The Queensboro Bridge known as the 59th Street Bridge – because its Manhattan end is located between 59th and 60th Streets – and titled the Ed Koch Queensboro Bridge, is a cantilever bridge over the East River in New York City, completed in 1909. It connects the neighborhood of Long Island City in the borough of Queens with the neighborhood of the Upper East Side Manhattan, passing over Roosevelt Island; the Queensboro Bridge carries New York State Route 25, which terminates at the west side of the bridge. The bridge once carried NY 25A as well; the western leg of the Queensboro Bridge is flanked on its northern side by the freestanding Roosevelt Island Tramway. The bridge was, for a long time called the Queensboro Bridge, but in March 2011, the bridge was renamed in honor of former New York City mayor Ed Koch. No tolls are charged for motor vehicles to use the bridge; the Queensboro Bridge is the first entry point into Manhattan in the course of the New York City Marathon and the last exit point out of Manhattan in the Five Boro Bike Tour.
The Queensboro Bridge is a two-level double cantilever bridge. It has one over the channel on each side of Roosevelt Island; the bridge does not have suspended spans, so the cantilever arm from each side reaches to the midpoint of the span. The lengths of its five spans and approaches are as follows: Manhattan to Roosevelt Island span length: 1,182 ft Roosevelt Island span length: 630 ft Roosevelt Island to Queens span length: 984 ft Side span lengths: 469 and 459 ft Total length between anchorages: 3,724 ft Total length including approaches: 7,449 ft Until it was surpassed by the Quebec Bridge in 1917, the span between Manhattan and Roosevelt Island was the longest cantilever span in North America; the upper level of the bridge has four lanes of automobile traffic, consisting of two roadways with two lanes in each directions. It provides a view of the New York skyline. Although the two upper level roadways both end at Thomson Avenue on the Queens side, they diverge in opposite directions on the Manhattan side.
The lanes used by westbound traffic, located on the northern side of the bridge, lead north to 62nd and 63rd Streets. On the other hand, the lanes used by eastbound traffic are located on the southern side of the bridge lead south to 57th and 58th Streets; the roadway to 57th and 58th Streets is used as a westbound high-occupancy vehicle lane during rush hours. The lower level has five vehicular lanes, the inner four for automobile traffic and the southern outer lane for automobile traffic as well, used for Queens-bound traffic; the North Outer Roadway was converted into a permanent pedestrian walk and bicycle path in September 2000. The Manhattan approach to the bridge is supported on a series of Guastavino tile vaults which formed the elegant ceiling of the former Food Emporium Bridge Market and the restaurant Guastavino's, located under the bridge; this open air promenade was known as Bridgemarket and was part of Hornbostel's attempt to make the bridge more hospitable in the city. Serious proposals for a bridge linking Manhattan to Long Island City were first made as early as 1838 and attempts to finance such a bridge were made by a private company beginning in 1867.
Its efforts never came to fruition and the company went bankrupt in the 1890s. Successful plans came about in 1903 – after the creation in 1898 of Greater New York City through the amalgamation of Manhattan, Queens, the Bronx and Staten Island – under the new city's Department of Bridges, led by Gustav Lindenthal, appointed to the new position of Commissioner of Bridges in 1902, in collaboration with Leffert L. Buck and Henry Hornbostel, designers of the Williamsburg Bridge. Construction soon began, but it would take until 1909 for the bridge to be completed due to delays from the collapse of an incomplete span during a windstorm, from labor unrest, which included an attempt to dynamite one span; the bridge opened for public use on March 1909, having cost about $18 million and 50 lives. There was a ten-cent toll to drive over the bridge; the bridge's ceremonial grand opening was held on June 12, 1909. At the time, it was the fourth longest bridge in the world; the grand opening included. The bridge was known as the Blackwell's Island Bridge, from an earlier name for Roosevelt Island.
The bridge's upper level contained two pedestrian walkways and two elevated railway tracks. Three lanes of roadway were installed on the south side of the upper level in 1931, replacing the former upper-level walkway. All service on the Second Avenue Elevated was discontinued in 1942. From 1955 to 1958, two additional lanes were built on the upper level; the upper-level ramps on the Queens end of the bridge were built during the same time. The lower deck hosted four motor traffic lanes, what is now the "outer roadway" and pedestrian walk were two trolley lanes. A trolley connected passengers from Queens and Manhattan to a stop in the middle of the bridge, where passengers could take an elevator or the stairs down to Roosevelt Island; the trolley operated from the bridge's opening until April 7, 1957. The trolley lanes and mid-bridge station, as well as the stairs, were removed in the 1950s – the trolley's last run was on April 7, 1957 – and for the next few decades the bridge carried 11 lanes of automobile traffic.
In 1930, an elevator was built on the bridge to transport cars and passengers to what was called Welfare Island, now Roos
East Side (Manhattan)
The East Side of Manhattan refers to the side of Manhattan which abuts the East River and faces Brooklyn and Queens. Fifth Avenue, Central Park from 59th to 110th Streets, Broadway below 8th Street separate it from the West Side; the major neighborhoods on the East Side include East Harlem, Upper East Side, Turtle Bay, Murray Hill, Kips Bay, East Village, the Lower East Side. The main north–south expressways servicing the East Side are the Franklin D. Roosevelt East River Drive and Harlem River Drive, which for the majority of their length are separated from the east shore of the island by the Manhattan Waterfront Greenway; the East Side is served by many bus lines. West Side East Side Kids
Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1714 and 1830. It is eponymous for the first four British monarchs of the House of Hanover—George I, George II, George III, George IV—who reigned in continuous succession from August 1714 to June 1830; the style was revived in the late 19th century in the United States as Colonial Revival architecture and in the early 20th century in Great Britain as Neo-Georgian architecture. In the United States the term "Georgian" is used to describe all buildings from the period, regardless of style; the Georgian style is variable, but marked by symmetry and proportion based on the classical architecture of Greece and Rome, as revived in Renaissance architecture. Ornament is normally in the classical tradition, but restrained, sometimes completely absent on the exterior; the period brought the vocabulary of classical architecture to smaller and more modest buildings than had been the case before, replacing English vernacular architecture for all new middle-class homes and public buildings by the end of the period.
Georgian architecture is characterized by its balance. Regularity, as with ashlar stonework, was approved, imbuing symmetry and adherence to classical rules: the lack of symmetry, where Georgian additions were added to earlier structures remaining visible, was felt as a flaw, at least before Nash began to introduce it in a variety of styles. Regularity of housefronts along a street was a desirable feature of Georgian town planning; until the start of the Gothic Revival in the early 19th century, Georgian designs lay within the Classical orders of architecture and employed a decorative vocabulary derived from ancient Rome or Greece. In towns, which expanded during the period, landowners turned into property developers, rows of identical terraced houses became the norm; the wealthy were persuaded to live in these in town if provided with a square of garden in front of the house. There was an enormous amount of building in the period, all over the English-speaking world, the standards of construction were high.
Where they have not been demolished, large numbers of Georgian buildings have survived two centuries or more, they still form large parts of the core of cities such as London, Dublin, Newcastle upon Tyne and Bristol. The period saw the growth of a trained architectural profession; this contrasted with earlier styles, which were disseminated among craftsmen through the direct experience of the apprenticeship system. But most buildings were still designed by builders and landlords together, the wide spread of Georgian architecture, the Georgian styles of design more came from dissemination through pattern books and inexpensive suites of engravings. Authors such as the prolific William Halfpenny had editions in America as well as Britain. A similar phenomenon can be seen in the commonality of housing designs in Canada and the United States from the 19th century down to the 1950s, using pattern books drawn up by professional architects that were distributed by lumber companies and hardware stores to contractors and homebuilders.
From the mid-18th century, Georgian styles were assimilated into an architectural vernacular that became part and parcel of the training of every architect, builder, carpenter and plasterer, from Edinburgh to Maryland. Georgian succeeded the English Baroque of Sir Christopher Wren, Sir John Vanbrugh, Thomas Archer, William Talman, Nicholas Hawksmoor; the architect James Gibbs was a transitional figure, his earlier buildings are Baroque, reflecting the time he spent in Rome in the early 18th century, but he adjusted his style after 1720. Major architects to promote the change in direction from baroque were Colen Campbell, author of the influential book Vitruvius Britannicus. Other prominent architects of the early Georgian period include James Paine, Robert Taylor, John Wood, the Elder; the European Grand Tour became common for wealthy patrons in the period, Italian influence remained dominant, though at the start of the period Hanover Square, Westminster and occupied by Whig supporters of the new dynasty, seems to have deliberately adopted German stylistic elements in their honour vertical bands connecting the windows.
The styles that resulted fall within several categories. In the mainstream of Georgian style were both Palladian architecture—and its whimsical alternatives and Chinoiserie, which were the English-speaking world's equivalent of European Rococo. From the mid-1760s a range of Neoclassical modes were fashionable, associated with the British architects Robert Adam, James Gibbs, Sir William Chambers, James Wyatt, George Dance the Younger, Henry Holland and Sir John Soane. John Nash was one of the
Anne Harriman Vanderbilt
Anne Harriman Sands Rutherfurd Vanderbilt was an American heiress known for her marriages to prominent men and her role in the development of the Sutton Place neighborhood as a fashionable place to live. Anne was born on February 17, 1861, she was one of eight children born to banker Oliver Laura Harriman. Her siblings included Oliver Harriman, Jr. J. Borden Harriman, Herbert M. Harriman, her first cousin, E. H. Harriman, was the father of Governor W. Averell Harriman. In 1903, along with Anne Morgan and Elisabeth Marbury, Anne helped organize the Colony Club, the first women's social club in New York, they engaged Stanford White New York's most famous architect, to design the interiors of the Club. Anne was known for her philanthropy and for devoting "herself to those less fortunate", she financed the construction of the "open-stair" apartment houses, four large buildings that contained 400 apartments on Avenue A in Manhattan. The buildings were created to house tuberculosis patients. Vanderbilt donated $1,000,000 and the buildings were completed in 1910.
In 1916, she hosted a fundraiser for the war sufferers of Venice. In 1919, she was made a Knight of the Légion d'Honneur by the French government and in 1932, she received the rank of Officer of the Légion d'Honneur. In 1921, she sold their country home, "Stepping Stones", in Wheatley Hills in Jericho on Long Island for $500,000 to Ormond Gerald Smith; the estate was around 125 acres and had a home commissioned by her late husband and designed by John R. Hill. In 1921, Anne purchased the former home of Effingham B. Sutton, at 1 Sutton Place, for $50,000 in the new neighborhood of Sutton Place in Manhattan. Before her move, along with Elizabeth Marbury, Anne Morgan, her sister, Mrs. Stephen H. Olin, the neighborhood was known as a squalid place. Vanderbilt and Morgan each hired Mott B. Schmidt, an American architect best known for his buildings in the American Georgian Classical style, to build, or in Vanderbilt's case, renovate homes in the neighborhood; the society pages of The New York Times scoffed at their relocation and referred to the areas as an "Amazon Enclave."Mott transformed the home into a thirteen-room townhouse with terraced gardens that overlooked the East River.
The cost of the home renovation was $75,000 in 1921. Vanderbilt had Elsie de Wolfe design the interiors; the terrace, done by Renee Prahar, featured two center pillars with ornamental monkeys holding globes of light in their hands. By January 1929, The Times changed their tune and wrote: Five years ago, when Mrs. William K. Vanderbilt established her residence in Sutton Place overlooking the East River, it was little dreamed that within so short a time such a marked migration from mid-Manhattan to the East River district would occur as is now in full swing. In the unbroken line of new apartments, lining Fifty-seventh Street solidly from Second Avenue to Sutton Place, those who doubted the wisdom of Mrs. Vanderbilt's move have found a convincing answer to their conjectures as to the ultimate success of the Sutton Place movement, she married firstly sportsman Samuel Stevens Sands II, the son of Samuel Stevens Sands, the head of S. S. Sands Co. Before his death from a fall during a hunt at Meadow Brook, she had two sons by Sands: George Winthrop Sands, married to Tayo Newton, daughter of Dr. B. Newton of New York, in 1905.
Samuel Stevens Sands III, who married Gertrude Sheldon, daughter of George R. Sheldon, in 1910, her second marriage was on June 16, 1890 to Lewis Morris Rutherfurd, Jr. son of the astronomer Lewis Morris Rutherfurd and brother to Winthrop Rutherfurd. Before his death, she had two daughters by Rutherford: Barbara Cairncross Rutherfurd, who married Cyril Hatch, son of Charles Henry Hatch, in 1916, they had once child, Rutherfurd L. Hatch, before divorcing in 1920. In 1924, she married a fellow follower of Oom the Omnipotent. After having two children, Guy Winfield Nicholls and Margaret Mary Nicholls, they divorced in 1930. Margaret Stuyvesant Rutherfurd, who first married Ogden Livingston Secretary of the Treasury, they divorced in 1919. In 1922, she married Sir Paul Henry Dukes, they divorced in 1929 and that same year, she married Prince Charles Michel Joachim Napoléon, son of Joachim, 5th Prince Murat. They divorced and in 1939, she married Frederick Leybourne Sprague. On April 29, 1903, she married William Kissam Vanderbilt, in London.
Vanderbilt, married to Alva Smith and divorced in 1895, was the son of William Henry Vanderbilt and Maria Louisa Kissam. He was the father of Consuelo Vanderbilt, William Kissam Vanderbilt II, Harold Stirling Vanderbilt, they remained married until his death. She had no children by Vanderbilt. Anne died on April 20, 1940, she was buried inside The Vanderbilt mausoleum at the Moravian Cemetery, designed by Richard Morris Hunt and constructed in 1885–1886, part of the family's private section within the cemetery. Their mausoleum is a replica of a Romanesque church in France; the landscaped grounds around the Vanderbilt mausoleum were designed by Frederick Law Olmsted. The Vanderbilt section is not open to the public
Midtown Manhattan is the central portion of the borough of Manhattan in New York City. Midtown is home to some of the city's most iconic buildings, including the Empire State Building, the Chrysler Building, the Hudson Yards Redevelopment Project, the headquarters of the United Nations, Grand Central Terminal, Rockefeller Center, as well as Broadway and Times Square. Midtown Manhattan is the largest central business district in the world and ranks among the most expensive pieces of real estate. However, due to the high price of retail spaces in Midtown, there are many vacant storefronts in the neighborhood. Midtown is the country's largest commercial and media center, a growing financial center; the majority of New York City's skyscrapers, including its tallest hotels and apartment towers, are in Midtown. The area hosts commuters and residents working in its offices and retail establishments and students. Times Square, the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, is a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
Sixth Avenue has the headquarters of three of the four major U. S. television networks. Midtown is part of Manhattan Community District 5, it is patrolled by the 18th Precincts of the New York City Police Department. Geographically, the northern bound of Midtown Manhattan is defined to be 59th Street. Midtown spans the entire island of Manhattan along an east-west axis, bounded by the East River on its east and the Hudson River to its west; the Encyclopedia of New York City defines Midtown as extending from 34th Street to 59th Street and from 3rd Avenue to 8th Avenue. In addition to its central business district, Midtown Manhattan encompasses many neighborhoods, including Hell's Kitchen and Chelsea on the West Side, Murray Hill, Kips Bay, Turtle Bay, Gramercy Park on the East Side, it is sometimes broken into "Midtown East" and "Midtown West", or north and south as in the New York City Police Department's Midtown North and Midtown South precincts. Neighborhoods in the Midtown area include the following: Between 59th Street to the north and 42nd Street to the south, from west to east: Hell's Kitchen from the Hudson River to Eighth Avenue, including Theatre Row on West 42nd Street between Eleventh Avenue and Ninth Avenue, where Hell's Kitchen meets Central Park and the Upper West Side at West 59th Street and Eighth Avenue, Columbus Circle Times Square and the Theater District from West 42nd Street to around West 53rd Street, from Eighth Avenue to Sixth Avenue The Diamond District on West 47th Street between Sixth Avenue and Fifth Avenue Midtown East from around Sixth Avenue to the East River, including: Sutton Place near the East River between East 53rd Street and East 59th Street Turtle Bay from 53rd Street to 42nd Street and from Lexington Avenue to the East River Tudor City from First Avenue to Second Avenue and East 40th Street to East 43rd Street Between 42nd Street north and around 34th Street, from west to east, north to south: Hell's Kitchen from the Hudson River to Eighth Avenue The Garment District from West 42nd Street to West 34th Street and from Ninth Avenue to Fifth Avenue Herald Square around the intersection of Broadway, Sixth Avenue, West 34th Street Murray Hill from East 42nd Street to East 34th Street and Fifth Avenue to Second Avenue Between 34th Street and 23rd Street, from west to east: Chelsea, between the Hudson River and Sixth Avenue Koreatown from 36th Street to 31st Street and Fifth and Sixth Avenues, centered on "Korea Way" on 32nd Street between Fifth Avenue and Broadway Rose Hill or Curry Hill between Madison Avenue and Third Avenue Kips Bay from Third Avenue to the East River Between 23rd Street and 14th Street, going west to east and north to south: Chelsea, between the Hudson River and Sixth Avenue The Meatpacking District in the southwesternmost corner of Midtown, to the south of West 15th Street Madison Square and the Flatiron District, the area surround the intersection of Broadway, Fifth Avenue and 23rd Street.
Union Square, to the northeast of the intersection of Broadway, East 14th Street and Park Avenue South Gramercy from East 23rd Street to East 14th Street and Lexington Avenue to First Avenue Peter Cooper Village from East 23rd Street to East 20th Street and 1st Avenue to Avenue C Stuyvesant Town from East 20th Street to East 14th Street and First Avenue to Avenue CMidtown is the original district in the United States to bear the name and included historical but now defunct neighborhoods such as the Ladies' Mile, along Fifth Avenue from 14th to 23rd Street. Important streets and thoroughfares Broadway 34th Street 42nd Street The border of Midtown Manhattan is nebulous and further confused by the fact that the term "Midtown Manhattan" can be used to refer either to a district or a group of neighborhoods and districts in Manhattan: The area between 14th and 86th Streets includes the center of Manhattan. Manhattan Community District 5 is located from 14th to 59th Streets between Lexington Avenue and Eighth Avenue.
Community District 5 is coterminous with Midtown but includes the Flatiron District, NoMad, Union Square, parts of Gramercy Park an
57th Street (Manhattan)
57th Street is one of New York City's major thoroughfares, which runs as a two-way street east-west in the Midtown section of the borough of Manhattan, from the New York City Department of Sanitation's dock on the Hudson River at the West Side Highway to a small park overlooking the East River built on a platform suspended above the FDR Drive. Between Fifth and Eighth Avenue, it is two blocks south of Central Park. 57th Street is notable for restaurants and up-market shops. The street was designated by the Commissioners' Plan of 1811 that established the Manhattan street grid as one of 15 east-west streets that would be 100 feet in width. Over its two-mile length, 57th Street passes through several distinct neighborhoods with differing mixes of commercial and residential uses; the first block of 57th Street, at its western end at Twelfth Avenue near the Hudson River waterfront, is home to the VIA 57 West building, designed in the form of a triangular pyramid by Danish architect Bjarke Ingels.
From there to Tenth Avenue are low-rise industrial properties, several automobile dealerships, small-scale residential buildings. Much of the south side of the block between Eleventh and Tenth Avenues is occupied by the CBS Broadcast Center, the network's primary East Coast production facility; the street's name was used by CBS to title a newsmagazine program produced by the network in the late 1980s, West 57th. From Tenth Avenue to Eighth Avenue, larger residential buildings appear. Beginning at Eighth Avenue and continuing east through the core of Midtown Manhattan, the street is dominated by large commercial and residential towers, such as at the Hearst Tower at the southwest corner of 57th Street and Eighth Avenue; this stretch of 57th Street is home to several large hotels such as Le Parker Meridien and well-known restaurants such as the Russian Tea Room, to the offices of several magazines including The Economist. The corner of 57th Street and Seventh Avenue is home to the city-owned performance venue Carnegie Hall.
The mid-block between Seventh and Sixth avenues is a terminus of a north-south pedestrian avenue named Sixth and a Half Avenue. East of Sixth Avenue, the street is home to numerous high-end retail establishments including Van Cleef & Arpels, Tiffany & Co. and Bergdorf Goodman. The stores located at 57th Street's intersections with Fifth and Madison Avenues occupy some of the most expensive real estate in the world. Commercial and retail buildings continue to dominate until Third Avenue, where the street returns to a preponderance of large residential buildings; as it continues from here through its final blocks leading to its terminus at Sutton Place, the street consists of a nearly unbroken stretch of upscale apartment buildings with doormen and small commercial establishments such as drug stores, bank branches, restaurants. 57th Street ends at a small city park overlooking the East River just east of Sutton Place. Notable buildings include 300 East 57th Street by architect Emery Roth. Beginning with the construction of One57, a 1,004-foot apartment building between Sixth and Seventh Avenues, completed in 2014, a large number of tall ultra-luxury residential buildings have been constructed or proposed on the section of 57th Street corresponding to the southern edge of Central Park.
Due to the record-breaking prices that have been set for the apartments in these buildings, the press has dubbed this section of 57th Street as "Billionaires' Row". These projects have generated controversy concerning the economic conditions and zoning policies that have encouraged these buildings, as well as the impact these towers will have on the surrounding neighborhoods and the shadows they will cast on Central Park; the 57th Street station on the New York City Subway's IND Sixth Avenue Line is located at the intersection of 57th Street and Sixth Avenue and is served by the F train. The 57th Street – Seventh Avenue station on the BMT Broadway Line is located at 57th Street and Seventh Avenue, served by the N, Q, R, W trains; the M57 and M31 crosstown bus routes share a corridor between 1st Avenues. The M57 extends up the West Side to the 72nd Street subway station, while the M31 extends up the East Side to 92nd Street and 1st Avenue via York Avenue. Several express buses from Brooklyn and Staten Island serve 57th Street as well.
Four Seasons Hotel between Madison and Park Avenues Fuller Building at Madison Avenue: housing many art galleries Tourneau TimeMachine at Madison Avenue Tiffany & Co. at Fifth Avenue Trump Tower Bergdorf Goodman at Fifth Avenue Ascot Chang at Fifth Avenue Formerly: Steinway Hall at Sixth Avenue Carnegie Hall at Seventh Avenue Art Students League of New York between Seventh Avenue and Broadway Russian Tea Room, east of Carnegie Hall Hearst Tower at Eighth Avenue CBS Broadcast Center, from Tenth to Eleventh Avenues International Flavors & Fragrances, between Tenth and Eleventh Avenues The following high-end stores can be found between Sixth Avenue and Park Avenue: Notes Shopping 57th Street by NYC Tourist 57th Street: A New York Songline – virtual walking tour
Yorkville is a neighborhood in the Upper East Side of Manhattan, New York City. Its southern boundary is East 79th Street, its northern East 96th Street, its western Third Avenue, its eastern the East River; the neighborhood, in Manhattan Community Board 8, is among the most affluent in the city. In August 1776, George Washington stationed half of his Continental Army in Manhattan, with many troops in the Yorkville area in defensive positions along the East River to protect the other half of his army if they were to retreat from Brooklyn, to inflict damage on invading land and sea forces. Following the Battle of Long Island defeat on August 27, the Continentals implemented an orderly pivoting retreat in the Yorkville area, leading the enemy to entice the Continentals to fight by piping "Fly Away", about a fox running away from hounds; the Continentals' disciplined northerly retreat led to the successful Battle of Harlem Heights in September 1776. In 1815, the Upper East Side was a farmland and market garden district.
The Boston Post Road traversed the Upper East Side, locally called the Eastern Post Road. From 1833 to 1837 the New York and Harlem Railroad, one of the earliest railway systems in the United States, was extended through the Upper East Side along Fourth Avenue. A hamlet grew near the 86th Street station, becoming the Yorkville neighborhood as gradual yet steady commercial development occurred; the current street grid was laid-out between 1839 and 1844 as part of the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, so the Eastern Post Road was abandoned. The community had been referred to as Yorkville before 1867. By 1850, a significant proportion of the inhabitants of the area were the Germans and the Irish that helped build the Croton Aqueduct; the area was included in the 19th administrative district whose boundaries were 40th and 86th Street. In 1858, trams were built along Third Avenues. After the American Civil War, mansions replaced slums in Yorkville. On December 30, 1878, the IRT Third Avenue Line opened, followed by the IRT Second Avenue Line in August 1879.
For much of the 19th and 20th centuries, Yorkville was a middle- to working-class neighborhood, inhabited by many people of Czech, Irish, German and Lebanese descent. The area was a German enclave, though; the neighborhood became more affluent. From 1880, Yorkville became a destination for German-born immigrants. However, by the 1900s, many German residents moved to Yorkville and other neighborhoods from "Kleindeutschland" on the Lower East Side after the General Slocum disaster on June 15, 1904; the ship caught fire in the East River just off the shores of Yorkville, leading family members to move closer to the site of the incident. Most of the passengers on the ship were German. In addition, the general trend towards moving to the suburbs reduced the German population in Manhattan. On 86th Street, in the central portion of Yorkville, there were many German shops and bakeries. Yorkville became the melting pot of populations arriving from various regions of the Prussian-dominated German Empire and its colonies, where many cultures spoke German.
In the 1930s, the neighborhood was the home base of Fritz Julius Kuhn's German American Bund, the most notorious pro-Nazi group in 1930s United States, which led to spontaneous protests by other residents. Yorkville was a haven for refugees from fascist Germany in the 1940s, from refugees from communist regimes in the 1950s and 1960s; the neighborhood is the site of a large German-American celebration. The largest non-German group were the Irish. Irish lived in an area bounded by 81st and 85th Streets, Lexington and Fifth Avenues, they attended mass at such churches as St. Ignatius Loyola on 84th Street and Park Avenue, Our Lady of Good Counsel and the Church of St. Joseph. There were many Irish bars including Finnegan's Wake, Dorrian's Red Hand Restaurant, Ireland's 32, Carrol's Hideaway, O'Brien's and Kinsale Tavern; until the late 1990s, New York's St. Patrick's Day Parade ended at 86th Street and Third Avenue, the historical center of Yorkville. In addition, Jews lived on Second Avenue.79th Street was a hub for the Austro-Hungarian populace.
Popular restaurants included the Viennese Lantern, Hungarian Gardens, Robert Heller's Cafe Abazzia at 2nd Avenue and the Debrechen. There were a number of butcher stores and businesses that imported goods from Hungary. Churches included the Hungarian Reformed Church on East 82nd Street. In addition, Czechs and Slovaks lived from 65th to 73rd Street. Besides Ruc, a Czech restaurant off Second Avenue, there were sokol halls on 71st Streets. There were other Czech and Slovak businesses, such as Czech butcher shops and grocery stores, shops that sold imported goods such as Bohemian books, leather products and crystal. Around the late 1920s, Yorkville's ethnic diversity was beginning to wane. In 1926, the New York Times wrote of Yorkville's changing ethnic makeup: Yorkville, for well-nigh two decades known to connoisseurs of east side life as the exclusive domain of Czechoslovaks and Germans, is giving up its accentuated Central European character and merging into a state of colorless impersonality… In 1928, a one-block section of Sutton Place north of 59th Street, all of Avenue A north of that point, was renamed York Avenue to honor U.
S. Army Sergeant Alvin York, who received the Medal of Honor for attacking a German machine gun nest during World War I's Meuse-Argonne Offensive; the dismantling of the Third Avenue El in 1955 led to