The Ryukyu Kingdom was an independent kingdom that ruled most of the Ryukyu Islands from the 15th to the 19th century. The kings of Ryukyu unified Okinawa Island and extended the kingdom to the Amami Islands in modern-day Kagoshima Prefecture, despite its small size, the kingdom played a central role in the maritime trade networks of medieval East and Southeast Asia. In the 14th century, small domains scattered on Okinawa Island were unified into three principalities, Hokuzan, Chūzan and Nanzan and this was known as the Three Kingdoms or Sanzan period. Hokuzan, which constituted much of the half of the island, was the largest in terms of land area and military strength. Nanzan constituted the southern portion of the island, Chūzan lay in the center of the island, and was economically the strongest. Its political capital at Shuri, Nanzan was adjacent to the port of Naha and Kume-mura. These sites, and Chūzan as a whole, would continue to form the center of the Ryukyu Kingdom until its abolition, many Chinese moved to Ryukyu to serve the government or to engage in business during this period.
At the request of the Ryukyuan King, the Ming Chinese sent 36 Chinese families from Fujian to manage oceanic dealings in the kingdom in 1392 during the Hongwu emperors reign, many Ryukyuan officials were descended from these Chinese immigrants, being born in China or having Chinese grandfathers. They assisted the Ryukyuans in advancing their technology and diplomatic relations, according to statements by Qing imperial official Li Hongzhang in a meeting with Ulysses S. These three principalities, or tribal federations, led by major chieftains, and Chūzan emerged victorious, the Chūzan leaders were officially recognized by Ming dynasty China as the rightful kings over those of Nanzan and Hokuzan, thus lending great legitimacy to their claims. The ruler of Chūzan passed his throne to King Hashi, Hashi conquered Hokuzan in 1416 and Nanzan in 1429, uniting the island of Okinawa for the first time, Hashi received the surname Shō 尚 from the Ming emperor in 1421, becoming known as Shō Hashi 尚巴志. Shō Hashi adopted the Chinese hierarchical court system, built Shuri Castle and the town as his capital, and constructed Naha harbor.
When in 1469 King Shō Toku, who was a grandson of Shō Hashi, died without a male heir and this pretender, Shō En, began the Second Shō Dynasty. Ryukyus golden age occurred during the reign of Shō Shin, the king of that dynasty. For nearly two hundred years, the Ryukyu Kingdom would thrive as a key player in trade with Southeast and East Asia. In the late 16th century, the commercial prosperity fell into decline. The decline of the wokou threat among other factors led to the loss of Chinese preferential treatment. Around 1590, Toyotomi Hideyoshi asked the Ryukyu Kingdom to aid in his campaign to conquer Korea, if successful, Hideyoshi intended to move against China
Okinawa is the second-largest city in Okinawa Prefecture, following Naha, the capital city. It is located in the part of the island of Okinawa. As of December 2012, the city has an population of 138,431. The total area is 49.00 km², under the Ryukyu Kingdom the present-day area of Okinawa City was occupied by two magiri, a type of administrative district. The Goeku magiri occupied the south of the city, and the north of the city was part of the Misato magiri, in 1908, Okinawa Prefecture ended the magiri system and established the villages of Goeku and Misato. Both villages were agricultural and lacked urbanized areas prior to World War II, after the Battle of Okinawa the United States established the first refugee camp in Okinawa in the area south of present-day Kadena Air Base. The population of the former villages swelled rapidly, an area of Goeku, called Goya, was mispronounced by Americans as Koza. During the occupation of Okinawa, the U. S. military government established the city of Koza in Goeku, Koza was the first city to use the katakana syllabary for its name.
Misato merged into a community, and in 1946, again became separate. Both municipalities, which were largely agricultural, became heavily urbanized as a result of the construction of refugee camps. The area became a base city catering to United States military personnel, on June 13,1956, Goeku changed its name to the village of Koza, on July 1 of the same year it became a city. The city of Okinawa was the site of the Koza riot on the night of December 20,1970, roughly 5,000 Okinawans came into violent contact with roughly 700 American MPs. Approximately 60 Americans were injured and 75 cars were burned, several buildings on Kadena Air Base were destroyed or heavily damaged. The Koza riot was considered a symbol of Okinawan anger after 25 years of US military occupation, the riot was unexpected, and strained the ongoing negotiations on the end of the United States administration of Okinawa. The city of Okinawa was founded on April 1,1974 with the merger of Koza, the commercial center of the city lies along Route 330.
It extends from Goya Crossing to Koza Crossing, the district extending from Goya to the gate of Kadena Air Base, and Chūō Park Avenue, has many visitors from the U. S. military, and many shops have signs in both Japanese and English. However, the development of shopping centers in nearby communities has resulted in some decline in these areas. Neighboring municipalities consist of, Uruma Kadena Chatan Onna Kitanakagusuku Yomitan, in June 2013 more than 20 barrels were found on an Okinawa city civilian soccer field built on former U. S. military land
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China, is a state in East Asia. Neighbours include China to the west, Japan to the northeast, Taiwan is the most populous state that is not a member of the United Nations, and the one with the largest economy. The island of Taiwan, known as Formosa, was inhabited by Taiwanese aborigines before the 17th century. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed by the Qing dynasty, the Qing ceded Taiwan to Japan in 1895 after the Sino-Japanese War. While Taiwan was under Japanese rule, the Republic of China was established on the mainland in 1912 after the fall of the Qing dynasty, following the Japanese surrender to the Allies in 1945, the ROC took control of Taiwan. However, the resumption of the Chinese Civil War led to the ROCs loss of the mainland to the Communists, and the flight of the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949. As a founding member of the United Nations, the ROC continued to represent China at the United Nations until 1971, in the early 1960s, Taiwan entered a period of rapid economic growth and industrialization, creating a stable industrial economy.
In the 1980s and early 1990s, it changed from a one-party military dictatorship dominated by the Kuomintang to a multi-party democracy with universal suffrage, Taiwan is the 22nd-largest economy in the world, and its high-tech industry plays a key role in the global economy. It is ranked highly in terms of freedom of the press, health care, public education, economic freedom, the PRC has consistently claimed sovereignty over Taiwan and asserted the ROC is no longer in legitimate existence. Under its One-China Policy the PRC refused diplomatic relations with any country that recognizes the ROC, the PRC has threatened the use of military force in response to any formal declaration of independence by Taiwan or if PRC leaders decide that peaceful unification is no longer possible. There are various names for the island of Taiwan in use today, the former name Formosa dates from 1542, when Portuguese sailors sighted the main island of Taiwan and named it Ilha Formosa, which means beautiful island.
The name Formosa eventually replaced all others in European literature and was in use in English in the early 20th century. This name was adopted into the Chinese vernacular as the name of the sandbar. The modern word Taiwan is derived from this usage, which is seen in forms in Chinese historical records. Use of the current Chinese name was formalized as early as 1684 with the establishment of Taiwan Prefecture, through its rapid development, the entire Formosan mainland eventually became known as Taiwan. The official name of the state is the Republic of China and it was a member of the United Nations representing China until 1971, when it lost its seat to the Peoples Republic of China. Over subsequent decades, the Republic of China has become known as Taiwan. In some contexts, especially ones from the ROC government
Glassblowing is a glassforming technique that involves inflating molten glass into a bubble, with the aid of a blowpipe. A person who blows glass is called a glassblower, glassmith, a lampworker manipulates glass with the use of a torch on a smaller scale, such as in producing precision laboratory glassware out of borosilicate glass. To increase the stiffness of the glass, which in turn facilitates the process of blowing. Lower concentration of natron would have allowed the glass to be stiffer for blowing, during blowing, thinner layers of glass cool faster than thicker ones and become more viscous than the thicker layers. That allows production of glass with uniform thickness instead of causing blow-through of the thinned layers. A full range of glassblowing techniques was developed within decades of its invention, the two major methods of glassblowing are free-blowing and mold-blowing. The process of free-blowing involves the blowing of short puffs of air into a portion of glass called a gather which has been spooled at one end of the blowpipe.
This has the effect of forming an elastic skin on the interior of the glass blob that matches the skin caused by the removal of heat from the furnace. The glassworker can quickly inflate the molten glass to a coherent blob, researchers at the Toledo Museum of Art attempted to reconstruct the ancient free-blowing technique by using clay blowpipes. The result proved that short clay blowpipes of about 30–60 cm facilitate free-blowing because they are simple to handle and to manipulate, skilled workers are capable of shaping almost any vessel forms by rotating the pipe, swinging it and controlling the temperature of the piece while they blow. They can produce a variety of glass objects, ranging from drinking cups to window glass. An outstanding example of the technique is the Portland Vase. An experiment was carried out by Gudenrath and Whitehouse with the aim of re-creating the Portland Vase, a full amount of blue glass required for the body of the vase was gathered on the end of the blowpipe and was subsequently dipped into a pot of hot white glass.
Inflation occurred when the glassworker blew the molten glass into a sphere which was stretched or elongated into a vase with a layer of white glass overlying the blue body. Mold-blowing was an alternative glassblowing method that came after the invention of free-blowing, during the first part of the quarter of the 1st century AD. A glob of molten glass is placed on the end of the blowpipe, in that way, the shape and the texture of the bubble of glass is determined by the design on the interior of the mold rather than the skill of the glassworker. Two types of molds, namely single-piece mold and multi-piece mold, are used to produce mold-blown vessels. Whereas the latter is made in multi-paneled mold segments that together, thus permitting the development of more sophisticated surface modeling, texture
Chatan is a town located in Nakagami District, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. As of October 2016 the town had an population of 28,578. The total area of Chatan is 13.62 square kilometres,53. 5% of the land area of the town is covered by United States military bases. In Japanese, the kanji for the name are normally read as Kitatani. Also unfamiliar in Japanese is that the syllable of Chatan is emphasized in Okinawan. Chatan is located in the part of Okinawa Island. The town sits on the western coast of the island on the East China Sea, the east of Chatan is hilly and made up of Okinawan limestone. The hills of the part of the town give way to low-lying land towards the coast. Two rivers run through Chatan west into the East China Sea, the Shiruhi River to the north, prior to World War II, was a noted area of rice production in Okinawa. The area was known as Chatan taa-bukkwa, a term in the Okinawa language for an area of rice paddies. Much of the formerly used for rice cultivation is now utilized by military bases.
Chatan is divided into six districts, Kitamae and Sunabe as well as the local business and residential wards of Kamiseido, Ihei. Chatan primarily runs along Route 58 and a largely man-made coastline which includes the area of used to be the U. S. Marine Corps base of Camp Hamby. The northern half of Kitamae is nicknamed Hamby Town in recognition of this, parts of Camp Foster and Camp Lester are in Chatan. The American Kadena Air Base is located on and forms the boundary of Chatan which is further demarcated by Route 23 - known locally as Kokutai Road. The U. S. air base encompasses much land which was part of Chatans area including most of the ward once named Shimoseido. City of Okinawa Ginowan Kadena Kitanakagusuku Much of the Hamby area is home to the Hamby Free Zone, with the expansion of shopping/recreational businesses in the Mihama area, Chatan has become one of the most popular destinations for recreation. It is home to a ferris wheel, a small convention center, several shopping plazas, karaoke parlors
Allies of World War II
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War. The Allies promoted the alliance as seeking to stop German, Japanese, at the start of the war on 1 September 1939, the Allies consisted of France and the United Kingdom, and dependent states, such as the British India. Within days they were joined by the independent Dominions of the British Commonwealth, Canada, New Zealand, Poland was a minor factor after its defeat in 1939, France was a minor factor after its defeat in 1940. China had already been into a war with Japan since the Marco Polo Bridge Incident of 1937. The alliance was formalised by the Declaration by United Nations, from 1 January 1942, the name United Nations was rarely used to describe the Allies during the war. The leaders of the Big Three – the UK, the Soviet Union, in 1945, the Allied nations became the basis of the United Nations. The origins of the Allied powers stem from the Allies of World War I, Germany resented signing Treaty of Versailles.
The new Weimar republics legitimacy became shaken, by the early 1930s, the Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler became the dominant revanchist movement in Germany and Hitler and the Nazis gained power in 1933. The Nazi regime demanded the cancellation of the Treaty of Versailles and made claims to German-populated Austria. The likelihood of war was high, and the question was whether it could be avoided through strategies such as appeasement, in Asia, when Japan seized Manchuria in 1931, the League of Nations condemned it for aggression against China. Japan responded by leaving the League of Nations in March 1933, after four quiet years, the Sino-Japanese War erupted in 1937 with Japanese forces invading China. The League of Nations condemned Japans actions and initiated sanctions on Japan, the United States, in particular, was angered at Japan and sought to support China. In March 1939, Germany took over Czechoslovakia, violating the Munich Agreement signed six months before and France decided that Hitler had no intention to uphold diplomatic agreements and responded by preparing for war.
On 31 March 1939, Britain formed the Anglo-Polish military alliance in an effort to avert a German attack on the country, the French had a long-standing alliance with Poland since 1921. The Soviet Union sought an alliance with the powers. The agreement secretly divided the independent nations of eastern Europe between the two powers and assured adequate oil supplies for the German war machine, on 1 September 1939, Germany invaded Poland, two days Britain and France declared war on Germany. Then, on 17 September 1939, the Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east, a Polish government-in-exile was set up and it continued to be one of the Allies, a model followed by other occupied countries. After a quiet winter, Germany in April 1940 invaded and quickly defeated Denmark, Belgium and its Empire stood alone against Hitler and Mussolini
Districts of Japan
As of 2008, cities belong directly to prefectures and are independent from districts. In Japan and villages belong to districts and the districts possess little to no administrative authority, the districts are used primarily in the Japanese addressing system and to identify the relevant geographical areas and collections of nearby towns and villages. The district was initially called kōri and has ancient roots in Japan, although the Nihon Shoki says they were established during the Taika Reforms, kōri was originally written 評. It was not until the Taihō Code that kōri came to be written 郡, under the Taihō Code, the administrative unit of province was above district, and the village was below. Each jurisdiction refers to its position along the river from which the former province. Kamikawa means upper course of the river, Nakagawa means middle course, jacobs at Urban Studies Research, Vol.2011, doi,10. 1155/2011/692764 Graphic shows relationships among Japanese cities at p.7 of Large City System of Japan Text of the Local Government Law
An aji, anji, or azu was a ruler of a petty kingdom in the history of the Ryukyu Islands. The word became a title and rank of nobility in the Ryukyu Kingdom and it has been theorized to be related to the Japanese aruji, and the pronunciation varied throughout the islands. It ranked next below a prince among nobility, the sons of princes and the eldest sons of aji became aji. An aji established a noble family equivalent to a miyake of Japan, the aji arose around the twelfth century as local leaders began to build gusuku. Shō Hashi was an aji who unified Okinawa Island as king, the title aji variously designated sons of the king and regional leaders. During the Second Shō Dynasty, when the aji settled near Shuri Castle, a pattern for addressing a male aji began with the place he ruled and ended with the word aji, for example, Nago Aji. For women, the suffix ganashi or kanashi followed, Nago Aji-ganashi, nanto fudoki, Okinawa Bunka Kyokai Okinawa Zaidan
United States Marine Corps
The U. S. Marine Corps is one of the four armed service branches in the U. S. Department of Defense and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The current Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the military officer in the U. S. Armed Forces, is a Marine Corps general, the Marine Corps has been a component of the U. S. Department of the Navy since 30 June 1834, working closely with naval forces for training and logistics. The USMC operates posts on land and aboard sea-going amphibious warfare ships around the world, two battalions of Continental Marines were formed on 10 November 1775 in Philadelphia as a service branch of infantry troops capable of fighting for independence both at sea and on shore. The role of the Corps has since grown and evolved, expanding to aerial warfare and earning popular titles such as, Americas third air force, second land army. By the mid-20th century, the U. S. Marine Corps had become a major theorist of and its ability to rapidly respond on short notice to expeditionary crises gives it a strong role in the implementation and execution of American foreign policy.
As of 2016, the USMC has around 182,000 active duty members and it is the smallest of the U. S. The USMC serves as an expeditionary force-in-readiness and this last clause, while seemingly redundant given the Presidents position as Commander-in-chief, is a codification of the expeditionary responsibilities of the Marine Corps. It derives from similar language in the Congressional acts For the Better Organization of the Marine Corps of 1834, in 1951, the House of Representatives Armed Services Committee called the clause one of the most important statutory – and traditional – functions of the Marine Corps. In addition to its duties, the Marine Corps conducts Visit, Board and Seizure operations, as well as missions in direct support of the White House. The Marine Band, dubbed the Presidents Own by Thomas Jefferson, Marines from Ceremonial Companies A & B, quartered in Marine Barracks, Washington, D. C. The Executive Flight Detachment provides transport to Cabinet members. The relationship between the Department of State and the U. S.
Marine Corps is nearly as old as the corps itself, for over 200 years, Marines have served at the request of various Secretaries of State. After World War II, an alert, disciplined force was needed to protect American embassies, consulates, in 1947, a proposal was made that the Department of War furnish Marine Corps personnel for Foreign Service guard duty under the provisions of the Foreign Service Act of 1946. A formal Memorandum of Agreement was signed between the Department of State and the Secretary of the Navy on December 15,1948, during the first year of the MSG program,36 detachments were deployed worldwide. Continental Marines manned raiding parties, both at sea and ashore, the Advanced Base Doctrine of the early 20th century codified their combat duties ashore, outlining the use of Marines in the seizure of bases and other duties on land to support naval campaigns. Throughout the late 19th and 20th centuries, Marine detachments served aboard Navy cruisers, Marine detachments served in their traditional duties as a ships landing force, manning the ships weapons and providing shipboard security.
Marines would develop tactics and techniques of amphibious assault on defended coastlines in time for use in World War II, during World War II, Marines continued to serve on capital ships
Kadena is a town located in Nakagami District, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. As of October 2016, the town had an population of 13,671. The total area is 15.04 square kilometres, approximately 85% of the town is controlled by the US Government including Kadena Air Base, the second-largest base in the United States Air Force. Kadena faces the East China Sea to the west, Kadena borders three other municipalities in Okinawa Prefecture. Yomitan to the north Okinawa to the east Chatan to the south The Kadena area has some of the oldest settlement remains, in the form of shell mounds, the Hija River, the modern border between Yomitan and Kadena, was the focus of these early settlements. A number of ruins of minor gusuku can be found in the area, amawari, an infamous warlord, was born in the Kadena area while it was still part of Chatan. Japan annexed the island in 1879, and Chatan became a village in 1908, during the Pacific War, Japan built an airstrip in the Kadena area. During the Battle of Okinawa in 1945, the United States landed on the banks of the Hija River, the airstrip became Kadena Air Force Base.
On December 4th,1948, the American military government separated Kadena from Chatan, the United States built Kadena Circle outside the base. On January 1st,1976, four years after Okinawa reverted to Japanese control, the economy of Kadena is largely dependent on the presence of Kadena Air Force Base. The town otherwise produces an amount of pineapples and sugarcane