Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands before British colonisation. The time of arrival of the first Indigenous Australians is a matter of debate among researchers; the earliest conclusively human remains found in Australia are those of Mungo Man LM3 and Mungo Lady, which have been dated to around 50,000 years BP. Recent archaeological evidence from the analysis of charcoal and artefacts revealing human use suggests a date as early as 65,000 BP. Luminescence dating has suggested habitation in Arnhem Land as far back as 60,000 years BP. Genetic research has inferred a date of habitation as early as 80,000 years BP. Other estimates have ranged up to 100,000 years and 125,000 years BP. Although there are a number of commonalities between Indigenous Aboriginal Australians, there is a great diversity among different Indigenous communities and societies in Australia, each with its own mixture of cultures and languages.
In present-day Australia these groups are further divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken. Aboriginal people today speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English; the population of Indigenous Australians at the time of permanent European settlement is contentious and has been estimated at between 318,000 and 1,000,000 with the distribution being similar to that of the current Australian population, the majority living in the south-east, centred along the Murray River. A population collapse principally from disease followed European settlement beginning with a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans. Massacres and war by British settlers contributed to depopulation; the characterisation of this violence as genocide is controversial and disputed. Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the official flags of Australia.
The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century to mean, "first or earliest known, indigenous". It comes from the Latin word aborigines, derived from origo; the word was used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789. It soon became employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. While the term Indigenous Australians, has grown since the 1980s to be more inclusive of Torres Strait Islander people, many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples dislike it, feeling that it is too generic and removes their identity. Being more specific, for example naming the language group, is considered best practice and most respectful. Terms that are considered disrespectful include Aborigine and ATSI The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many regional groups that identify under names from local Indigenous languages; these include: Murrawarri people -- see Murawari language. Anindilyakwa on Groote Eylandt off Arnhem Land.
These larger groups may be further subdivided. It is estimated that before the arrival of British settlers, the population of Indigenous Australians was 318,000–750,000 across the continent; the Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, speak a Papuan language. Accordingly, they are not included under the designation "Aboriginal Australians"; this has been another factor in the promotion of the more inclusive term "Indigenous Australians". Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as Torres Strait Islanders. A further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal heritage; the Torres Strait Islands comprise over 100 islands which were annexed by Queensland in 1879. Many Indigenous organisations incorporate the phrase "Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander" to highlight the distinctiveness and importance of Torres Strait Islanders in Australia's Indigenous population.
Eddie Mabo was from "Mer" or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. The term "black" has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement. While related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal he
Australian Recording Industry Association
The Australian Recording Industry Association is a trade group representing the Australian recording industry, established in 1983 by six major record companies, EMI, Festival, CBS, RCA, WEA and Universal replacing the Association of Australian Record Manufacturers, formed in 1956. It oversees the collection and distribution of music licenses and royalties; the association has more than 100 members, including small labels run by one to five people, medium size organisations and large companies with international affiliates. ARIA is administered by a Board of Directors comprising senior executives from record companies, both large and small; as of October 2010, the directors were Denis Handlin, George Ash, Mark Poston, Sebastian Chase, David Vodica and Tony Harlow. In 1956, the Association of Australian Record Manufacturers was formed by Australia's major record companies, it was replaced in 1983 by the Australian Recording Industry Association, established by the six major record companies operating in Australia, EMI, Festival Records, CBS, RCA, WEA and Polygram.
It included smaller record companies representing independent acts/labels and has over 100 members. By 1997, the six major labels provided 90% of all recordings made in Australia. ARIA is administered by a Board of Directors comprising senior executives from record companies, both large and small; as of October 2010, the directors were Denis Handlin, George Ash, Mark Poston, Sebastian Chase, David Vodica and Tony Harlow. Australian TV pop music show Countdown presented its own annual awards ceremony, Countdown Music and Video Awards, co-produced by Carolyn James during 1981–1984 in collaboration with ARIA. ARIA provided peer voting for some awards, while Countdown provided coupons in the related Countdown Magazine for viewers to vote for populist awards. At the 1985 Countdown awards ceremony, held on 14 April 1986, fans of INXS and Uncanny X-Men scuffled during the broadcast and as a result ARIA decided to hold their own awards. Since 2 March 1987, ARIA administered its own peer-voted ARIA Music Awards, to "recognise excellence and innovation in all genres of Australian music" with an annual ceremony.
Included in the same awards ceremonies, it established the ARIA Hall of Fame in 1988 and has held separate annual ceremonies since 2005. The ARIA Hall of Fame "honours Australian musicians' achievements have had a significant impact in Australia or around the world". In February 2004, the Australian Record Industry Association announced its own legal action against Kazaa, alleging massive copyright breaches; the trial began on 29 November 2004. On 6 February 2005, the homes of two Sharman Networks executives and the offices of Sharman Networks in Australia were raided under a court order by ARIA to gather evidence for the trial. In 2006, ARIA formed sponsorship deals with Motorola and Nova and changed the appearance and conduct of the charting. Motorola took naming-rights sponsorship seeing the charts referred to in the media as the Motorola ARIA Charts. ARIA, have commented that as part of the same marketing printed charts would be reintroduced into media retailing shops and their website would be redesigned.
As part of the deal Nova began broadcasting the charted singles in reverse order on a Sunday afternoon show before it was released on the ARIA charts website. The ARIA Charts is the main Australian music sales charts, issued weekly by the Australian Recording Industry Association; the charts are a record of albums in various genres. All charts are compiled from data of both digital sales from retailers in Australia. A music single or album qualifies for a platinum certification if it exceeds 70,000 copies shipped to retailers and a gold certification for 35,000 copies shipped; the diamond certification was created for albums in November 2015 to mark 500,000 sales/shipments. For music DVDs, a gold accreditation represented 7,500 copies shipped, with a platinum accreditation representing 15,000 units shipped. Prior to ARIA taking on the role of certification authority in 1983, the music industry used the following certification levels: The ARIA No. 1 Chart Awards were established in 2002 to recognise Australian recording artists, who reached number one on the ARIA albums and music DVDs charts.
The ARIA Music Awards is an annual series of awards nights celebrating the Australian music industry. The event has been held annually since 1987. Like most recording industry associations, ARIA has been criticised for fighting copyright infringement matters aggressively, although in Australia this has taken the form of aggressive advertising campaigns in cinemas directly preceding movies; this criticism is stauncher in Australia due to the absence of an equivalent Digital Millennium Copyright Act or state crimes acts which establish copyright infringement as a crime. In February 2004, the Australian Record Industry Association took legal action against Kazaa, alleging massive copyright breaches; the trial began on 29 November 2004. On 6 Febr
The Murray River is Australia's longest river, at 2,508 kilometres in length. The Murray rises in the Australian Alps, draining the western side of Australia's highest mountains, meanders across Australia's inland plains, forming the border between the states of New South Wales and Victoria as it flows to the northwest into South Australia, it turns south at Morgan for its final 315 kilometres. The water of the Murray flows through several terminal lakes that fluctuate in salinity including Lake Alexandrina and The Coorong before emptying through the Murray Mouth into the southeastern portion of the Indian Ocean referenced on Australian maps as the Southern Ocean, near Goolwa. Despite discharging considerable volumes of water at times before the advent of largescale river regulation, the mouth has always been comparatively small and shallow; as of 2010, the Murray River system receives 58 percent of its natural flow. It is Australia's most important irrigated region, it is known as the food bowl of the nation.
The Murray River forms part of the 3,750 km long combined Murray–Darling river system which drains most of inland Victoria, New South Wales, southern Queensland. Overall the catchment area is one seventh of Australia's total land mass; the Murray carries only a small fraction of the water of comparably-sized rivers in other parts of the world, with a great annual variability of its flow. In its natural state it has been known to dry up during extreme droughts, although, rare, with only two or three instances of this occurring since official record keeping began; the Murray River makes up most of the border between the Australian states of Victoria and New South Wales. Where it does, the border is the top of the bank of the Victorian side of the river; this was determined in a 1980 ruling by the High Court of Australia, which settled the question as to which state had jurisdiction in the unlawful death of a man, fishing by the river's edge on the Victorian side of the river. This boundary definition can be ambiguous, since the river changes its course over time, some of the river banks have been modified.
West of the line of longitude 141°E, the river continues as the border between Victoria and South Australia for 11 km, where this is the only stretch where a state border runs down the middle of the river. This was due to a miscalculation during the 1840s, when the border was surveyed. Past this point, the Murray River is within the state of South Australia; the following major settlements are located along the course of the river, with population figures from the 2011 Census: The Murray River support a variety of river life adapted to its vagaries. This includes a variety of native fish such as the famous Murray cod, trout cod, golden perch, Macquarie perch, silver perch, eel-tailed catfish, Australian smelt, western carp gudgeon, other aquatic species like the Murray short-necked turtle, Murray River crayfish, broad-clawed yabbies, the large clawed Macrobrachium shrimp, as well as aquatic species more distributed through southeastern Australia such as common longnecked turtles, common yabbies, the small claw-less paratya shrimp, water rats, platypus.
The Murray River supports fringing corridors and forests of the river red gum. The health of the Murray River has declined since European settlement due to river regulation, much of its aquatic life including native fish are now declining, rare or endangered. Recent extreme droughts have put significant stress on river red gum forests, with mounting concern over their long-term survival; the Murray has flooded on occasion, the most significant of, the flood of 1956, which inundated many towns on the lower Murray and which lasted for up to six months. Introduced fish species such as carp, weather loach, redfin perch, brown trout, rainbow trout have had serious negative effects on native fish, while carp have contributed to environmental degradation of the Murray River and tributaries by destroying aquatic plants and permanently raising turbidity. In some segments of the Murray River, carp have become the only species found. Between 2.5 and 0.5 million years ago the Murray River terminated in a vast freshwater lake called Lake Bungunnia.
Lake Bungunnia was formed by earth movements that blocked the Murray River near Swan Reach during this period. At its maximum extent Lake Bungunnia covered 33,000 km2, extending to near the Menindee Lakes in the north and to near Boundary Bend on the Murray in the south; the draining of Lake Bungunnia occurred 600,000 years ago. Deep clays deposited by the lake. Higher rainfall would have been required to keep such a lake full. A species of Neoceratodus lungfish existed in Lake Bungunnia; the noted Barmah Red Gum Forests owe their existence to the Cadell Fault. About 25,000 years ago, displacement occurred along the Cadell fault, raising the eastern edge of the fault, which runs north-south, 8 to 12 m above the floodplain; this created a complex series of events. A section of the original Murray River channel immediately
Adam Briggs, who performs as Briggs, is an Indigenous Australian rapper, record label owner, comedy writer, actor. Briggs became well known as a solo rapper, signing with Golden Era Records in 2009, before co-founding the hip hop duo A. B. Original in 2016; as a solo artist, Briggs has released one EP, Homemade Bombs in 2009, two albums, 2010's The Blacklist and 2014's Sheplife. He has made appearances on songs with Hilltop Hoods, the Funkoars and The Last Kinection. In the live arena, he has supported international artists such as Ice Cube, KRS-One, Ghostface Killah, Dilated Peoples, M. O. P. and Pharoahe Monch. In 2015, Briggs founded his own record label, Bad Apples Music, which has signed several Indigenous hip-hop artists and houses A. B. Original, a joint project with Trials from the Funkoars. Extending his career beyond music, Briggs has appeared in several television series on ABC: as a writer and actor for the second season of the sketch comedy Black Comedy in 2016. Briggs is an Indigenous Australian of the Yorta Yorta people and the tribe name is tattooed on his forearms.
He has stated in an interview with G&T magazine that the tattoo's purpose is "so every time I rock the mic people know that I am representing."Briggs grew up with his family in Shepparton, a city in rural Victoria, Australia. In respect to growing up in the area, the artist has stated that:...where I’m from a lot of people are pretty far behind in their race relations.... Growing up in Shepparton, it’s big enough not be a small country town but it’s just not that big yet. There are still a lot of stagnant attitudes as well. Briggs was a student at Shepparton High School and Wanganui Park Secondary College, where he played guitar in a punk band prior to his involvement with hip hop, he worked as a security guard at Shepparton's Yahoo Bar venue. Briggs explained in a December 2013 interview that making a name for himself in Shepparton, for a range of reasons, was not difficult and the area was a reminder of the larger experience, open to him and the diligence required to become involved with a music scene, more significant.
Briggs became attracted to American rap music and formed a group named "Misdemeanour" with schoolmate Peter Shiels. After renaming the group "912", they performed a gig in Melbourne with Australian hip hop artist Reason. Briggs recalled that Reason was one of the first MCs that he had heard rapping with an Australian accent. Upon seeing the 19-year-old Briggs perform, Reason invited him to join an Obese Records record label tour to undertake a role as the established artist's "hype man". Reason explained: I was pretty taken aback by this... this big fella with so much energy and so much passion standing up there, proud of his... his world of Shepp, rapping in a way that, you know, is so comparable to some of the greats, some of the more powerful MCs, you know, that I’ve followed over the years. And he was only 19 years of age. Briggs moved to the Melbourne suburb of St Kilda so that he could more access contacts in the local hip hop community. While in Melbourne, he struggled to pay rent with the social security benefits that he was reliant upon—Reason stated on the Message Stick program that this period was beneficial, as it provided Briggs with an insight that has assisted his growth since that time.
Briggs stated in December 2013 that sacrifice is the "cornerstone" of his career, his time in Melbourne was representative of the scant lifestyle that defined his time in the capital city. Briggs explained: The biggest step was moving to Melbourne when I was 19 or so, sleeping on couches, futons and in nooks or crannys until I built enough of a name doing shows. Sacrifice is the cornerstone of my career. I sacrificed food and a lot of the times, a roof, to make my name. Briggs independently released his first EP Homemade Bombs in 2009 with the support of a monetary loan from Hilltop Hoods' MC Suffa; the recording included the song "Bad Move", for which a video clip was produced, a collaboration with Reason, titled "My Priority". The Hilltop Hoods signed Briggs to their Golden Era record label and invited him to be the support act on their 2009 European tour. Briggs accepted the tour invitation and the European trip represented the artist's first time overseas. Briggs' debut full-length album The Blacklist was released in 2010 on Golden Era and included the single "The Wrong Brother", inspired by an incident in which Briggs was stopped from entering a Shepparton pub by security officers, only to be told, "Sorry mate, we got the wrong brother."
Suffa appears in the music video for the song as a record label manager. The album included the tracks "So Dangerous", with Trials, "I Wish". Briggs revealed that he "didn't expect" the public's response to the album, which included a #3 ranking on the Australian iTunes hip-hop charts that lasted a duration of four days. In October 2010, Briggs was the seventh MC to participate in the Rapper Tag series of videos that featured Australian rappers, "tagged" by Newsense. In June 2012, Briggs was featured on the ABC indigenous affairs program Message Stick; the episode included interviews with Reason and Trials. Briggs released his single "Rather Be Dead" on 27 July 2012 and uploaded a corresponding film clip onto his YouTube channel "BriggsTheMilkman" the previous day—as of September 2012, the video had received over 30,000 views; the single was added to playlists on Australian yo
Burnum Burnum was an Australian Aboriginal activist and author. He was a Yorta Yorta man at Wallaga Lake in southern New South Wales, he was named Harry Penrith but took the name of his great grandfather, which means Great Warrior. He was orphaned at an early age and spent many years in children's homes run by the NSW Aborigines Welfare Board, most notably Kinchela Boys Home at Kempsey; the Welfare Board promoted his achievements in his rugby league and surf lifesaving at Kempsey in Dawn, reported that he left Kinchela to become an Aboriginal pioneer in the NSW Public Service, working for the Department of Agriculture, where he remained for 13 years. He played first grade Rugby Union for Parramatta, both rugby league and cricket. While attending the University of Tasmania in the late 1960s, he led a successful movement to reclaim the remains of Truganini from the Tasmanian Museum for cremation, he was awarded a Churchill Fellowship in 1975 to study other Indigenous people. He may be best remembered for planting the Aboriginal flag on the white cliffs of Dover on the Australian Bicentenary Day of 26 January 1988.
This was his tongue-in-cheek way of claiming England, as Arthur Phillip had done to Burnum Burnum's homeland in 1788 when arriving with the First Fleet. A copy of the Burnum Burnum Declaration is on display among the indigenous carvings and sculptures at the Enchanted Maze, Mornington Peninsula, Australia. In 1986, Burnum Burnum played roles in three films; the first was Dark Age, a thriller set in outback and tropical Australia, which starred David Gulpillil as Burnum's son. The second was Ground Zero, a thriller containing themes critical of the British and Australian governments' treatment of Indigenous Australians during nuclear weapon testing at Maralinga; the third was a satirical film, Marsupials: The Howling III, in which Burnum's character becomes a werewolf in the form of a Tasmanian tiger. Burnum appeared as Uncle Albert in the TV series Bony in 1992. Burnum stood in the upper house of the NSW parliament during the Wran government era. Former Prime Minister John Howard described Burnum Burnum as "a gracious man and strongly committed to the welfare of Aboriginal Australians".
Burnum Burnum lived in Woronora in his life and was active in the local community. He died from heart disease on 18 August 1997. A portrait of Burnum Burnum now hangs in Sutherland Library. In 2005 Jannali Reserve was renamed Burnum Burnum Reserve in his honour
The Goulburn River, a major inland perennial river of the Goulburn Broken catchment, part of the Murray-Darling basin, is located in the alpine, Northern Country/North Central, Southern Riverina regions of the Australian state of Victoria. The headwaters of the Goulburn River rise in the western end of the Victorian Alps, below the peak of Corn Hill before descending to flow into the Murray River near Echuca, making it the longest river in Victoria at 654 kilometres; the river is impounded by the Eildon Dam to create Lake Eildon, the Eildon Pondage, the Goulburn Weir and Waranga Basin. The river rises below Corn Hill on the southwestern slopes of the Victorian Alps, south of Eildon near the town of Woods Point in the Shire of Mansfield; the river flows north west north west passing through or adjacent to the regional cities and towns of Alexandra, Nagambie, Arcadia Downs, Shepparton–Mooroopna before reaching its confluence with the Murray River near Echuca. The Goulburn has 41 tributaries including the Black, Howqua, Big, Acheron and Broken rivers and the Seven Creeks.
The river descends 1,100 metres over its 654-kilometre course. In addition to being the longest river in Victoria, the Goulburn has the highest discharge and the highest annual flow of any river in Victoria; the area surrounding the river is productive as a result of irrigated agriculture. The Goulburn accounts for 45% of the Murray-Darling Basin's total runoff. By contrast, the Darling basin contributes just 31.7% of the basin's total runoff. Much of the flow is extracted, the river is heavily regulated, which has affected the river's ecosystem. With recent years being some of the driest on record in the basin, there has been further stress on the river's ecosystem; because of all this there has been much controversy over the construction of the North–South Pipeline, which will pipe 70 gigalitres of water annually to Melbourne's water supply. There are arguments that all the water piped to Melbourne will be saved water, by the upgrade of the irrigation infrastructure in the Goulburn river basin all a part of a food bowl modernisation project.
In June 2008 the Murray-Darling Basin Commission released a report on the condition of the Murray-Darling basin, with the Goulburn and Murrumbidgee rivers both rated in a poor condition in the Murray-Darling basin with fish stocks in both rivers were rated as poor. The Goulburn Heritage River was declared in 1992 in recognition of its unique natural, recreational and cultural values. In June 2010, the Victorian Government created the Lower Goulburn National Park to protect and enhance the River Red Gum forests in Victoria. Red River Gum forests line the Goulburn River for most of its length, reaching up to 45 metres in height and live more than 500 years; the trees can survive inundation for months. Their seeds are washed onto higher ground during a flood and germinate and grow before the next flood reaches them. Hollows and broken branches provide nesting for galahs, cockatoos and various parrots, while fallen branches provide habitat for other animals. Additional activities on the river include canoeing and picnicking, fishing, with Murray Cod, Golden Perch and Spiny freshwater crayfish found in the lower reaches of the river.
In the upper reaches, there are extensive forests of tall mountain ash and mixed species and may be described as typical trout streams. In the Aboriginal Daungwurrung language, the river has several names: Warring, meaning "big or large water". In the Yorta Yorta language, the river has several names: Koninner, meaning "the country at the junction of the Murray and Goulburn rivers. In the Ngurai-illamwurrung language, the river is called Omio. Hamilton Hume and William Hovell explored the area in 1824, naming the Goulburn River in honour of Major Frederick Goulburn, the first Colonial Secretary of New South Wales. Goulburn–Murray Water List of rivers of Victoria Murray Darling Basin Authority "Goulburn River Valley tourism site". Goulburn River Valley. 2014. "Upper Goulburn River Catchment Local Management Rules". Goulburn–Murray Water. 28 October 2009. Archived from the original on 20 October 2014
Churches of Christ
Churches of Christ are autonomous Christian congregations associated with one another through distinct beliefs and practices. Represented chiefly in the United States and one of several branches to develop out of the American Restoration Movement, they claim biblical precedent for their doctrine and practice and trace their heritage back to the early Christian church as described in the New Testament. More broadly, the Restoration Movement was an evangelistic and Bible-based effort launched in various places as several people sought a return to the original teachings and practices of the New Testament. Christian leaders including Robert Sandeman, James O'Kelly, Abner Jones, Elias Smith, Rice Haggard, Thomas Campbell, Alexander Campbell, Walter Scott, Barton W. Stone were trailblazers of similar movements that impacted the eventual phenomenon known as the American Restoration Movement; the Restoration ideal was similar and somewhat connected to earlier restoration efforts in Europe, as well as Puritan movements in colonial America.
Though differing somewhat in details, each group consisted of like-minded Christians who, although independent of one another, had declared independence from their various denominations and the traditional creeds, seeking a fresh start to return to the doctrines and practices of the New Testament church. They did not see themselves as establishing a new church but rather sought "the unification of all Christians in a single body patterned after the original church of the New Testament." The names "Church of Christ," "Christian Church," and "Disciples of Christ" were adopted by the movement because they believed these terms to be biblical, rather than denominational. Prior to the U. S. Religious Census of 1906, all congregations associated with the Restoration Movement had been reported together by the Census Bureau, but as the movement developed, tensions grew between those who emphasized unity and those who emphasized restoration, highlighting differences in the groups' underlying approaches to biblical interpretation.
For the Churches of Christ, practices not present in accounts of New Testament worship were not permissible in the church. In contrast, the Christian Church may consider any practice not expressly forbidden. For example, the Christian Church uses musical instruments in worship, whereas the Churches of Christ believe a cappella singing to be proper, although some Church of Christ congregations do use instruments. In addition, there was disagreement over the appropriateness of organizational structures above the congregational level, such as those of missionary societies and funding orphanages. Though not recognized as distinct movements until 1906, the separation of the Churches of Christ and the Christian Churches had been taking place for decades; the Restoration Movement was not a purely North American phenomenon, active mission efforts began in the 18th century. There are now Churches of Christ in Africa, Australia, South America, Central America, Europe. Members of the church of Christ do not conceive of themselves as a new church started near the beginning of the 19th century.
Rather, the whole movement is designed to reproduce in contemporary times the church established on Pentecost, A. D. 33. The strength of the appeal lies in the restoration of Christ's original church. Modern Churches of Christ have their historical roots in the Restoration Movement, a converging of Christians across denominational lines in search of a return to an original, "pre-denominational" Christianity. Participants in this movement sought to base their doctrine and practice on the Bible alone, rather than recognizing the traditional councils and denominational hierarchies that had come to define Christianity since the first century A. D. Members of the Churches of Christ believe that Jesus founded only one church, that the current divisions among Christians do not express God's will, that the only basis for restoring Christian unity is the Bible, they identify themselves as "Christians", without using any other forms of religious or denominational identification. They believe. Churches of Christ share the following theological beliefs and practices: Autonomous, congregational church organization without denominational oversight.
In American congregations, the terms "Communion" or "body and blood" are used. Churches of Christ offer open communion. Offering the bread and fruit of the vine to all present at each person's self-examination. Practice of a cappella singing is the norm in worship, based on New Testament passages teaching to sing for worship, with no mention of instrumental music. In keeping with their history, the Churches of Christ claim the New Testament as their sole rule of faith and practice in deciding matters of doctrine and ecclesiastical structure, they view the Old Testament as divinely inspired and accurate, but they do not consider its laws to be binding under the New Covenant in Christ. They believe that the New Testament demon