The Queensboro Bridge known as the 59th Street Bridge – because its Manhattan end is located between 59th and 60th Streets – and titled the Ed Koch Queensboro Bridge, is a cantilever bridge over the East River in New York City, completed in 1909. It connects the neighborhood of Long Island City in the borough of Queens with the neighborhood of the Upper East Side Manhattan, passing over Roosevelt Island; the Queensboro Bridge carries New York State Route 25, which terminates at the west side of the bridge. The bridge once carried NY 25A as well; the western leg of the Queensboro Bridge is flanked on its northern side by the freestanding Roosevelt Island Tramway. The bridge was, for a long time called the Queensboro Bridge, but in March 2011, the bridge was renamed in honor of former New York City mayor Ed Koch. No tolls are charged for motor vehicles to use the bridge; the Queensboro Bridge is the first entry point into Manhattan in the course of the New York City Marathon and the last exit point out of Manhattan in the Five Boro Bike Tour.
The Queensboro Bridge is a two-level double cantilever bridge. It has one over the channel on each side of Roosevelt Island; the bridge does not have suspended spans, so the cantilever arm from each side reaches to the midpoint of the span. The lengths of its five spans and approaches are as follows: Manhattan to Roosevelt Island span length: 1,182 ft Roosevelt Island span length: 630 ft Roosevelt Island to Queens span length: 984 ft Side span lengths: 469 and 459 ft Total length between anchorages: 3,724 ft Total length including approaches: 7,449 ft Until it was surpassed by the Quebec Bridge in 1917, the span between Manhattan and Roosevelt Island was the longest cantilever span in North America; the upper level of the bridge has four lanes of automobile traffic, consisting of two roadways with two lanes in each directions. It provides a view of the New York skyline. Although the two upper level roadways both end at Thomson Avenue on the Queens side, they diverge in opposite directions on the Manhattan side.
The lanes used by westbound traffic, located on the northern side of the bridge, lead north to 62nd and 63rd Streets. On the other hand, the lanes used by eastbound traffic are located on the southern side of the bridge lead south to 57th and 58th Streets; the roadway to 57th and 58th Streets is used as a westbound high-occupancy vehicle lane during rush hours. The lower level has five vehicular lanes, the inner four for automobile traffic and the southern outer lane for automobile traffic as well, used for Queens-bound traffic; the North Outer Roadway was converted into a permanent pedestrian walk and bicycle path in September 2000. The Manhattan approach to the bridge is supported on a series of Guastavino tile vaults which formed the elegant ceiling of the former Food Emporium Bridge Market and the restaurant Guastavino's, located under the bridge; this open air promenade was known as Bridgemarket and was part of Hornbostel's attempt to make the bridge more hospitable in the city. Serious proposals for a bridge linking Manhattan to Long Island City were first made as early as 1838 and attempts to finance such a bridge were made by a private company beginning in 1867.
Its efforts never came to fruition and the company went bankrupt in the 1890s. Successful plans came about in 1903 – after the creation in 1898 of Greater New York City through the amalgamation of Manhattan, Queens, the Bronx and Staten Island – under the new city's Department of Bridges, led by Gustav Lindenthal, appointed to the new position of Commissioner of Bridges in 1902, in collaboration with Leffert L. Buck and Henry Hornbostel, designers of the Williamsburg Bridge. Construction soon began, but it would take until 1909 for the bridge to be completed due to delays from the collapse of an incomplete span during a windstorm, from labor unrest, which included an attempt to dynamite one span; the bridge opened for public use on March 1909, having cost about $18 million and 50 lives. There was a ten-cent toll to drive over the bridge; the bridge's ceremonial grand opening was held on June 12, 1909. At the time, it was the fourth longest bridge in the world; the grand opening included. The bridge was known as the Blackwell's Island Bridge, from an earlier name for Roosevelt Island.
The bridge's upper level contained two pedestrian walkways and two elevated railway tracks. Three lanes of roadway were installed on the south side of the upper level in 1931, replacing the former upper-level walkway. All service on the Second Avenue Elevated was discontinued in 1942. From 1955 to 1958, two additional lanes were built on the upper level; the upper-level ramps on the Queens end of the bridge were built during the same time. The lower deck hosted four motor traffic lanes, what is now the "outer roadway" and pedestrian walk were two trolley lanes. A trolley connected passengers from Queens and Manhattan to a stop in the middle of the bridge, where passengers could take an elevator or the stairs down to Roosevelt Island; the trolley operated from the bridge's opening until April 7, 1957. The trolley lanes and mid-bridge station, as well as the stairs, were removed in the 1950s – the trolley's last run was on April 7, 1957 – and for the next few decades the bridge carried 11 lanes of automobile traffic.
In 1930, an elevator was built on the bridge to transport cars and passengers to what was called Welfare Island, now Roos
Anne Morgan (philanthropist)
Anne Tracy Morgan was an American philanthropist who provided relief efforts in aid to France during and after World War I and World War II. Morgan was educated traveled and grew up amongst the wealth her father had amassed, she was awarded a medal from the National Institute of Social Science in 1915, the same year she published the story The American Girl. In 1932 she became the first American woman appointed a commander of the French Legion of Honor, she was born on July 25, 1873 at "Cragston" her family's country estate on the Hudson River at Highland Falls, New York, the youngest of four siblings born to John Pierpont Morgan and Frances Louisa Tracy Morgan. In 1903, she became part owner of the Villa Trianon near Versailles, along with decorator and socialite Elsie De Wolfe and theatrical/literary agent Elisabeth Marbury. Morgan was instrumental in assisting De Wolfe, her close friend, in pioneering a career in interior decoration; the three women, known as "The Versailles Triumvirate," hosted a salon in France and, in 1903, along with Anne Harriman Vanderbilt, helped organize the Colony Club, the first women's social club in New York City and helped found the exclusive neighborhood of Sutton Place along Manhattan's East River.
Around 1910, she became a union activist. Anne Morgan supported striking female workers in New York's garment industry, she and other wealthy female members of her social circle stood in picket lines with striking shirtwaist workers and contributed financially to their cause. These strikes in New York's garment industry preceded the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire. In 1912, she started the Society for the Prevention of Useless Gift Giving with Eleanor Robson Belmont. In 1916, Morgan and De Wolfe funded Cole Porter's first Broadway musical, See America First, produced by Marbury. From 1917 to 1921, Morgan took residence near the French front, not far from both Soissons and the "Chemin des Dames" at Blérancourt, ran a formidable help organisation, The American Friends of France, financed out of her own deep pockets with the help of an active network in the States; the AFF was active in succoring noncombatants, organizing a health service that still exists in Soissons, a workshop to provide basic furniture to bombed-out families, a holiday camp for children, a mobile library, taken over by the library in Soissons, so on.
She returned in 1939 to help the Soissons evacuees. Anne Murray Dike, a doctor, joined Anne Morgan in France; the estate of Blérancourt was transformed into a museum and inaugurated in 1930, one year after the death of Anne Murray Dike. The two were rewarded for their services, they developed a romantic relationship. Dike is buried in the village cemetery at Blérancourt. Morgan's friendships included many celebrities of her day, her connection to individuals such as Cole Porter, as mentioned above, allowed her to compile a cookbook for charity. Titled the Spécialités de la Maison and published in 1940 to benefit the AFF, it offered recipes by cultural icons such as Pearl S. Buck, Salvador Dalí, Katharine Hepburn, she died on January 1952 in Mount Kisco, New York. A four-story townhouse built in the Sutton Place neighborhood of Manhattan's Upper East Side in New York City for Anne Morgan in 1921 was donated as a gift to the United Nations in 1972, it is now the official residence of the United Nations Secretary-General.
Morgan, Anne Tracy, Noted Relations: Celebrities, et Cetera. Retrieved 2006 Morgan, Anne Tracy, Encyclopædia Britannica. Dec 22, 2006
Susan Alexandra "Sigourney" Weaver is an American actress. Dubbed "the Sci-Fi Queen", Weaver is considered to be pioneer of action heroines in science fiction films, she is known for her role as Ellen Ripley in the Aliens franchise. The role earned her an Academy Award nomination in 1986 and is considered one of the most significant female protagonists in all of cinema. Weaver received a Tony Award nomination for the 1984 Broadway play Hurlyburly. A seven-time Golden Globe Award nominee, in 1988 she won both Best Actress in Drama and Best Supporting Actress for her work in the films Gorillas in the Mist and Working Girl, becoming the first person to win two acting Golden Globes in the same year, she received Academy Award nominations for both films. For her role in the film The Ice Storm, she won the BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role. Weaver's other popular works include Ghostbusters, Ghostbusters II, Galaxy Quest, Futurama, WALL-E, Paul, The Cabin in the Woods, Finding Dory, A Monster Calls.
Weaver was born in Manhattan, New York City, the only daughter of Elizabeth Inglis, an actress, NBC television executive and television pioneer Sylvester "Pat" Weaver. Her uncle, Doodles Weaver, was a actor, her mother was English, from Colchester and her father, American, had English, Scots-Irish, Dutch ancestry, including roots in New England. Weaver began using the name "Sigourney Weaver" in 1963 after a minor character in Chapter 3 of F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel The Great Gatsby. Weaver attended a girls' preparatory school in Simsbury, Connecticut, she attended The Chapin School and The Brearley School. Sigourney was 5 ft 10 1⁄2 in tall by the age of 14, although she only grew another inch during her teens to her adult height of 5 ft 11 1⁄2 in. In 1967, at the age of 18, Weaver volunteered on a kibbutz for several months. Weaver attended Sarah Lawrence College. In 1972, she graduated with a B. A. in English from Stanford University, where she first began her involvement in acting by living in Stanford's co-ed Beta Chi Community for the Performing Arts.
Weaver earned her Master of Fine Arts degree at the Yale University School of Drama in 1974, where one of her appearances was in the chorus in a production of Stephen Sondheim's musical version of The Frogs, another was as one of a mob of Roman soldiers alongside Meryl Streep in another production. Weaver acted in original plays by her friend and classmate Christopher Durang, she appeared in an "Off-Broadway" production of Durang's comedy Beyond Therapy in 1981, directed by the up-and-coming director Jerry Zaks. Weaver's first role is said to be in Woody Allen's comedy Annie Hall playing a non speaking role opposite Allen. Weaver appeared two years as Warrant Officer / Lieutenant Ripley in Ridley Scott's blockbuster film Alien, in a role designated to co-star British-born actress, Veronica Cartwright, until a late change in casting. Cartwright stated to World Entertainment News Network that she was in England ready to start work on Alien when she discovered that she would be playing the navigator Lambert in the project, Weaver had been given the lead role of Ripley.
She reprised the role in the three sequels of the Alien movie franchise, Alien 3 and Alien Resurrection. Ty Burr of The Boston Globe states, "One of the real pleasures of Alien is to watch the emergence of both Ellen Ripley as a character and Sigourney Weaver as a star."In the sequel Aliens directed by James Cameron, critic Roger Ebert wrote, "Weaver, onscreen all the time, comes through with a strong, sympathetic performance: She's the thread that holds everything together." She followed the success of Alien appearing opposite Mel Gibson in The Year of Living Dangerously released to critical acclaim and as Dana Barrett in Ghostbusters and Ghostbusters II. By the end of the decade, Weaver appeared in two of her most memorable and critically acclaimed performances. In 1988, she starred as Dian Fossey in Gorillas in the Mist; the same year, she appeared opposite Harrison Ford in a supporting role as Katharine Parker in the film Working Girl. Weaver won Golden Globe Awards for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress for her two roles that year.
She received two Academy Award nominations in 1988, for Best Supporting Actress for her role in Working Girl and Best Actress for Gorillas in the Mist. She gave birth to her daughter Charlotte Simpson taking a few years' break from the movie business and focusing on her family, she returned to the big screen with Alien 3 and Ridley's Scott's 1492: Conquest of Paradise in which she played the role of Queen Isabella. In the early 1990s, Weaver appeared in several films including Dave opposite Kevin Kline and Frank Langella. In 1994, she starred in the Maiden as Paulina Escobar, she played the role of agoraphobic criminal psychologist Helen Hudson in the movie Copycat. Throughout the 1990s decade, Weaver concentrated on smaller and supporting roles such as Jeffrey with Nathan Lane and Patrick Stewart. In 1997, she appeared in Ang Lee's The Ice Storm, her role in The Ice Storm as Janey Carver, earned her another Golden Globe nomination for Best Supporting Actress, won her a BAFTA Award for Actress in a Supporting Role.
In 1999, she co-starred in the science fiction comedy Galaxy Quest and the drama A Map of the World, earning her another Golden Globe nomination for Best Actress
Anne Harriman Vanderbilt
Anne Harriman Sands Rutherfurd Vanderbilt was an American heiress known for her marriages to prominent men and her role in the development of the Sutton Place neighborhood as a fashionable place to live. Anne was born on February 17, 1861, she was one of eight children born to banker Oliver Laura Harriman. Her siblings included Oliver Harriman, Jr. J. Borden Harriman, Herbert M. Harriman, her first cousin, E. H. Harriman, was the father of Governor W. Averell Harriman. In 1903, along with Anne Morgan and Elisabeth Marbury, Anne helped organize the Colony Club, the first women's social club in New York, they engaged Stanford White New York's most famous architect, to design the interiors of the Club. Anne was known for her philanthropy and for devoting "herself to those less fortunate", she financed the construction of the "open-stair" apartment houses, four large buildings that contained 400 apartments on Avenue A in Manhattan. The buildings were created to house tuberculosis patients. Vanderbilt donated $1,000,000 and the buildings were completed in 1910.
In 1916, she hosted a fundraiser for the war sufferers of Venice. In 1919, she was made a Knight of the Légion d'Honneur by the French government and in 1932, she received the rank of Officer of the Légion d'Honneur. In 1921, she sold their country home, "Stepping Stones", in Wheatley Hills in Jericho on Long Island for $500,000 to Ormond Gerald Smith; the estate was around 125 acres and had a home commissioned by her late husband and designed by John R. Hill. In 1921, Anne purchased the former home of Effingham B. Sutton, at 1 Sutton Place, for $50,000 in the new neighborhood of Sutton Place in Manhattan. Before her move, along with Elizabeth Marbury, Anne Morgan, her sister, Mrs. Stephen H. Olin, the neighborhood was known as a squalid place. Vanderbilt and Morgan each hired Mott B. Schmidt, an American architect best known for his buildings in the American Georgian Classical style, to build, or in Vanderbilt's case, renovate homes in the neighborhood; the society pages of The New York Times scoffed at their relocation and referred to the areas as an "Amazon Enclave."Mott transformed the home into a thirteen-room townhouse with terraced gardens that overlooked the East River.
The cost of the home renovation was $75,000 in 1921. Vanderbilt had Elsie de Wolfe design the interiors; the terrace, done by Renee Prahar, featured two center pillars with ornamental monkeys holding globes of light in their hands. By January 1929, The Times changed their tune and wrote: Five years ago, when Mrs. William K. Vanderbilt established her residence in Sutton Place overlooking the East River, it was little dreamed that within so short a time such a marked migration from mid-Manhattan to the East River district would occur as is now in full swing. In the unbroken line of new apartments, lining Fifty-seventh Street solidly from Second Avenue to Sutton Place, those who doubted the wisdom of Mrs. Vanderbilt's move have found a convincing answer to their conjectures as to the ultimate success of the Sutton Place movement, she married firstly sportsman Samuel Stevens Sands II, the son of Samuel Stevens Sands, the head of S. S. Sands Co. Before his death from a fall during a hunt at Meadow Brook, she had two sons by Sands: George Winthrop Sands, married to Tayo Newton, daughter of Dr. B. Newton of New York, in 1905.
Samuel Stevens Sands III, who married Gertrude Sheldon, daughter of George R. Sheldon, in 1910, her second marriage was on June 16, 1890 to Lewis Morris Rutherfurd, Jr. son of the astronomer Lewis Morris Rutherfurd and brother to Winthrop Rutherfurd. Before his death, she had two daughters by Rutherford: Barbara Cairncross Rutherfurd, who married Cyril Hatch, son of Charles Henry Hatch, in 1916, they had once child, Rutherfurd L. Hatch, before divorcing in 1920. In 1924, she married a fellow follower of Oom the Omnipotent. After having two children, Guy Winfield Nicholls and Margaret Mary Nicholls, they divorced in 1930. Margaret Stuyvesant Rutherfurd, who first married Ogden Livingston Secretary of the Treasury, they divorced in 1919. In 1922, she married Sir Paul Henry Dukes, they divorced in 1929 and that same year, she married Prince Charles Michel Joachim Napoléon, son of Joachim, 5th Prince Murat. They divorced and in 1939, she married Frederick Leybourne Sprague. On April 29, 1903, she married William Kissam Vanderbilt, in London.
Vanderbilt, married to Alva Smith and divorced in 1895, was the son of William Henry Vanderbilt and Maria Louisa Kissam. He was the father of Consuelo Vanderbilt, William Kissam Vanderbilt II, Harold Stirling Vanderbilt, they remained married until his death. She had no children by Vanderbilt. Anne died on April 20, 1940, she was buried inside The Vanderbilt mausoleum at the Moravian Cemetery, designed by Richard Morris Hunt and constructed in 1885–1886, part of the family's private section within the cemetery. Their mausoleum is a replica of a Romanesque church in France; the landscaped grounds around the Vanderbilt mausoleum were designed by Frederick Law Olmsted. The Vanderbilt section is not open to the public
Midtown Manhattan is the central portion of the borough of Manhattan in New York City. Midtown is home to some of the city's most iconic buildings, including the Empire State Building, the Chrysler Building, the Hudson Yards Redevelopment Project, the headquarters of the United Nations, Grand Central Terminal, Rockefeller Center, as well as Broadway and Times Square. Midtown Manhattan is the largest central business district in the world and ranks among the most expensive pieces of real estate. However, due to the high price of retail spaces in Midtown, there are many vacant storefronts in the neighborhood. Midtown is the country's largest commercial and media center, a growing financial center; the majority of New York City's skyscrapers, including its tallest hotels and apartment towers, are in Midtown. The area hosts commuters and residents working in its offices and retail establishments and students. Times Square, the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, is a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
Sixth Avenue has the headquarters of three of the four major U. S. television networks. Midtown is part of Manhattan Community District 5, it is patrolled by the 18th Precincts of the New York City Police Department. Geographically, the northern bound of Midtown Manhattan is defined to be 59th Street. Midtown spans the entire island of Manhattan along an east-west axis, bounded by the East River on its east and the Hudson River to its west; the Encyclopedia of New York City defines Midtown as extending from 34th Street to 59th Street and from 3rd Avenue to 8th Avenue. In addition to its central business district, Midtown Manhattan encompasses many neighborhoods, including Hell's Kitchen and Chelsea on the West Side, Murray Hill, Kips Bay, Turtle Bay, Gramercy Park on the East Side, it is sometimes broken into "Midtown East" and "Midtown West", or north and south as in the New York City Police Department's Midtown North and Midtown South precincts. Neighborhoods in the Midtown area include the following: Between 59th Street to the north and 42nd Street to the south, from west to east: Hell's Kitchen from the Hudson River to Eighth Avenue, including Theatre Row on West 42nd Street between Eleventh Avenue and Ninth Avenue, where Hell's Kitchen meets Central Park and the Upper West Side at West 59th Street and Eighth Avenue, Columbus Circle Times Square and the Theater District from West 42nd Street to around West 53rd Street, from Eighth Avenue to Sixth Avenue The Diamond District on West 47th Street between Sixth Avenue and Fifth Avenue Midtown East from around Sixth Avenue to the East River, including: Sutton Place near the East River between East 53rd Street and East 59th Street Turtle Bay from 53rd Street to 42nd Street and from Lexington Avenue to the East River Tudor City from First Avenue to Second Avenue and East 40th Street to East 43rd Street Between 42nd Street north and around 34th Street, from west to east, north to south: Hell's Kitchen from the Hudson River to Eighth Avenue The Garment District from West 42nd Street to West 34th Street and from Ninth Avenue to Fifth Avenue Herald Square around the intersection of Broadway, Sixth Avenue, West 34th Street Murray Hill from East 42nd Street to East 34th Street and Fifth Avenue to Second Avenue Between 34th Street and 23rd Street, from west to east: Chelsea, between the Hudson River and Sixth Avenue Koreatown from 36th Street to 31st Street and Fifth and Sixth Avenues, centered on "Korea Way" on 32nd Street between Fifth Avenue and Broadway Rose Hill or Curry Hill between Madison Avenue and Third Avenue Kips Bay from Third Avenue to the East River Between 23rd Street and 14th Street, going west to east and north to south: Chelsea, between the Hudson River and Sixth Avenue The Meatpacking District in the southwesternmost corner of Midtown, to the south of West 15th Street Madison Square and the Flatiron District, the area surround the intersection of Broadway, Fifth Avenue and 23rd Street.
Union Square, to the northeast of the intersection of Broadway, East 14th Street and Park Avenue South Gramercy from East 23rd Street to East 14th Street and Lexington Avenue to First Avenue Peter Cooper Village from East 23rd Street to East 20th Street and 1st Avenue to Avenue C Stuyvesant Town from East 20th Street to East 14th Street and First Avenue to Avenue CMidtown is the original district in the United States to bear the name and included historical but now defunct neighborhoods such as the Ladies' Mile, along Fifth Avenue from 14th to 23rd Street. Important streets and thoroughfares Broadway 34th Street 42nd Street The border of Midtown Manhattan is nebulous and further confused by the fact that the term "Midtown Manhattan" can be used to refer either to a district or a group of neighborhoods and districts in Manhattan: The area between 14th and 86th Streets includes the center of Manhattan. Manhattan Community District 5 is located from 14th to 59th Streets between Lexington Avenue and Eighth Avenue.
Community District 5 is coterminous with Midtown but includes the Flatiron District, NoMad, Union Square, parts of Gramercy Park an
57th Street (Manhattan)
57th Street is one of New York City's major thoroughfares, which runs as a two-way street east-west in the Midtown section of the borough of Manhattan, from the New York City Department of Sanitation's dock on the Hudson River at the West Side Highway to a small park overlooking the East River built on a platform suspended above the FDR Drive. Between Fifth and Eighth Avenue, it is two blocks south of Central Park. 57th Street is notable for restaurants and up-market shops. The street was designated by the Commissioners' Plan of 1811 that established the Manhattan street grid as one of 15 east-west streets that would be 100 feet in width. Over its two-mile length, 57th Street passes through several distinct neighborhoods with differing mixes of commercial and residential uses; the first block of 57th Street, at its western end at Twelfth Avenue near the Hudson River waterfront, is home to the VIA 57 West building, designed in the form of a triangular pyramid by Danish architect Bjarke Ingels.
From there to Tenth Avenue are low-rise industrial properties, several automobile dealerships, small-scale residential buildings. Much of the south side of the block between Eleventh and Tenth Avenues is occupied by the CBS Broadcast Center, the network's primary East Coast production facility; the street's name was used by CBS to title a newsmagazine program produced by the network in the late 1980s, West 57th. From Tenth Avenue to Eighth Avenue, larger residential buildings appear. Beginning at Eighth Avenue and continuing east through the core of Midtown Manhattan, the street is dominated by large commercial and residential towers, such as at the Hearst Tower at the southwest corner of 57th Street and Eighth Avenue; this stretch of 57th Street is home to several large hotels such as Le Parker Meridien and well-known restaurants such as the Russian Tea Room, to the offices of several magazines including The Economist. The corner of 57th Street and Seventh Avenue is home to the city-owned performance venue Carnegie Hall.
The mid-block between Seventh and Sixth avenues is a terminus of a north-south pedestrian avenue named Sixth and a Half Avenue. East of Sixth Avenue, the street is home to numerous high-end retail establishments including Van Cleef & Arpels, Tiffany & Co. and Bergdorf Goodman. The stores located at 57th Street's intersections with Fifth and Madison Avenues occupy some of the most expensive real estate in the world. Commercial and retail buildings continue to dominate until Third Avenue, where the street returns to a preponderance of large residential buildings; as it continues from here through its final blocks leading to its terminus at Sutton Place, the street consists of a nearly unbroken stretch of upscale apartment buildings with doormen and small commercial establishments such as drug stores, bank branches, restaurants. 57th Street ends at a small city park overlooking the East River just east of Sutton Place. Notable buildings include 300 East 57th Street by architect Emery Roth. Beginning with the construction of One57, a 1,004-foot apartment building between Sixth and Seventh Avenues, completed in 2014, a large number of tall ultra-luxury residential buildings have been constructed or proposed on the section of 57th Street corresponding to the southern edge of Central Park.
Due to the record-breaking prices that have been set for the apartments in these buildings, the press has dubbed this section of 57th Street as "Billionaires' Row". These projects have generated controversy concerning the economic conditions and zoning policies that have encouraged these buildings, as well as the impact these towers will have on the surrounding neighborhoods and the shadows they will cast on Central Park; the 57th Street station on the New York City Subway's IND Sixth Avenue Line is located at the intersection of 57th Street and Sixth Avenue and is served by the F train. The 57th Street – Seventh Avenue station on the BMT Broadway Line is located at 57th Street and Seventh Avenue, served by the N, Q, R, W trains; the M57 and M31 crosstown bus routes share a corridor between 1st Avenues. The M57 extends up the West Side to the 72nd Street subway station, while the M31 extends up the East Side to 92nd Street and 1st Avenue via York Avenue. Several express buses from Brooklyn and Staten Island serve 57th Street as well.
Four Seasons Hotel between Madison and Park Avenues Fuller Building at Madison Avenue: housing many art galleries Tourneau TimeMachine at Madison Avenue Tiffany & Co. at Fifth Avenue Trump Tower Bergdorf Goodman at Fifth Avenue Ascot Chang at Fifth Avenue Formerly: Steinway Hall at Sixth Avenue Carnegie Hall at Seventh Avenue Art Students League of New York between Seventh Avenue and Broadway Russian Tea Room, east of Carnegie Hall Hearst Tower at Eighth Avenue CBS Broadcast Center, from Tenth to Eleventh Avenues International Flavors & Fragrances, between Tenth and Eleventh Avenues The following high-end stores can be found between Sixth Avenue and Park Avenue: Notes Shopping 57th Street by NYC Tourist 57th Street: A New York Songline – virtual walking tour
Yorkville is a neighborhood in the Upper East Side of Manhattan, New York City. Its southern boundary is East 79th Street, its northern East 96th Street, its western Third Avenue, its eastern the East River; the neighborhood, in Manhattan Community Board 8, is among the most affluent in the city. In August 1776, George Washington stationed half of his Continental Army in Manhattan, with many troops in the Yorkville area in defensive positions along the East River to protect the other half of his army if they were to retreat from Brooklyn, to inflict damage on invading land and sea forces. Following the Battle of Long Island defeat on August 27, the Continentals implemented an orderly pivoting retreat in the Yorkville area, leading the enemy to entice the Continentals to fight by piping "Fly Away", about a fox running away from hounds; the Continentals' disciplined northerly retreat led to the successful Battle of Harlem Heights in September 1776. In 1815, the Upper East Side was a farmland and market garden district.
The Boston Post Road traversed the Upper East Side, locally called the Eastern Post Road. From 1833 to 1837 the New York and Harlem Railroad, one of the earliest railway systems in the United States, was extended through the Upper East Side along Fourth Avenue. A hamlet grew near the 86th Street station, becoming the Yorkville neighborhood as gradual yet steady commercial development occurred; the current street grid was laid-out between 1839 and 1844 as part of the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, so the Eastern Post Road was abandoned. The community had been referred to as Yorkville before 1867. By 1850, a significant proportion of the inhabitants of the area were the Germans and the Irish that helped build the Croton Aqueduct; the area was included in the 19th administrative district whose boundaries were 40th and 86th Street. In 1858, trams were built along Third Avenues. After the American Civil War, mansions replaced slums in Yorkville. On December 30, 1878, the IRT Third Avenue Line opened, followed by the IRT Second Avenue Line in August 1879.
For much of the 19th and 20th centuries, Yorkville was a middle- to working-class neighborhood, inhabited by many people of Czech, Irish, German and Lebanese descent. The area was a German enclave, though; the neighborhood became more affluent. From 1880, Yorkville became a destination for German-born immigrants. However, by the 1900s, many German residents moved to Yorkville and other neighborhoods from "Kleindeutschland" on the Lower East Side after the General Slocum disaster on June 15, 1904; the ship caught fire in the East River just off the shores of Yorkville, leading family members to move closer to the site of the incident. Most of the passengers on the ship were German. In addition, the general trend towards moving to the suburbs reduced the German population in Manhattan. On 86th Street, in the central portion of Yorkville, there were many German shops and bakeries. Yorkville became the melting pot of populations arriving from various regions of the Prussian-dominated German Empire and its colonies, where many cultures spoke German.
In the 1930s, the neighborhood was the home base of Fritz Julius Kuhn's German American Bund, the most notorious pro-Nazi group in 1930s United States, which led to spontaneous protests by other residents. Yorkville was a haven for refugees from fascist Germany in the 1940s, from refugees from communist regimes in the 1950s and 1960s; the neighborhood is the site of a large German-American celebration. The largest non-German group were the Irish. Irish lived in an area bounded by 81st and 85th Streets, Lexington and Fifth Avenues, they attended mass at such churches as St. Ignatius Loyola on 84th Street and Park Avenue, Our Lady of Good Counsel and the Church of St. Joseph. There were many Irish bars including Finnegan's Wake, Dorrian's Red Hand Restaurant, Ireland's 32, Carrol's Hideaway, O'Brien's and Kinsale Tavern; until the late 1990s, New York's St. Patrick's Day Parade ended at 86th Street and Third Avenue, the historical center of Yorkville. In addition, Jews lived on Second Avenue.79th Street was a hub for the Austro-Hungarian populace.
Popular restaurants included the Viennese Lantern, Hungarian Gardens, Robert Heller's Cafe Abazzia at 2nd Avenue and the Debrechen. There were a number of butcher stores and businesses that imported goods from Hungary. Churches included the Hungarian Reformed Church on East 82nd Street. In addition, Czechs and Slovaks lived from 65th to 73rd Street. Besides Ruc, a Czech restaurant off Second Avenue, there were sokol halls on 71st Streets. There were other Czech and Slovak businesses, such as Czech butcher shops and grocery stores, shops that sold imported goods such as Bohemian books, leather products and crystal. Around the late 1920s, Yorkville's ethnic diversity was beginning to wane. In 1926, the New York Times wrote of Yorkville's changing ethnic makeup: Yorkville, for well-nigh two decades known to connoisseurs of east side life as the exclusive domain of Czechoslovaks and Germans, is giving up its accentuated Central European character and merging into a state of colorless impersonality… In 1928, a one-block section of Sutton Place north of 59th Street, all of Avenue A north of that point, was renamed York Avenue to honor U.
S. Army Sergeant Alvin York, who received the Medal of Honor for attacking a German machine gun nest during World War I's Meuse-Argonne Offensive; the dismantling of the Third Avenue El in 1955 led to