Ardrossan, South Australia
Ardrossan is a town in the Australian state of South Australia located on the east coast of the Yorke Peninsula, about 150 kilometres by road from the Adelaide city centre, It is notable for its deepwater shipping port and its towering coastal cliffs of red clay. The indigenous owners of the area of which Ardrossan was developed were the Narungga; the first European settlers were pastoralists. Pastoral Lease No. 232, comprising 27 sq. miles, was taken up in 1852 by William Sharples. Stretching along the coastline, this was known as Parara, meaning'middle' in the Narungga language, with the homestead near Parara Landing, about three kilometres south of present Ardrossan. Northward of Ardrossan are coastal springs, named Tiddy Widdy or Tittiwitti by the Narungga, being a scarce natural source of fresh water in this region. In 1859 partners Parker Bowman and Edmund Parnell took over the Parara leases. After these expired in 1865 the government moved toward establishing closer settlement and grain farming.
The Hundred of Cunningham was proclaimed 19 June 1873, comprising 134 square miles, surveying commenced. The Hundred had two government surveyed towns, namely Ardrossan, proclaimed 13 November 1873, Price, proclaimed 3 August 1882. Being at a site known as Clay Gully, after a deep gully leading to its red clay coastal cliffs, the surveyed town of Ardrossan was named by Governor Fergusson after the Ardrossan seaport in Scotland which shared similar geography -'ard' a height, and'ros' prominent rock or headland; the site was chosen because of its potential for shipping infrastructure, allowing wheat farmers to ship their produce across the Gulf St Vincent to Port Adelaide. The residents of the new township petitioned the government for a jetty in 1874. Completed in 1877, this was extended to better accommodate the larger steamships and windjammers used to export grain overseas. By 1878 there were six houses, a post office, a flour mill, a Methodist church, a hotel; that same year a public school opened.
During the late 1800s, into the early 20th century, the town expanded due to income from the surrounding farms. As well, it became notable as the location of Clarence Smith's factory where he manufactured the Stump-jump plough between 1880 and 1935; this South Australian invention was vital in opening mallee country throughout Australia to the plough. Although the surrounding grain farmers continued to prosper, there was little change in the size of the town during the early 1900s. Indeed, after the depression in the 1930s, the town and its businesses were stagnant until a large open-cut dolomite mine was opened by the Broken Hill Proprietary Company in the 1950s for use in its steel manufacture at Whyalla on the Eyre Peninsula and Port Kembla in New South Wales. A new one kilometre long jetty was added and at the same time construction was started with grain storage silos. The'new' jetty services ships loading dolomite and salt from the solar salt pans at Price which are located 10 km north.
The wharf is located 1.5 kilometres south of the town jetty, can accommodate vessels of Handymax class. The wharf is being considered for the future export of iron ore and copper concentrates by Rex Minerals Ltd. Ardrossan today is in the local government area of Yorke Peninsula Council, the state electoral district of Narungga and the federal division of Grey; the coast and water bodies of Ardrossan support populations of water-fowl and shorebirds and support migratory waders during their summer visitations. Fishing, including the trapping of blue swimmer crabs is a popular pastime for local residents and visiting holiday-makers. South Australia's only recorded group stranding of sperm whales occurred on Parara Beach about 4 kilometres south of Ardrossan on 8 December 2014. Seven dead or dying whales were discovered stranded in the intertidal zone south of the BHP jetty. Six of the whales were located in a loose group along several hundred metres of shoreline, with another whale located further to the north.
The South Australian museum announced that it would sample the bodies and attempt to collect a complete skeleton for the museum, commencing work on December 10. Biopsy samples were formally taken from five of the whales by Australian Marine Wildlife Research & Rescue Organisation for analysis on December 9. AMWRRO rejected the proposition that any whales featured propeller strike marks, claiming that the marks they observed were tooth raking marks, resulting from behavior more known to occur among orcas. Several teeth were illegally removed from the animals overnight on December 8. Grain farming and pastoralism continue to be a mainstay of the local economy; the existing dolomite mine and jetty are owned and operated by Arrium. Today, tourism plays an large part in Ardrossan's economy with the town being a popular destination for Adelaide residents on weekends. While it lacks an attractive swimming beach, it is a popular location to catch fish and blue crabs which are abundant during the months of September through April each year.
The town's two jetties are suitable for scuba-diving, with easy entries and plentiful marine life to observe. The historic shipwreck of the Zanoni is located 15 miles offshore and is a popular scuba diving location; this ship sank on 11 February 1867 and was discovered on 17 April 1983 after 116 years. It is one of the best preserved examples of 19th century merchant sailing vessels in Australia; the Ardrossan News was printed for the town by Thomas Corrigan in Port Wakefield. Ardrossan, like most of the Yorke Peninsula, has
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli
The Spencer Gulf is the westernmost of two large inlets on the southern coast of Australia, in the state of South Australia, facing the Great Australian Bight. It spans from the Cape Catastrophe and Eyre Peninsula in the west to Cape Spencer and Yorke Peninsula in the east; the largest towns on the gulf are Port Lincoln, Port Pirie, Port Augusta. Smaller towns on the gulf include Tumby Bay, Port Neill, Arno Bay, Port Germein, Port Broughton, Port Hughes, Port Victoria, Port Rickaby, Point Turton, Corny Point; the gulf was first explored by Matthew Flinders in February 1802. Flinders navigated inland from the present location of Port Augusta to within 44–39 km of the termination of the water body; the gulf was named Spencer's Gulph by Flinders on 20 March 1802, after George John Spencer, the 2nd Earl Spencer. Visiting at the same time as Flinders, Nicholas Baudin named the area Golfe Bonaparte. While other names bestowed by Baudin persisted, Spencer Gulf became the official name. By the 1830s, the natural harbour of Port Lincoln had become the site of an unofficial settlement, due in part to its convenience as a base for whaling vessels – which had long operated in the Great Australian Bight.
Prior to the selection of Adelaide, some consideration was given to Port Lincoln as the potential site of a capital city. The interior was not explored or settled by Europeans until after Edward John Eyre's 1839 expeditions, the gazetting of Port Lincoln the same year; the Gulf is 129 km wide at its mouth. The western shore of the gulf is the Eyre Peninsula, while the eastern side is the Yorke Peninsula, which separates it from the smaller Gulf St Vincent, its entrance was defined by Matthew Flinders as a line from Cape Catastrophe on Eyre Peninsula to Cape Spencer on Yorke Peninsula. The gulf extends 298 km inland from a point near the Port Augusta crossing; the land surrounding the gulf, consisting of the Eyre and Yorke Peninsulas, is the Eyre Yorke Block bioregion. This was wooded shrubland but has now been cleared for agriculture. Many of South Australia's iconic marine species can be found on the shores and in the waters of Spencer Gulf; the rocky inshore reef along the coast near Port Bonython and Point Lowly is a breeding ground for the Northern Spencer Gulf population of giant Australian cuttlefish.
They are a favorite food of local bottlenose dolphins, who have developed sophisticated techniques for safely eating these creatures. The Upper Spencer Gulf is known for its snapper and Yellowtail kingfish fishing. Great white sharks are sometimes seen in Spencer Gulf by fishermen, shark cage diving and surface tours operate out of Port Lincoln. A relic population of tiger pipefish, a subtropical species is range limited to Northern Spencer Gulf. Visiting southern right whales and humpback whales enter Spencer Gulf from June through to October, can be seen as far north as Point Lowly and Port Augusta. New Zealand fur seals and Australian sea lions can be found in Southern Spencer Gulf, with occasional sightings occurring in Northern Spencer Gulf. Bottlenose dolphins can be seen in the gulf's waters year-round. Breeding colonies of little penguins exist on islands in Spencer Gulf; the northernmost colonies are located at Wardang Island. In 2004, the Wardang Island colony's population was 8,000 penguins.
Cape Barren geese and several species of cormorants breed on islands in Spencer Gulf. Spencer Gulf contains a number of offshore islands; these include: Curlew Island Weeroona Island Shag Island Entrance Island Bird Islands Lipson Island Tumby Island Wardang Island & the Goose Island group The Sir Joseph Banks Group Louth Island & Rabbit Island Boston Island Grantham Island and Bicker Isles Donington Island, Carcase Rock, Owen Island, Taylor Island, Grindal Island, Little Island, Lewis Island, Smith Island, Hopkins Island and Thistle Island. Middle Island, South Island and Royston Island Gambier Islands including Wedge Island Due to its proximity to many identified mineral deposits in South Australia's Far North, Eyre Peninsula and Braemar regions, there are multiple new port and harbor developments proposed for the region; these include new or expanded facilities at: Port Bonython - Port Bonython Bulk Commodities Export Facility - Spencer Gulf Port Link Whyalla - Inner harbour expansion - Arrium Port Pirie - Possible expansion for trans-shipment of iron ore from the Braemar region Lucky Bay - Lucky Bay Common User Export Facility - SeaSA Myponie Point - Possible port location for Braemar region mineral exports Cape Hardy - Iron Road Ltd Lipson Cove - Port Spencer - Centrex Metals Ltd As of 2016, there is one reverse osmosis and one thermal seawater desalination plant drawing water from Spencer Gulf.
Several others are planned. All or will produce water or for industrial use, they are: The Spencer Gulf region, its wildlife and its development are the subjects of a forthcoming documentary film entitled Cuttlefish Country. Spencer Gulf contains four aquatic reserves. Blanche Harbour-Douglas Bank Aquatic Reserve, located in west side of Spencer Gulf, north of Whyalla, was declared
Moonta, South Australia
Moonta is a town on the Yorke Peninsula of South Australia, 165 km north-northwest of the state capital of Adelaide. It is one of three towns known as the Copper Coast or "Little Cornwall" for their shared copper mining history; the town's centre is about 17 kilometres south west of Kadina, site of Wallaroo Mines, 14 kilometres south of the port of Wallaroo. There are 11 suburbs surrounding central Moonta, each being hamlet; these are: Cross Roads, East Moonta, Kooroona, Moonta Bay, Moonta Mines, North Moonta, North Yelta, Port Hughes and Yelta. At the 2011 census, the Moonta township and the adjacent suburbs of Cross Roads and Yelta had a combined population of 681; the broader Moonta urban centre including Moonta Bay, North Moonta and Port Hughes, had a population of 3,659. By 2016, the area had grown to a population of 4,700, making it the fastest growing area on the Copper Coast; the Moonta area is part of the traditional lands of the indigenous Narungga people. The name "Moonta" is derived from munta-muntara or moontera, an Aboriginal word for "thick scrub place" or "impenetrable scrub".
The Yorke Peninsula coastline near Wallaroo was separately navigated by Matthew Flinders and Nicolas Baudin in 1802. The next Europeans to explore the district were Thomas Burr. Under instructions from Governor Gawler, the pair were landed about 15 kilometres south of Point Riley, near Moonta Bay, on 28 April 1840 from the government cutter Water Witch, they made their way back to Adelaide on horseback, traversing Northern Yorke Peninsula. They reported the discovery of'a excellent tract of country'. Based on that report a few pioneering British settlers arrived in the Moonta area in the 1840s, as pastoralists, but there was no significant development until the 1860s because of the lack of water; the scrub in the area was difficult to penetrate so the first settlers had a hard time clearing the land. Large and rich deposits of copper were discovered at Moonta in 1861 by Patrick Ryan, a shepherd from Walter Hughes' property; this became a prosperous mine, named Wheal Hughes, with other mines soon to follow.
The government town of Moonta was surveyed in March 1863, while an informal township of mining workers grew at Moonta Mines. A horse tramway from Moonta to the port at Wallaroo opened in July 1866. Starting in the 1880s, agitation for conversion of the horse tramway to a steam locomotive railway commenced. Following advertising by the South Australian Government, Cornish miners arrived in Moonta in large numbers; the government town of Moonta incorporated as the Corporate Town of Moonta in 1872. The mines at Moonta proved to be the richest mines in the whole of South Australia by 1917, exceeding the total wealth created by all other mines since 1836, the year of establishment of South Australia; the population of Moonta in 1875 was 12,000. The main copper mining operations at Moonta Mines ceased in 1923, although a number of smaller mines continued to be worked for some years. Smaller-scale operations had closed by the mid-1990s. Following the demise of copper mining, the district merged into dry land farming.
Moonta's surrounds are used for growing barley and other crops such as legumes, canola and field peas. Barley from the region is considered to be some of the best in the world. Moonta's town centre, consisting of old limestone miners' cottages and churches, gives the town a historical feel. Moonta has a number of heritage-listed sites listed on the South Australian Heritage Register, including: Blanche Terrace: All Saints Anglican Church Blanche Terrace: Moonta Masonic Hall 21 Ellen Street: Bank of South Australia Building 29 Ellen Street: Moonta School of Mines Kadina Road: Moonta railway station Moonta exists in a semi-arid location, above Goyder's Line. Moonta is surrounded by mallee scrub; the centre is 20 metres above sea level. Moonta has a dry Mediterranean climate with seasonal temperatures about the same as Adelaide's temperatures; the temperature ranges are similar to those of Kadina and the weather patterns are similar to those of both Kadina and Adelaide. Tourism is a significant local industry, focusing on the availability of beach-side accommodation,including several caravan parks, holiday houses and breakfast and a motel.
The nearby locations of Moonta Bay, Port Hughes and Simms Cove are on the foreshore and are developing. They are popular locations for retirement and holiday makers; the beaches, with fine white sand, are popular with recreational sailboarders. The natural state of the coast has been retained; the popular three-day Kernewek Lowender Cornish festival is held every odd year in May in the Copper Coast towns of Moonta and Wallaroo, with events staged across the three towns over several days. The National Trust of South Australia operates a number of heritage attractions in adjacent Moonta Mines, including a narrow gauge railway through the former mining works, a museum in the former Moonta Mines Model School, a sweet shop, former mining cottage and surviving buildings associated with the mines; the former Moonta railway station is now a visitor information centre. Moonta is located within the local government area of the Copper Coast Council, formed in 1997; as such, it remains part of the Hundred of Wallaroo.
It is part of the federal division of Grey, the state electoral district of Narungga. Moonta was served by The People’s Weekly (17
A schooner is a type of sailing vessel with fore-and-aft sails on two or more masts. The most common type has the foremast being shorter than the main. While the schooner was gaff-rigged, modern schooners carry a Bermuda rig; the first detailed definition of a schooner, describing the vessel as two-masted vessel with fore and aft gaff-rigged sails appeared in 1769 in William Falconer's Universal Dictionary of the Marine. According to the language scholar Walter William Skeat, the term schooner comes from scoon, while the sch spelling comes from the adoption of the Dutch spelling. Another study suggests that a Dutch expression praising ornate schooner yachts in the 17th century, "een schoone Schip", may have led to the term "schooner" being used by English speakers to describe the early versions of the schooner rig as it evolved in England and America; the Dutch word "schoon" means nice, good looking, sexually arousing, or horny.. A popular legend holds that the first schooner was built by builder Andrew Robinson and launched in Gloucester, Massachusetts where a spectator exclaimed "Oh how she scoons", scoon being similar to scone, a Scots word meaning to skip along the surface of the water.
Robinson replied, "A schooner let her be." The launch is variously described as being in 1713 or 1745. Naval architects such as Howard Chapelle have dismissed this invention story as a "childish fable", but some language scholars feel that the legend may support a Gloucester origin of the word. Other sources state the etymology as uncertain. Although associated with North America, schooners were first used by the Dutch in the 16th or 17th century, they were further developed in North America from the early 18th century, came into extensive use in New England. Schooners were popular in trades requiring speed and windward ability, such as slaving, blockade running, offshore fishing. In the Chesapeake Bay area several distinctive schooner types evolved, including the Baltimore clipper and pungy. Schooners were popular among pirates in the West Indies during the Golden Age of Piracy, for their speed and agility, they could sail in shallow waters, while being smaller than other ships of the time period, they could still hold enough cannons to intimidate merchant vessels into submission.
Schooners first evolved in the late 17th century from a variety of small two-masted gaff-rigged vessels used in the coast and estuaries of the Netherlands. Most were working craft but some pleasure yachts with schooner rigs were built for wealthy merchants. Following the arrival of the Dutch Stadtholder William of Orange on the British throne, the British Royal Navy built a royal yacht with a schooner rig in 1695, HMS Royal Transport; this vessel, captured in a detailed Admiralty model, is the earliest documented schooner. Royal Transport was noted for its speed and ease of handling, mercantile vessels soon adopted the rig in Europe and in European colonies in North America. Schooners were popular with colonial traders and fishermen in North America with the first documented reference to a schooner in the United States appearing in Boston port records in 1716. North American shipbuilders developed a variety of schooner forms for trading and privateering. Essex, was the most significant shipbuilding center for schooners.
By the 1850s, over 50 vessels a year were being launched from 15 shipyards and Essex became recognized worldwide as North America's center for fishing schooner construction. In total, Essex launched over 4,000 schooners, most headed for the Gloucester, fishing industry. Bath, was another notable center, which during much of the 19th century had more than a dozen yards working at a time, from 1781 to 1892 launched 1352 schooners, including the Wyoming. Schooners were popular on both sides of the Atlantic in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, long dominating yacht races such as the America's Cup, but gave way in Europe to the cutter. Schooners were used to carry cargo in many different environments, from ocean voyages to coastal runs and on large inland bodies of water, they were popular in North America. In their heyday, during the late 19th century more than 2,000 schooners carried on the Great Lakes. Three-masted "terns" were a favourite rig of Canada's Maritime Provinces; the scow schooner, which used a schooner rig on a flat-bottomed, blunt-ended scow hull, was popular in North America for coastal and river transport.
Schooners were used in North American fishing the Grand Banks fishery. Some Banks fishing schooners such as Bluenose became famous racers. Two of the most famous racing yachts and Atlantic, were rigged as schooners, they were about 152 feet in length. Although a schooner may have several masts, the typical schooner has only two, with the foremast shorter than the mainmast. There may be a bowsprit to help balance the rig; the principal issue with a schooner sail plan is how to fill the space between the two masts most effectively. Traditional schooners were gaff rigged, the trapezoid shape of the foresail occupied the inter-mast space to good effect, with a useful sail area and a low center of effort. A Bermuda rigged schooner has four triangular sails: a mainsail, a main staysail abaft the foremast, plus a forestaysail and a jib forward of the foremast. An advantage of the staysail schooner is that it is handled and reefed by a small crew, as both staysails can be self-tacking; the main staysail will not overlap the mainsail, so does little to prepare the wind for the mainsail, but is effective when close-hauled or when on a beam reach.
Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, the fifth-most populous city of Australia. In June 2017, Adelaide had an estimated resident population of 1,333,927. Adelaide is home to more than 75 percent of the South Australian population, making it the most centralised population of any state in Australia. Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges which surround the city. Adelaide stretches 20 km from the coast to the foothills, 94 to 104 km from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in the south. Named in honour of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort to King William IV, the city was founded in 1836 as the planned capital for a freely-settled British province in Australia. Colonel William Light, one of Adelaide's founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to the River Torrens, in the area inhabited by the Kaurna people. Light's design set out Adelaide in a grid layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares, surrounded by parklands.
Early Adelaide was shaped by wealth. Until the Second World War, it was Australia's third-largest city and one of the few Australian cities without a convict history, it has been noted for early examples of religious freedom, a commitment to political progressivism and civil liberties. It has been known as the "City of Churches" since the mid-19th century, referring to its diversity of faiths rather than the piety of its denizens; the demonym "Adelaidean" is used in reference to its residents. As South Australia's seat of government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the city centre along the cultural boulevard of North Terrace, King William Street and in various districts of the metropolitan area. Today, Adelaide is noted for its many festivals and sporting events, its food and wine, its long beachfronts, its large defence and manufacturing sectors, it ranks in terms of quality of life, being listed in the world's top 10 most liveable cities, out of 140 cities worldwide by The Economist Intelligence Unit.
It was ranked the most liveable city in Australia by the Property Council of Australia in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Before its proclamation as a British settlement in 1836, the area around Adelaide was inhabited by the indigenous Kaurna Aboriginal nation. Kaurna culture and language were completely destroyed within a few decades of European settlement of South Australia, but extensive documentation by early missionaries and other researchers has enabled a modern revival of both. South Australia was proclaimed a British colony on 28 December 1836, near The Old Gum Tree in what is now the suburb of Glenelg North; the event is commemorated in South Australia as Proclamation Day. The site of the colony's capital was surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor-General of South Australia, through the design made by the architect George Strickland Kingston. Adelaide was established as a planned colony of free immigrants, promising civil liberties and freedom from religious persecution, based upon the ideas of Edward Gibbon Wakefield.
Wakefield had read accounts of Australian settlement while in prison in London for attempting to abduct an heiress, realised that the eastern colonies suffered from a lack of available labour, due to the practice of giving land grants to all arrivals. Wakefield's idea was for the Government to survey and sell the land at a rate that would maintain land values high enough to be unaffordable for labourers and journeymen. Funds raised from the sale of land were to be used to bring out working-class emigrants, who would have to work hard for the monied settlers to afford their own land; as a result of this policy, Adelaide does not share the convict settlement history of other Australian cities like Sydney, Melbourne and Hobart. As it was believed that in a colony of free settlers there would be little crime, no provision was made for a gaol in Colonel Light's 1837 plan, but by mid-1837 the South Australian Register was warning of escaped convicts from New South Wales and tenders for a temporary gaol were sought.
Following a burglary, a murder, two attempted murders in Adelaide during March 1838, Governor Hindmarsh created the South Australian Police Force in April 1838 under 21-year-old Henry Inman. The first sheriff, Samuel Smart, was wounded during a robbery, on 2 May 1838 one of the offenders, Michael Magee, became the first person to be hanged in South Australia. William Baker Ashton was appointed governor of the temporary gaol in 1839, in 1840 George Strickland Kingston was commissioned to design Adelaide's new gaol. Construction of Adelaide Gaol commenced in 1841. Adelaide's early history was marked by questionable leadership; the first governor of South Australia, John Hindmarsh, clashed with others, in particular the Resident Commissioner, James Hurtle Fisher. The rural area surrounding Adelaide was surveyed by Light in preparation to sell a total of over 405 km2 of land. Adelaide's early economy started to get on its feet in 1838 with the arrival of livestock from Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania.
Wool production provided an early basis for the South Australian economy. By 1860, wheat farms had been established from Encounter Bay in the south to Clare in the north. George Gawler took over from Hindmarsh in late 1838 and, despite being under orders from the Select Committee on South Australia in Britain not to undertake any public works, promptly oversaw construction of a governo
Captain Matthew Flinders was an English navigator and cartographer who led the first circumnavigation of Australia and identified it as a continent. Flinders made three voyages to the southern ocean between 1791 and 1810. In the second voyage, George Bass and Flinders confirmed. In the third voyage, Flinders circumnavigated the mainland of what was to be called Australia, accompanied by Aboriginal man Bungaree. Heading back to England in 1803, Flinders' vessel needed urgent repairs at Isle de France. Although Britain and France were at war, Flinders thought the scientific nature of his work would ensure safe passage, but a suspicious governor kept him under arrest for more than six years. In captivity, he recorded details of his voyages for future publication, put forward his rationale for naming the new continent'Australia', as an umbrella term for New Holland and New South Wales – a suggestion taken up by Governor Macquarie. Flinders' health had suffered and although he reached home in 1810, he did not live to see the success of his praised book and atlas, A Voyage to Terra Australis.
The location of his grave was lost by the mid-19th century but archaeologists excavating a former burial ground near London's Euston railway station for the High Speed 2 project, announced in January 2019 that his remains had been identified. Matthew Flinders was born in Donington, England, the son of Matthew Flinders, a surgeon, his wife Susannah, née Ward, he was educated at Cowley's Charity School, from 1780 and at the Reverend John Shinglar's Grammar School at Horbling in Lincolnshire. In his own words, he was "induced to go to sea against the wishes of my friends from reading Robinson Crusoe", in 1790, at the age of fifteen, he joined the Royal Navy. Serving on HMS Alert, he transferred to HMS Scipio, in July 1790 was made midshipman on HMS Bellerophon under Captain Pasley. By Pasley's recommendation, he joined Captain Bligh's expedition on HMS Providence, transporting breadfruit from Tahiti to Jamaica; this was Bligh's second "Breadfruit Voyage" following on from the ill-fated voyage of the Bounty.
Flinders' first voyage to New South Wales, first trip to Port Jackson, was in 1795 as a midshipman aboard HMS Reliance, carrying the newly appointed governor of New South Wales Captain John Hunter. On this voyage he established himself as a fine navigator and cartographer, became friends with the ship's surgeon George Bass, three years his senior and had been born 11 miles from Donington. Not long after their arrival in Port Jackson and Flinders made two expeditions in two small open boats, named Tom Thumb and Tom Thumb II respectively: the first to Botany Bay and Georges River, the second, in the larger Tom Thumb II, south from Port Jackson to Lake Illawarra, during which expedition they had to seek shelter at Wattamolla. In 1798, Matthew Flinders, now a lieutenant, was given command of the sloop Norfolk with orders "to sail beyond Furneaux's Islands, should a strait be found, pass through it, return by the south end of Van Diemen's Land"; the passage between the Australian mainland and Tasmania enabled savings of several days on the journey from England, was named Bass Strait, after his close friend.
In honour of this discovery, the largest island in Bass Strait would be named Flinders Island. The town of Flinders near the mouth of Western Port commemorates Bass' discovery of that bay and port on 4 January 1798. Flinders never entered Western Port, passed Cape Schanck only on 3 May 1802. Flinders once more sailed Norfolk, this time north on 17 July 1799, he touched down at Pumicestone Passage and Coochiemudlo Island and rowed ashore at Clontarf. During this visit he named Redcliffe after the Red Cliffs. In March 1800, Flinders set sail for England. Flinders' work had come to the attention of many of the scientists of the day, in particular the influential Sir Joseph Banks, to whom Flinders dedicated his Observations on the Coasts of Van Diemen's Land, on Bass's Strait, etc.. Banks used his influence with Earl Spencer to convince the Admiralty of the importance of an expedition to chart the coastline of New Holland; as a result, in January 1801, Flinders was given command of HMS Investigator, a 334-ton sloop, promoted to commander the following month.
Investigator set sail for New Holland on 18 July 1801. Attached to the expedition were the botanist Robert Brown, botanical artist Ferdinand Bauer, landscape artist William Westall, gardener Peter Good, geological assistant John Allen, John Crosley as astronomer. Vallance et al. comment that compared to the Baudin expedition this was a'modest contingent of scientific gentlemen', which reflects'British parsimony' in scientific endeavour. On 17 April 1801, Flinders married his longtime friend Ann Chappelle and had hoped to bring her with him to Port Jackson; however the Admiralty had strict rules against wives accompanying captains. Flinders brought Ann on board ship and planned to ignore the rules, but the Admiralty learned of his plans and he was chastised for his bad judgement and told he must remove her from the ship; this is well documented in correspondence between Flinders and his chief benefactor, Sir Joseph Banks, in May 1801: I have but time to tell you that the news of your marriage, published in the Lincoln paper, has reached me.
The Lords of the Admiralty have heard that Mrs. Flinders is on board the Investigator, that you have some thought of carrying her to sea with you; this I was sorry to hear, if, the case I beg to give you my