A Butsudan, sometimes spelled Butudan, is a shrine found in temples and homes in Japanese Buddhist cultures. A butsudan is either a defined ornate platform or a wooden cabinet sometimes crafted with doors that enclose and protect a Gohonzon or religious icon a statue or painting of a Buddha or Bodhisattva, or a calligraphic mandala scroll. If there are doors used, a Butsudan enshrines the Gohonzon icon during religious observances, close after usage. In case of no doors, either a sheet of brocade or white cloth is sometimes placed over to render its sacred space. Traditional Japanese beliefs associate the Butsudan to be either a house of the Buddha, Bodhisattva as well as deceased relatives enshrined within it. In some Buddhist sects, when a Butsudan is replaced or repaired by the family, a re-enshrinement ceremony follows. A butsudan contains an array of subsidiary religious accessories, called butsugu, such as candlesticks, incense burners and platforms for placing offerings such as fruit, tea or rice.
Some Buddhist sects place ihai memorial tablets, ash of the deceased or kakochō death registers for deceased relatives either within or near the butsudan. The defined space which occupies the Butsudan is referred to as Butsuma; the butsudan is used for paying respects to family members. The arrangement and types of items in and around the butsudan can vary depending on the sect. A butsudan houses a honzon, a statue or painting of the Buddha or a Buddhist deity that reflects the school which the family follows, though embroidered scrolls containing a mantric or sutric text are common. Other auxiliary items found near the butsudan include tea and food, an incense burner, flowers, hanging lamps and evergreens. A rin accompanies the butsudan, which can be rung during liturgy or recitation of prayers. Members of some Buddhist sects place ihai or tablets engraved with the names of deceased family members within or next to the butsudan. Other Buddhist sects, such as Jōdo Shinshū do not have these, but may instead have pictures of the deceased placed near the butsudan.
The butsudan is placed upon a larger cabinet in which are kept important family documents and certificates. The butsudan is seen as an essential part in the life of a traditional Japanese family as it is the centre of spiritual faith within the household in dealing with the deaths of family members or reflecting on the lives of ancestors; this is true in many rural villages, where it is common for more than 90% of households to possess a butsudan, to be contrasted with urban and suburban areas, where the rate of possession can drop down to below 60%. Kamidana – analogous concept in Shinto Gohonzon Spirit house Buckley, Sandra "Butsudan and Kamidana" in Buckley, Sandra Encyclopedia of Contemporary Japanese Culture, pp. 56–57. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-14344-6. Hamabata, M. Masayuki. Crested Kimono: Power and Love in the Japanese Business Family. New York: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-2333-3. Lewis, Todd T.. "Butsudan" in Espin, Orlando An Introductory Dictionary of Theology and Religious Studies, pg. 178.
Collegeville: Liturgical Press. ISBN 978-0-8146-5856-7. Nakamaki, Hirochika. Japanese Religions at Home and Abroad. New York: Routledge/Curzon. ISBN 0-7007-1617-3. Reader, Ian. Japanese Religions: Past and Present. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1545-9. Rambelli, Fabio. Home Buddhas: Historical Processes and Modes of Representation of the Sacred in the Japanese Buddhist Family Altar, Japanese Religions 35, 63-86 Nelson, John K.. Household Altars in Contemporary Japan: Rectifying Buddhist “Ancestor Worship” with Home Décor and Consumer Choice, Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 35, 305-330 Media related to Butsudan at Wikimedia Commons
Kamidana are miniature household altars provided to enshrine a Shinto kami. They are most found in Japan, the home of kami worship; the kamidana is placed high on a wall and contains a wide variety of items related to Shinto-style ceremonies, the most prominent of, the shintai, an object meant to house a chosen kami, thus giving it a physical form to allow worship. Kamidana shintai are most small circular mirrors, though they can be stones, jewels, or some other object with symbolic value; the kami within the shintai is the deity of the local shrine or one particular to the house owner's profession. A part of the kami was obtained for that purpose from a shrine through a process called kanjō. Worship at the kamidana consists of the offering of simple prayers and flowers. Before worshiping at the kamidana it is ritually important for family members to cleanse their hands or mouth. Kamidana can be found in some traditional Japanese martial art dōjō. A household kamidana is set up in one's home to enshrine an ofuda, a type of charm.
Both kamidana and ofuda can be purchased at any large Shinto shrine. Ofuda by themselves can be displayed on a counter or anywhere visible, provided that they are kept in their protective pouches. However, when an ofuda is enshrined in a kamidana there are several rules which must be followed to ensure proper installation. First, a kamidana can not be set up at eye level, it must be above an ordinary person's eye level. Second, a kamidana cannot be set up over an entrance, but must be built into a space which people will not walk under; when an ofuda is enshrined in a kamidana, after removing the pouch it is customary to leave an offering of water, liquor, or food in front of the kamidana, which should be renewed regularly. Water, for example, is stored in a droplet-shaped vessel called a mizutama; these rules apply both to martial arts dojos. Ofuda are replaced before the end of each year. However, kamidana can be kept in one's house. Butsudan – analogous concept in Japanese Buddhism Etiquette in Japan Spirit house Ono, Shinto: The Kami Way, Charles E. Tuttle Company, ISBN 4-8053-0189-9
A Shinto shrine is a structure whose main purpose is to house one or more kami. Its most important building is used for the safekeeping of sacred objects, not for worship. Although only one word is used in English, in Japanese Shinto shrines may carry any one of many different, non-equivalent names like gongen, -gū, jingū, mori, myōjin, -sha, ubusuna or yashiro. Structurally, a Shinto shrine is characterized by the presence of a honden or sanctuary, where the kami is enshrined; the honden may however be absent, as for example when the shrine stands on a sacred mountain to which it is dedicated, and, worshiped directly. The honden may be missing when there are nearby altar-like structures called himorogi or objects believed capable of attracting spirits called yorishiro that can serve as a direct bond to a kami. There may be a haiden and other structures as well. However, a shrine's most important building is used for the safekeeping of sacred objects rather than for worship. Miniature shrines can be found on roadsides.
Large shrines sometimes have on their precincts miniature shrines. The portable shrines which are carried on poles during festivals enshrine kami and are therefore true shrines. In 927 CE, the Engi-shiki was promulgated; this work listed all of the 2,861 Shinto shrines existing at the time, the 3,131 official-recognized and enshrined Kami. That number has grown and exceeded this figure through the following generations. In Agency for Cultural Affairs in Japan placed the number of shrines at 79,467 affiliated with the Association of Shinto Shrines; some shrines, such as the Yasukuni Shrine are independent of any outside authority. The number of Shinto shrines in Japan is estimated to be around 100,000; this figure may, or may not, include private shrines in homes and owned by small groups, abandoned or derelict shrines, roadside Hokora. etc. Ancestors are kami to be worshiped. Yayoi-period village councils sought the advice of ancestors and other kami, developed instruments to evoke them. Yoshishiro means "approach substitute" and were conceived to attract the kami to allow them physical space, thus making kami accessible to human beings.
Village-council sessions were held in quiet spots in the mountains or in forests near great trees or other natural objects that served as yorishiro. These sacred places and their yorishiro evolved into today's shrines, whose origins can be still seen in the Japanese words for "mountain" and "forest", which can mean "shrine". Many shrines have on their grounds one of the original great yorishiro: a big tree, surrounded by a sacred rope called shimenawa; the first buildings at places dedicated to worship were huts built to house some yorishiro. A trace of this origin can be found in the term hokura, "deity storehouse", which evolved into hokora, is considered to be one of the first words for shrine. True shrines arose with the beginning of agriculture, when the need arose to attract kami to ensure good harvests; these were, just temporary structures built for a particular purpose, a tradition of which traces can be found in some rituals. Hints of the first shrines can still be found there. Ōmiwa Shrine in Nara, for example, contains no sacred images or objects because it is believed to serve the mountain on which it stands.
Those images or objects are therefore unnecessary. For the same reason, it has a worship hall but no place to house the kami. Archeology confirms that, during the Yayoi period, the most common shintai in the earliest shrines were nearby mountain peaks that supplied stream water to the plains where people lived. Besides the mentioned Ōmiwa Shrine, another important example is Mount Nantai, a phallus-shaped mountain in Nikko which constitutes Futarasan Shrine's shintai; the name Nantai means "man's body". The mountain not only provides water to the rice paddies below but has the shape of the phallic stone rods found in pre-agricultural Jōmon sites. In 905 CE, Emperor Daigo ordered a compilation of Shinto rules. Previous attempts at codification are known to have taken place, neither the Konin nor the Jogan Gishiki survive. Under the direction of Fujiwara no Tokihira, the project stalled at his death in April 909. Fujiwara no Tadahira, his brother, took charge and in 912 CE and in 927 CE the Engi-shiki was promulgated in fifty volumes.
This, the first formal codification of Shinto rites and Norito to survive, became the basis for all subsequent Shinto liturgical practice and efforts. In addition to the first ten volumes of this fifty volume work, sections in subsequent volumes addressing the Ministry of Ceremonies and the Ministry of the Imperial Household regulated Shinto worship and contained liturgical rites and regulation. Felicia Gressitt Brock published a two-volume annotated English language translation of the first ten volumes with an introduction entitled Engi-shiki; the arrival of Buddhism changed the situation, introducing to Japan the concept of the permanent shrine. A great number of Buddhist temples were built next to existing shrines in mixed complexes called jingū-ji (神宮寺, lit. shri
Shide is a zigzag-shaped paper streamer seen attached to shimenawa or tamagushi, used in Shinto rituals. A popular ritual is using a haraegushi, or "lightning wand", named for the zig-zag shide paper that adorns the wand. A similar wand, used by miko for purification and blessing, is the gohei with two shide. A Shinto priest waves the haraegushi over a person, item, or newly bought property, such as a building or car; the wand is waved at a slow rhythmic pace, but with a little force so that the shide strips make a rustling noise on each pass of the wand. For new properties, a similar ritual known as jijin sai is performed with a haraegushi, an enclosed part of the land, sake, or ritually purified sake known as o-miki; the haraegushi has been used for centuries in Shinto ceremonies and has similarities in Ainu culture. In Ainu culture, a shaved willow branch called an inaw or inau resembles the Shinto haraegushi, is used in similar blessing rituals. Media related to Shide at Wikimedia Commons
Balete tree are several species of the trees in the Philippines from the genus Ficus that are broadly referred to as balete in the local language. A number of these are known as strangler figs wherein they start upon other trees entrapping them and killing the host tree. Called hemiepiphytes they start as epiphytes or air plants and grow several hanging roots that touch the ground and from on, encircling and suffocating the host tree; some of the baletes produce an inferior quality of rubber. The India rubber plant, F. elastica were earlier cultivated to some extent for rubber. Some of the species like tangisang-bayawak or Ficus variegata are large and could be utilized for match woods; the woods of species of Ficus are soft, of inferior quality, the trees have ill-formed, short boles. Baletes are planted as graceful trees along avenues in Manila and other large cities in the Philippines, they are excellent as shade trees. Several species of the tree are use for bonsai making in the country. Baletes are used as houseplants.
In some areas of the country, some people believe that balete trees are dwelling places for supernatural beings like diwata, kapre or tikbalang. In some places, sorcery rituals are known performed inside the chambers formed by the tree. Among others, some superstitious folks suggest not bringing in balete as decorative plants inside a house as they invite ghosts. Balete Drive in New Manila, Quezon City, named after a gargantuan balete tree that used to stand in the middle of the street, is one of the most haunted places in the city; the tale of a white lady appears at night hailing cars that drive by have been circulated since the 1950s. The balete tree inside the OISCA Farm in Lumapao, Canlaon City, Negros Oriental, Philippines is estimated by botanists from Silliman University to be around 1,328 years old, it would take at least 42 men to encircle its trunk. At the heart of this wide tree trunk is a cavity where lizards and many insects have made it their home. With fireflies lighting it at night like a year-round Christmas tree, it is one of the city's main tourist attraction.
A balete tree locally called "Millenium Tree" in Barangay Quirino, Maria Aurora, Aurora province in the Philippines is claimed to be the largest of its kind in Asia. It is estimated to be about 600+ years old and 60 metres tall with its roots about 10 metres to 15 metres in diameter, it is possible for adult people to squeeze into the center of its root network. A 400-year-old balete tree in Barangay Campalanas in the town of Lazi, in Siquijor province is believed to be the oldest and the biggest in the province. What is unusual about this tree is the spring that emanates from the base of the tree and flows straight into a man-made pool. Anito Kodama Tree spirit Yorishiro "The Forests of the Philippines" by the Philippine Bureau of Forestry from Google Books
Kusanagi-no-Tsurugi is a legendary Japanese sword and one of three Imperial Regalia of Japan. It was called Ame-no-Murakumo-no-Tsurugi, but its name was changed to the more popular Kusanagi-no-Tsurugi. In folklore, the sword represents the virtue of valor; the history of the Kusanagi-no-Tsurugi extends into legend. According to Kojiki, the god Susanoo encountered a grieving family of kunitsukami headed by Ashinazuchi in Izumo Province; when Susanoo inquired of Ashinazuchi, he told him that his family was being ravaged by the fearsome Yamata-no-Orochi, an eight-headed serpent of Koshi, who had consumed seven of the family's eight daughters and that the creature was coming for his final daughter, Kushinada-hime. Susanoo investigated the creature, after an abortive encounter he returned with a plan to defeat it. In return, he asked for Kushinada-hime's hand in marriage, agreed. Transforming her temporarily into a comb to have her company during battle, he detailed his plan into steps, he instructed that eight vats of sake be prepared and put on individual platforms positioned behind a fence with eight gates.
The monster put one of its heads through each gate. With this distraction, Susanoo slew the beast, he chopped off each head and proceeded to the tails. In the fourth tail, he discovered a great sword inside the body of the serpent which he called Ame-no-Murakumo-no-Tsurugi, he presented the sword to the goddess Amaterasu to settle an old grievance. Generations during the reign of the twelfth Emperor, Keikō, Ame-no-Murakumo-no-Tsurugi was given to the great warrior, Yamato Takeru as part of a pair of gifts given by his aunt, Yamatohime-no-mikoto, the Shrine Maiden of Ise Shrine, to protect her nephew in times of peril; these gifts came in handy when Yamato Takeru was lured onto an open grassland during a hunting expedition by a treacherous warlord. The lord had fiery arrows loosed to ignite the grass and trap Yamato Takeru in the field so that he would burn to death, he killed the warrior's horse to prevent his escape. Yamato Takeru used the Ame-no-Murakumo-no-Tsurugi to cut back the grass and remove fuel from the fire, but in doing so, he discovered that the sword enabled him to control the wind and cause it to move in the direction of his swing.
Taking advantage of this magic, Yamato Takeru used his other gift, fire strikers, to enlarge the fire in the direction of the lord and his men, he used the winds controlled by the sword to sweep the blaze toward them. In triumph, Yamato Takeru renamed the sword Kusanagi-no-Tsurugi to commemorate his narrow escape and victory. Yamato Takeru married and fell in battle against a monster, after ignoring his wife's advice to take the sword with him. Although the sword is mentioned in the Kojiki, this book is a collection of Japanese myths and is not considered a historical document; the first reliable historical mention of the sword is in the Nihonshoki. Although the Nihonshoki contains mythological stories that are not considered reliable history, it records some events that were contemporary or nearly contemporary to its writing, these sections of the book are considered historical. In the Nihonshoki, the Kusanagi was removed from the Imperial palace in 688, moved to Atsuta Shrine after the sword was blamed for causing Emperor Tenmu to fall ill.
Along with the jewel and the mirror, it is one of the three Imperial Regalia of Japan, the sword representing the virtue of valor. Kusanagi is kept at Atsuta Shrine but is not available for public display. During the Edo period, while performing various repairs and upkeep at Atsuta Shrine, including replacement of the outer wooden box housing the sword, the Shinto priest Matsuoka Masanao claimed to have been one of several priests to have seen the sword. Per his account, "a stone box was inside a wooden box of length 150 cm, with red clay stuffed into the gap between them. Inside the stone box was a hollowed log of a camphor tree, acting as another box, with an interior lined with gold. Above, placed a sword. Red clay was stuffed between the stone box and the camphor tree box; the sword was about 82 cm long. Its blade resembled a calamus leaf; the middle of the sword had a thickness from the grip about 18cm with an appearance like a fish spine. The sword was fashioned in a white metallic color, well maintained."
After witnessing the sword, the grand priest was banished and the other priests, except for Matsuoka, died from strange diseases. The above account therefore comes from Matsuoka. In The Tale of the Heike, a collection of oral stories transcribed in 1371, the sword is lost at sea after the defeat of the Heike in the Battle of Dan-no-ura, a naval battle that ended in the defeat of the Heike clan forces and the child Emperor Antoku at the hands of Minamoto no Yoshitsune. In the tale, upon hearing of the Navy's defeat, the Emperor's grandmother led the Emperor and his entourage to commit suicide by drowning in the waters of the strait, taking with her two of the three Imperial Regalia: the sacred jewel and the sword Kusanagi; the sacred mirror was recovered in extremis when one of the ladies-in-waiting was about to jump with it into the sea. Although the sacred jewel is said to have been found in its casket floating on the waves, Kusanagi was lost forever. Although written about historical events, The Tale of the Heike is a collection of epic poetry passed down orally and written down nearly 200 years after the actual
The maneki-neko is a common Japanese figurine, believed to bring good luck to the owner. In modern times, they are made of ceramic or plastic; the figurine depicts a cat beckoning with an upright paw, is displayed in—often at the entrance of—shops, pachinko parlors, other businesses. Some of the sculptures have a slow-moving paw beckoning. Maneki-neko comes in different colors and degrees of ornateness. Common colors are white, black and sometimes red. In addition to ceramic figurines, maneki-neko can be found as keychains, piggy banks, air fresheners, house-plant pots, miscellaneous ornaments, as well as large statues, it is sometimes incorrectly called the "Chinese lucky cat" because of its popularity among Chinese merchants. To some Westerners it may seem; this is due to the difference in gestures and body language recognized by some Westerners and the Japanese. The Japanese beckoning gesture is made by holding up the hand, palm down, folding the fingers down and back, thus the cat's appearance.
Some maneki-neko made for some Western markets will have the cat's paw facing upwards, in a beckoning gesture, more familiar to most Westerners. Maneki-neko can be found with either the left paw raised; the significance of the right and left raised paw differs with place. According to a general rule of thumb, a statue with the left paw raised is meant to be displayed in drinking establishments, while the one with the right paw for all other places of business; some maneki-neko feature battery- or solar-powered moving arms endlessly engaged in the beckoning gesture. Antique examples of maneki-neko may be made of carved wood and metal, handmade porcelain or cast iron, it is believed that Maneki-neko originated in Tokyo, while some insist it was Kyoto. Maneki-neko first appeared during the part of the Edo period in Japan; the earliest records of Maneki-neko appear in the Bukō nenpyō's entry dated 1852. Utagawa Hiroshige's ukiyo-e "Joruri-machi Hanka no zu," painted in 1852, depicts the Marushime-neko, a variation of Maneki-neko, being sold at Senso temple, Tokyo.
In 1876, during the Meiji era, it was mentioned in a newspaper article, there is evidence that kimono-clad maneki-neko were distributed at a shrine in Osaka during this time. A 1902 advertisement for maneki-neko indicates. Beyond this the exact origins of maneki-neko are uncertain, though several folktales offer explanations. Others have noted the similarities between the maneki-neko's gesture and that of a cat washing its face. There is a Japanese belief; this belief may in turn be related to an older Chinese proverb that states that if a cat washes its face, it will rain. Thus, it is possible a belief arose that a figure of a cat washing its face would bring in customers. In his Miscellaneous Morsels from Youyang, China's Tang Dynasty author Duan Chengshi wrote: "If a cat raises its paw over the ears and washes its face patrons will come". Maneki-neko is the subject of a number of folktales. Here are some of the most popular, explaining the cat's origins: The stray cat and the shop: The operator of an impoverished shop takes in a starving, stray cat despite having enough to feed himself.
In gratitude, the cat sits in the front of the store beckoning customers, thus bringing prosperity as a reward to the charitable proprietor. After, the "beckoning cat" has been a symbol of good luck for small business owners. Modern Japanese folklore suggests that keeping a talisman of good fortune, such as the maneki-neko, in bedrooms and places of study will bring about favorable results and life successes; because of its popularity in Chinese communities the maneki-neko is mistaken for being Chinese in origin rather than Japanese, is incorrectly referred to as a "Chinese lucky cat" or jīnmāo. This cat is prevalent in China domestically, is referred to as the followings: simplified Chinese: 招财猫; the Pokémon named. Unlike traditional Maneki-neko who hold the Koban coin, Meowth has the coin projected from its forehead. Meowth can fire this coin as a projectile weapon with its signature move Payday. Netta performed her song "Toy" in front of two walls full of maneki-neko at the Eurovision Song Contest 2018.
She won the competition after collecting 529 points at the final. Bakeneko Catbus Daruma doll Fukusuke Hello Kitty Jin Chan Kasha Koban Meowth Neko chigura Nekomata Tanuki