On 30 September 2015 it was announced. On 3 February 2017, Grayson was appointed on a two year contract. On 22 January 2019, he was appointed batting coach of Yorkshire CCC He is the brother of former professional footballer and manager, Simon Grayson. Cricinfo page on Paul Grayson


Grandsire is one of the standard change ringing methods, which are methods of ringing church bells or handbells using a series of mathematical permutations rather than using a melody. The grandsire method is rung on an odd number of bells: Grandsire doubles is rung on five working bells, grandsire triples on seven, grandsire caters on nine and grandsire cinques on eleven. Like all odd-bell methods, where there are sufficient bells, it is rung with a "cover" bell, which stays in the last position in each row to add musicality. Grandsire, like Plain Bob, is based on a simple deviation to the plain hunt when the treble is first in the sequence or it is said to "lead"; the treble is known as the "hunt bell" because it hunts continuously without deviating from the path. The diagram for the plain course is shown here; the Grandsire variation on the plain hunt on odd numbers adds a second hunt bell, "coursing" the treble: that is, the second hunt bell takes its place at the front of the change after the treble.

The single deviation away from hunting for the rest of the bells now takes place as the two hunt bells change places at the front of the lead. Furthermore, because there are two hunt bells, not the second bell but the third remains in place: 13254 – Treble leads 12345 21354 – The second hunt bell, No.2 in this case, leads after the treble. It is coursing it. 23145 This forces a dodge on the other bells in 4/5 positions. After this the bells return to the plain hunt pattern until the next treble lead; this rule can now be extended to any number of odd bells in changes, making Grandsire an extendable method. The hunt bell is changed many times during such ringing to enable the full factorial number of changes to be achieved; the plain course of Grandsire Doubles is shown. To extend to 120 rows, the maximum number of different rows possible on five bells, the "calls" known as Bobs and Singles are used; these are referred to as "calls", because they are called by the "conductor" according to a "composition", memorised.

The calls are made. A typical composition shown by the sequential treble leads to get 120 changes is: Plain, Plain, Plain, Single. "Plain" means. There are 10 different compositions. Grandsire is an odd-bell methods and the following suffixes are used to describe it when the changes are rung on different numbers of bells. There is a a cover bell ringing in last place at each row, to add musicality, except for Grandsire Doubles which may be rung in a tower with only five bells; the method was devised around 1650 by Robert Roan who became master of the College Youths change ringing society in 1652. Details of the method on five bells appeared in print in 1668 in Tintinnalogia, the first book to be published on change ringing. By this time, Roan had invented a six-bell extension he named "Grandsire Bob", now known by ringers as "Plain Bob Minor"; the description of Grandsire predates modern method naming conventions. Grandsire on an odd numbers of bells would share a name with the method known as "plain bob" on numbers of bells in modern nomenclature.

However, Grandsire Bob is a method separate from plain bob by having the 4-5 dodges and thirds of Grandsire doubles, but with long sixths at the back. It was found the 120 possible changes of doubles could only be rung by the introduction at some point of "single" changes – that is, changes in which only two bells change position. Only two such singles were required, it was unclear whether the 5040 possible changes of triples required a similar compromise. Although attempts at triples compositions appeared in print as early as 1702, a peal composed by John Garthon was rung in 1718, it was 1751 before John Holt produced the first satisfactory peal composition. William Henry Thompson, a mathematician, proved in a paper published in 1880 that it was impossible to achieve the 5040 changes using the normal bobs only, without the use of singles or some other type of call; this result had long been suspected by peal composers. Peal length round blocks of caters and cinques were more achieved. However, the ringing of Grandsire at these stages was limited by the relative rarity of towers with sufficient bells, Grandsire Caters was first rung to a peal length in 1717 and Grandsire Cinques in 1725.

Grandsire at all stages is still rung today. It is one of the first methods learnt by new bell ringers. According to the best available knowledge in 2017, 6,929 peals of Grandsire Caters were rung in the 300 years after 11 January 1711. Grandsire Caters was the leading 10-bell method in each decade from 1711 to 1890, but Stedman Caters has proved more popular and on 9 July 2010 its cumulative peal total from 1711 pulled ahead of the running Grandsire total. Trollope, J. Armiger. Grandsire, Jasper Snowdon Change Ringing Series. Reprint 1973: Christopher Groome, Burton Latimer. Richard Duckworth and Fabian Stedman. Tintinnalogia, or, the Art of Ringing at Project Gutenberg J. Monk. "Grandsire Triples". Campanalogia Improved: Or, The Art of Ringing Made Easy, by Plain and Methodical Rules and Directions. London: L. Hawes, W. Clarke, R. Collins. Pp. 117–137. Graphical representation of the pattern on five bells


PK-17 was an Army of the Republic of Vietnam and U. S. Marine Corps and Army base located northwest of Thừa Thiên Province in central Vietnam; the base was located along Highway 1 at the 17 km mark from the city of Huế. Its name was an abbreviation of the French Poste Kilometre 17. On 30 January 1967 a platoon of 2 M110 howitzers from the 1st 155th Gun Battery moved to PK-17. On 6 April 1967 PK-17 was attacked by People's Army of Vietnam forces, resulting in 2 Marines killed and 7 wounded. In January 1968 PK-17 was the base for two battalions of the ARVN 1st Division and one battalion of the Airborne Division; the base played an important role during the Battle of Huế in early 1968. On 2 February the 2nd Battalion, 12th Cavalry Regiment was deployed from Camp Evans to PK-17 to launch an attack towards La Chu to close off the PAVN supply routes west of Huế; the 2/12th Cavalry was pinned down by superior PAVN forces and broke out on the night of 3 February leaving their dead behind. This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Marine Corps