Yosemite National Park is an American national park located in the western Sierra Nevada of Central California, bounded on the southeast by Sierra National Forest and on the northwest by Stanislaus National Forest. The park is managed by the National Park Service and covers an area of 748,436 acres and sits in four counties: centered in Tuolumne and Mariposa, extending north and east to Mono and south to Madera County. Designated a World Heritage site in 1984, Yosemite is internationally recognized for its granite cliffs, clear streams, giant sequoia groves, mountains, meadows and biological diversity. 95% of the park is designated wilderness. On average, about four million people visit Yosemite each year, most spend the majority of their time in the seven square miles of Yosemite Valley; the park set a visitation record in 2016, surpassing five million visitors for the first time in its history. Yosemite was central to the development of the national park idea. Galen Clark and others lobbied to protect Yosemite Valley from development leading to President Abraham Lincoln's signing the Yosemite Grant in 1864.
John Muir led a successful movement to have Congress establish a larger national park by 1890, one which encompassed the valley and its surrounding mountains and forests, paving the way for the National Park System. Yosemite is one of the largest and least fragmented habitat blocks in the Sierra Nevada, the park supports a diversity of plants and animals; the park has an elevation range from 2,127 to 13,114 feet and contains five major vegetation zones: chaparral and oak woodland, lower montane forest, upper montane forest, subalpine zone, alpine. Of California's 7,000 plant species, about 50% occur in the Sierra Nevada and more than 20% are within Yosemite; the park contains suitable habitat for more than 160 rare plants, with rare local geologic formations and unique soils characterizing the restricted ranges many of these plants occupy. The geology of the Yosemite area is characterized by granitic remnants of older rock. About 10 million years ago, the Sierra Nevada was uplifted and tilted to form its gentle western slopes and the more dramatic eastern slopes.
The uplift increased the steepness of stream and river beds, resulting in the formation of deep, narrow canyons. About one million years ago and ice accumulated, forming glaciers at the higher alpine meadows that moved down the river valleys. Ice thickness in Yosemite Valley may have reached 4,000 feet during the early glacial episode; the downslope movement of the ice masses cut and sculpted the U-shaped valley that attracts so many visitors to its scenic vistas today. The name "Yosemite" referred to the name of a tribe, driven out of the area by the Mariposa Battalion; the area had been called "Ahwahnee" by indigenous people. Yosemite Valley has been inhabited for nearly 3,000 years, although humans may have first visited the area as long as 8,000 to 10,000 years ago; the indigenous natives called themselves the Ahwahnechee, meaning "dwellers in Ahwahnee". They are related to the Northern Mono tribes. Many tribes visited the area to trade, including nearby Central Sierra Miwoks, who lived along the drainage area of the Tuolumne and Stanislaus Rivers.
A major trading route went over Mono Pass and through Bloody Canyon to Mono Lake, just to the east of the Yosemite area. Vegetation and game in the region were similar to that present today; the California Gold Rush in the mid-19th century increased travel by European-Americans in the area, causing competition for resources between the regional Paiute and Miwok and the miners and hangers on. In 1851 as part of the Mariposa Wars intended to suppress Native American resistance, United States Army Major Jim Savage led the Mariposa Battalion into the west end of Yosemite Valley, he was pursuing forces of around 200 Ahwahneechee led by Chief Tenaya. Accounts from this battalion were the first well-documented reports of ethnic Europeans entering Yosemite Valley. Attached to Savage's unit was Dr. Lafayette Bunnell, the company physician, who wrote about his awestruck impressions of the valley in The Discovery of the Yosemite. Bunnell is credited with naming Yosemite Valley, based on his interviews with Chief Tenaya.
Bunnell wrote. The Miwok, a neighboring tribe, most white settlers considered the Ahwahneechee to be violent because of their frequent territorial disputes; the Miwok term for the Pai-Ute band was yohhe'meti, meaning "they are killers". Correspondence and articles written by members of the battalion helped to popularize the natural wonders of the Yosemite Valley and the surrounding area. Chief Tenaya and his Ahwahneechee were captured and their village burned; the chief and some others were allowed to return to Yosemite Valley. In the spring of 1852 they attacked a group of eight gold miners, moved east to flee law enforcement. Near Mono Lake, they took refuge with the nearby Mono tribe of Paiute, they stole horses from their hosts and moved away, but the Mono Paiutes tracked down and killed many of the Ahwahneechee, including Chief Tenaya. The Mono Paiute took the survivors as captives back to Mono Lake and absorbed them into the Mono Lake Paiute tribe. After these wars, a number of Native Americans continued to live within the boundaries of Yosemite.
A number of Indians supported the growing tourism industry by working as laborers or
Rajkavi Inderjeet Singh Tulsi, was a celebrated patriotic poet, Bollywood lyricist, author. His writings in Punjabi and Urdu, covered every aspect of life, including religion, labor's life, country's struggles, etc. Moreover, he was known for the simplicity in his writings. Tulsi was regarded as one of India's most influential poets; the Government of India honoured him with the Rajkavi in 1962 and the Padma Shri in 1966 for his contributions towards the arts. Tulsi gained recognition in 1962 when he was titled the Rajkavi of Punjab by the governor of Punjab, Narhar Vishnu Gadgil Following the Rajkavi award, in 1966, he was awarded the Padma Shri Award for his contribution to Arts and Education by Indian Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, he is the author of Param Purkh, Darvesh Badshah Guru Gobind Singh Ji, which continue to be a part of Punjab University’s Syllabus today, Baraf Bane Angare, Sur Shinghar. A few years Manoj Kumar was attending a Kavi Darbar, where he heard Rajkavi Inderjeet Singh reciting one of his poems.
Manoj Kumar appreciated his work and requested him to write for his upcoming film Shor, i.e. Pani Re Pani Tera Rang Kaisa and Jeevan Chalne Ka Naam; the songs became a hit and Rajkavi Inderjeet Singh Tulsi went on to work with many more filmmakers like Raj Kapoor, N. N. Sippy, B. R. Chopra, he continued to deliver hits like Le Jayenge Le Jayenge Dilwale Dulhanya Le Jayenge, Beshak Mandir Masjid Todo, Samay Tu Dheere Dheere Chal, Jaa Re Jaa Oo Harjayee. In 1962, Rajkavi Inderjeet Singh Tulsi was awarded with the Rajkavi Title of Punjab by the governor of Punjab, Narhar Vishnu Gadgil In 1966, Rajkavi Inderjeet Singh Tulsi was awarded with the Padma Shri Award for his contribution in Arts and Education by Indian Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru. Shor 1972 Bobby Chor Machaye Shor 1974 Sauda 1974 Do Jasoos 1975 Fakira 1976 Kalicharan 1976 Santo Banto 1976 Karm 1977 Pratima Aur Paayal 1977 Zamaanat Bhakti Mein Shakti 1978 Vishwanath 1978 Ahimsa 1979 Jaandaar 1979 The Gold Medal 1979 Raaj Mahal 1982 Yaar Garibaan Da Laadlee Baraf Bani Angare Darvesh Badshah Guru Gobind Singhji Sur Singar - Poetry Param Purkh - Depicts the life of Guru Nanak Dev Ji through poems
Gastonia Commerson ex Lamarck is a accepted genus of flowering plants in the ivy and ginseng family, Araliaceae. It had been known as an unnatural group, but was recognized as late as 2010, when its nine species were distributed to four different subgenera of the large genus Polyscias; because the genus Gastonia is now obsolete, its species are herein referred to by their names in Polyscias. The species that constituted Gastonia are island endemics, with Madagascar and New Guinea being the largest land masses on which any of them occur. Gastonia had a disjunct distribution, with three species from the Seychelles, three more from the Mascarenes, one from Madagascar and the Comoro Islands, two distributed from Malesia to the Solomon Islands. Gastonia is a genus of small to large trees, it shares with the lack of an articulation on the pedicel, below the flower. It is distinguished from Reynoldsia and Tetraplasandra by the radiating style arms that persist on the fruit. Listed below are the nine species placed in Gastonia by Govaerts.
Names in Polyacias are from Plunkett. Polyscias crassa Lowry & G. M. Plunkett Polyscias cutispongia Baker Polyscias duplicata Lowry & G. M. Plunkett Polyscias maraisiana Lowry & G. M. Plunkett Polyscias lionnetii Lowry & G. M. Plunkett Polyscias rodriguesiana Lowry & G. M. Plunkett Polyscias sechellarum Baker P. sechellarum var. contracta P. sechellarum var. curiosae P. sechellarum var. sechellarum Polyscias serratifolia Lowry & G. M. Plunkett Polyscias spectabilis Lowry & G. M. Plunkett Polyscias spectabilis is from New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, it sometimes exceeds 40 m in height, is the tallest member of Araliaceae. Like most members of Polyscias, P. spectabilis is sparingly branched, sometimes palm-like in form, at least when young. Mature individuals of P. spectabilis are sometimes unbranched for 3/4 of the height of the tree. Hermann Harms erected the monotypic genus Peekeliopanax for it in 1926, but was not followed by other authors; the type species for Gastonia is Gastonia cutispongia.
It is a smooth tree with spongy bark. It is native to Réunion and sometimes planted there, but it has become rare. Polyscias maraisiana is endemic to Mauritius and was cultivated in Europe in the 19th century, but has not been seen there since that time, it was considered exotic on account of its strikingly heteroblastic leaves. Polyscias maraisiana has been the subject of some nomenclatural instability. In 1984, Wessel Marais separated it from Gastonia cutispongia as Gastonia mauritiana. In 2003, it was shown that the correct name for this species was Gastonia elegans because it had first been described in 1866 as Terminalia elegans; this description was a large and unexpected taxonomic error because Terminalia is in the Myrtalean family Combretaceae. In 2010, when this species was transferred to Polyscias, the specific epithet had to be changed again because the names Polyscias mauritiana and Polyscias elegans existed; the latter two are in Tieghemopanax, respectively. The most widespread and variable of the species in the former Gastonia is Polyscias serratifolia.
It ranges from there to the Solomon Islands. Some of its varieties have been named as separate species and placed in other genera, such as Arthrophyllum and Tetraplasandra; these were united into one species by Philipson, as Gastonia papuana in 1970, as Gastonia serratifolia in 1979. Quattrocchi states that Gastonia was "named after Gaston d'Orléans, 1608-1660, a patron and promoter of botany and floriculture"; the name was originated by Philibert Commerson, but validated in 1788, by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck in Encyclopédie Méthodique. Lamarck gave a detailed description of the species, he gave it only a cursory description. No one today is sure of what the other species was; some authors believe that it was not a member of Araliaceae. Other species were added to Gastonia in the 19th century. In 1898, Hermann Harms transferred what is now Polyscias sechellarum to Gastonia in a landmark monograph on Araliaceae in Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien. William Raymond Philipson gave Gastonia its modern definition in 1970.
He included Malesian species, in Tetraplasandra, thus restricting that genus to the Hawaiian Islands. He reduced the monotypic genera Indokingia and Peekeliopanax into synonymy under Gastonia. William Botting Hemsley had named Indokingia in 1906 in Hooker's Icones Plantarum. Peekeliopanax was a name that Hermann Harms had applied to a flowering specimen in 1926. A few years he placed a fruiting specimen of the same species under Gastonia. In 2003, a checklist and nomenclator was published for Araliaceae by Kew Gardens. Nine species were recognized therein for Gastonia; the genus was described as "generalized, altho in details, it is quite varied". Since that time, molecular phylogenetic studies, based on DNA sequences, have shown that Gastonia was polyphyletic; these studies have shown that biogeography is correlated with relationships in Araliaceae. In 2010, the genus Polyscias was expanded from about 100 species to 159; the number of species in Polyscias will be around 250. Six genera (Arthrophyllum, Gastonia, Reynoldsia and Tetr