Denise Biellmann is a Swiss professional figure skater. She won the Swiss Championships three times. Born in Zurich, Biellmann won her first international championship in Belgium at age 8. At age 14, she competed at the 1977 European Championships and placed second in the Free Skate portion of the competition. At the age of 15, she was the first female skater to land the triple lutz in competition, which she performed for the first time at the 1978 European Championships. At the same event, she became the first woman to receive a 6.0 in Technical Merit, receiving the score from British judge Pauline Borrajo. She was 12th in Figures, first in the Free Skate, finished fourth over all. At the 1980 Winter Olympics, she performed poorly in Compulsory Figures; the Biellmann spin was named after her. It was present in skating at least since the 1965 European Championships when Tamara Moskvina performed it, it remains the only figure skating spin to be named after a person in ISU regulations. By the end of her ISU career, the spin was causing her back pain.
Biellmann retired from amateur competition at age 18, shortly after her win at the 1981 World Championships. Biellmann remains involved in the international figure skating community as a participant in both professional shows and competitions, she participated in Pro7 Season 1, partnered with television presenter Pierre Geisensetter, in Season 2, partnered with actor Patrick Bach. She participated in the Eurovision Dance Contest 2007 representing Switzerland with partner Sven Ninnemann, she won the prestigious Challenge of Champions, regarded as the most important professional event, a record 5 times. Along with all her other titles making her the most successful professional skater ever. Official website Denise Biellmann at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com Denise Biellmann at the International Olympic Committee YouTube video - 1980 Winter Olympics
Internationaux de France
Internationaux de France is an international, senior-level figure skating competition held as part of the ISU Grand Prix of Figure Skating series. It was known as the Grand Prix International de Paris, Trophée de France, Trophée Lalique, Trophée Éric Bompard. Medals are awarded in the disciplines of men's singles, ladies' singles, pair skating, ice dancing. Organized by the French Federation of Ice Sports, the event is most held in Paris but has been hosted by four other cities – Albertville in 1991, Lyon in 1994, Bordeaux in 1995, 2014, 2015, Grenoble in 2017 and 2018; the competition was first held in 1987 in Paris as the Grand Prix International de Paris. In 1991, Albertville hosted it as a pre-Olympic event. In 1994, it became known as Trophée de France, it retained the name in 1995 when it was held in Bordeaux as part of the inaugural ISU Champions Series. In 1996, it was renamed to reflect a sponsor, the glassware company Lalique; the Éric Bompard company co-sponsored the event with Lalique from 1999 through 2003 before becoming the chief sponsor in 2004.
The competition's title was changed to Trophée Éric Bompard. The competition was held in Bordeaux in 2014 and 2015. In 2015, it was canceled after the first day of competition due to the November 2015 Paris attacks. In the summer of 2016, the Éric Bompard company decided to end its sponsorship after its questions to the French Federation of Ice Sports received no response; the event returned to Paris and the name Trophée de France in 2016. The following year, it became known as Internationaux de France. Official website
The free skating segment of figure skating called the free skate and the long program, is the second of two segments of competitions, skated after the short program. Its duration, across all disciplines, is 4 minutes for senior skaters and teams, 3 1/2 minutes for junior skaters and teams. Vocal music with lyrics is allowed for all disciplines since the 2014-2015 season; the free skating program, across all disciplines, must be well-balanced and include certain elements described and published by the International Skating Union. Free skating called the free skate or long program, is a segment of single skating, pair skating, synchronized skating in international competitions, including all International Skating Union championships, the Olympic Winter Games, the Winter Youth Games, qualifying competitions for the Olympic Winter Games, ISU Grand Prix events for both junior and senior-level skaters; the free skating program is skated after the short program. Its duration, across all disciplines, is 4 minutes for senior skaters and teams, 3 1/2 minutes for junior skaters and teams.
Vocal music with lyrics has been allowed in all disciplines since the 2014-2015 season. The first time vocal music was allowed at the Olympics was in 2018. According to figure skating historian James R. Hines, "free skating has been a part of competition throughout the history" of the ISU. Free skating, which became more important and popular after World War II, was developed when skaters connected individual compulsory figures into a cohesive program; the free skate, along with compulsory figures, were segments in competitions until 1973, when the short program was added. Japanese skater Shoma Uno holds the highest single men's free skating program score of 197.36, which he earned at the 2019 Four Continents Figure Skating Championships. Alina Zagitova from Russia holds the highest single women's free skating score of 158.50, which she earned at the 2018 CS Nebelhorn Trophy. Vanessa James and Morgan Cipres from France hold the highest pairs free skating score of 149.11, which they earned at the 2019 European Figure Skating Championships.
According to the ISU, a free skating program for men and women single skaters "consists of a well balanced program of Free Skating elements, such as jumps, spins and other linking movements executed with a minimum of two footed skating in harmony with music of the Competitor’s choice". Skaters have "complete freedom" to select any free skating elements. All the elements must be linked together by connecting different steps and other free skating movements. Skaters must use the entire ice surface. Forward and backward crossovers however, do not constitute connecting steps. If a skater performs more elements than what is prescribed, only the first attempt, or the allowed number of attempts, are counted in his or her final score. A well-balanced free skate for both senior men and women single skaters must consist of the following: up to seven jump elements, one of which has to be an axel jump. Junior men and women single skaters have the same requirements, except that they do not have to perform a choreographic sequence.
According to the ISU, free skating for pairs "consists of a well balanced program composed and skated to music of the pair’s own choice for a specified period of time". The ISU considers a good free skate one that contains both single skating moves performed either in parallel or symmetrically and "especially typical Pair Skating moves" such as pair spins, partner assisted jumps and other similar moves, "linked harmoniously by steps and other movements". A well-balanced free skate for senior pairs must consist of the following: up to three lifts, not all from the same group, with the lifting arm or arms extended. A junior pair free skating program must consist of the following: up to two lifts, not all from the same group, with the lifting arm or arms extended. If a pairs team performs any number of elements more than what has been prescribed, only the first attempt will be included in their final score. A well-balanced free skate for synchronized skating must consist of elements and other linking movements that reflect the character of the music the teams choose and/or expresses a story, idea, or concept chosen by the team.
The ISU, out of the following 14 elements and publicizes up to 10 required elements for junior free skating programs and up to 11 required elements for senior free skating programs yearly. These elements include: an artistic element, a creative element, an intersection element, a group lift element, a line or block linear element, a mixed element, a move element, a no-hold element, a pair element, a line or black pivoting element, a wheel or circle rotating element, a synchronized spin element, a wheel or circle traveling element, a twizzle element; these elements must be "linked together harmoniously by a variety of transitions and executed with a minimum of two footed skating". Other elem
Nagoya is the largest city in the Chūbu region of Japan. It is the third-most-populous urban area, it is located on the Pacific coast on central Honshu. It is the capital of Aichi Prefecture and is one of Japan's major ports along with those of Tokyo, Kobe, Yokohama and Kitakyushu, it is the center of Japan's third-largest metropolitan region, known as the Chūkyō metropolitan area. As of 2015, 2.28 million people lived in the city, part of Chūkyō Metropolitan Area's 10.11 million people. It is one of the 50 largest urban areas in the world; the city's name was written as 那古野 or 名護屋. One possible origin is the adjective nagoyaka, meaning'peaceful'; the name Chūkyō, consisting of chū + kyō is used to refer to Nagoya. Notable examples of the use of the name Chūkyō include the Chūkyō Industrial Area, Chūkyō Metropolitan Area, Chūkyō Television Broadcasting, Chukyo University and the Chukyo Racecourse. Oda Nobunaga and his protégés Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu were powerful warlords based in the Nagoya area who succeeded in unifying Japan.
In 1610, Tokugawa Ieyasu moved the capital of Owari Province from Kiyosu, about seven kilometers away, to a more strategic location in present-day Nagoya. During this period Nagoya Castle was constructed, built from materials taken from Kiyosu Castle. During the construction, the entire town around Kiyosu Castle, consisting of around 60,000 people, moved from Kiyosu to the newly planned town around Nagoya Castle. Around the same time, the nearby ancient Atsuta Shrine was designated as a waystation, called Miya, on the important Tōkaidō road, which linked the two capitals of Kyoto and Edo. A town developed around the temple to support travelers; the castle and shrine towns formed the city. During the Meiji Restoration Japan's provinces were restructured into prefectures and the government changed from family to bureaucratic rule. Nagoya was proclaimed a city on October 1, 1889, designated a city on September 1, 1956, by government ordinance. Nagoya became an industrial hub for the region, its economic sphere included the famous pottery towns of Tokoname and Seto, as well as Okazaki, one of the only places where gunpowder was produced under the shogunate.
Other industries included cotton and complex mechanical dolls called karakuri ningyō. Mitsubishi Aircraft Company was established in 1920 in Nagoya and became one of the largest aircraft manufacturers in Japan; the availability of space and the central location of the region and the well-established connectivity were some of the major factors that lead to the establishment of the aviation industry there. Nagoya was the target of US air raids during World War II; the population of Nagoya at this time was estimated to be 1.5 million, fourth among Japanese cities and one of the three largest centers of the Japanese aircraft industry. It was estimated. Important Japanese aircraft targets were within the city itself, while others were to the north of Kagamigahara, it was estimated that they produced between 40% and 50% of Japanese combat aircraft and engines, such as the vital Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighter. The Nagoya area produced machine tools, railway equipment, metal alloys, motor vehicles and processed foods during World War II.
Air raids began on April 18, 1942, with an attack on a Mitsubishi Heavy Industries aircraft works, the Matsuhigecho oil warehouse, the Nagoya Castle military barracks and the Nagoya war industries plant. The bombing continued through the spring of 1945, included large-scale firebombing. Nagoya was the target of two of Bomber Command’s attacks; these incendiary attacks, one by day and one by night, devastated 15.3 square kilometres. The XXI Bomber Command established a new U. S. Army Air Force record with the greatest tonnage released on a single target in one mission—3,162 tons of incendiaries, it destroyed or damaged twenty-eight of the numbered targets and raised the area burned to one-fourth of the entire city. Nagoya Castle, being used as a military command post, was hit and destroyed on May 14, 1945. Reconstruction of the main building was completed in 1959. In 1959, the city was flooded and damaged by the Ise-wan Typhoon. Nagoya lies north of Ise Bay on the Nōbi Plain; the city was built on low-level plateaus to ward off floodwaters.
The plain is one of the nation's most fertile areas. The Kiso River flows to the west along the city border, the Shōnai River comes from the northeast and turns south towards the bay at Nishi Ward; the man-made Hori River was constructed as a canal in 1610. It flows as part of the Shōnai River system; the rivers allowed for trade with the hinterland. The Tempaku River feeds from a number of smaller river in the east, flows south at Nonami and west at Ōdaka into the bay; the city's location and its position in the centre of Japan allowed it to develop economically and politically. Nagoya has 16 wards: Nagoya has a humid subtropical climate with hot summers and cool winters; the summer is noticeably wetter than the winter. One of the earliest censuses, carried out in 1889, counted 157,496 residents; the population reached the 1 million mark in 1934 and as of December 2010 had an estimated population of 2,259,993 with a population density of 6,923 persons per km2. As of December 2010 an estimated 1,019,859 households resided there—a significant increase from 153,370 at the end of World War II in 1945.
The area i
Short program (figure skating)
The short program of figure skating is the first of two segments of competitions, skated before the free skating program. It lasts, for both senior and junior singles and pair skaters, 40 seconds. In synchronized skating, for both juniors and seniors, the short program lasts 2 minutes and 50 seconds. Vocal music with lyrics is allowed for all disciplines since the 2014-2015 season; the short program for single skaters and for pair skaters consists of seven required elements, there are six required elements for synchronized skaters. The short program, along with the free skating program, is a segment of single skating, pair skating, synchronized skating in international competitions, including all ISU championships, the Olympic Winter Games, the Winter Youth Games, qualifying competitions for the Olympic Winter Games, ISU Grand Prix events for both junior and senior-level skaters, it has been called the "original" or "technical" program. The short program was added to single skating in 1973, which created a three-part competition until compulsory figures were eliminated in 1990.
The short program for pair skating was introduced at the 1963 European Championships, the 1964 World Championships, the Olympics in 1968. Synchronized skating has always had the short program and free skating; the short program must be skated before the free skate. It lasts, for both senior and junior singles and pairs, 40 seconds. In synchronized skating, for both juniors and seniors, the short program lasts 2 minutes and 50 seconds, "but may be less". Vocal music with lyrics is allowed in all disciplines since the 2014-2015 season; the first time vocal music was allowed at the Olympics was in 2018. Pair skating, which has never included a compulsory phase like the other figure skating disciplines, did not require a short program until the early 1960s, when the ISU "instituted a short program of required moves" as the first part of pair competitions; the short program for pair skating first appeared at the European Championships in 1963, the World Championships in 1964, the Olympics in 1968. The arrangement of the specific moves unlike compulsory figures for single skaters and the compulsory dance for ice dancers, were up to each pair team.
According to writer Ellyn Kestnbaum, the short programs introduced in single men and women competitions in 1973 were modeled after the pair skating short program, the structure of competitions in both single and pair competitions have been identical since the elimination of compulsory figures in 1990. Yuzuru Hanyu from Japan holds the two highest single men's short program scores: 110.53 points, which he earned at the 2018 Rostelecom Cup, 106.69, earned at the 2018 Grand Prix of Helsinki. Russian skater Alina Zagitova holds the highest single women's short program score of 82.92, which she earned at the 2018 Winter Olympics in PyeongChang, South Korea. Russian pairs team Tatiana Volosozhar and Maxim Trankov hold the highest pair skating short program score of 84.17, which they earned at the 2018 Winter Olympics. The short program for senior single skaters consists of seven required elements; the sequence of the elements is optional. Skaters can choose their own music. Men single senior skaters must have the following elements in their short program: a double or triple Axel.
Women single senior skaters must have the following elements in their short program: a double or triple Axel. Junior single skaters have seven required elements, in any sequence, but with variations in the 2018-2019, 2019-2020, 2020-2021 seasons. For example, men have to skate the following elements in 2018-2019: one triple Axel. In 2019-2020, instead of having to skate a double or triple flip jump, they have to skate a double or triple loop jump. Instead having to skate a spin combination with just one change of foot, they have to skate a layback/sideways leaning spin or sit spin, they have to skate a camel spin with just one change of foot. Both junior and senior pair skaters have seven required elements; the sequence of the elements is optional. Like single skaters, their short programs must be skated in harmony with the music, which they choose. There are three groups of required elements, for the 2018-2019, 2019-2020, 2020-2021 seasons. For example, seniors during the 2018-2019 season must perform the following: any hand-to-hand lift take-off.
In 2019-2020, pairs mu
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Midori Ito or Midori Itō is a Japanese former figure skater. She is the 1992 Olympic silver medalist, she is the first woman to land a triple axel in competition. At the 1988 Calgary Olympics, she became the first woman to land seven triple jumps in a free skating competition. Ito started skating at age four at a rink in Nagoya and approached Machiko Yamada, who would become her coach throughout her career, on the same day, she landed her first triple jump at age 8. She went to live with her coach after her parents' divorce when she was 10. Ito made her first appearance at a major international competition at the 1981 World Junior Championships, she placed 20th in the compulsory figures but won the free skating with a triple loop, a triple salchow, two triple toe loop combinations. She finished 8th in the overall standings. At this event, the 11-year-old Ito was weighed 53 pounds, she was nicknamed the "Jumping Flea" due to powerful jumps. At the 1982 World Junior Championships, Ito won both the short program and free skating, but again weak compulsory figures kept her off the podium, in 6th place overall.
Her free skating at this event included a triple flip and a triple toe loop-triple toe loop combination, she landed a triple lutz in the exhibition. Ito did not compete at the 1983 World Junior event, which took place in December 1982, after having sustained a broken ankle earlier that year. In the fall of 1983, she made her senior international debut at the Ennia Challenge Cup in the Netherlands, a competition that featured the short program and free skating only, without compulsory figures, she finished second to Katarina Witt. Ito's free skating included six triple jumps—flip, loop and two toe loops—and she completed a double loop-triple loop combination in the short program. At the 1984 World Junior Championships, she won both the short program and free skating but finished third overall due to a low placement in the compulsory figures. Ito competed at the 1984 World Championships, where she finished 7th. Ito won her first national championship in the 1985 season, but was unable to compete at that year's World Championships after again breaking her ankle.
Ito placed 5th at the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary, Canada. In Calgary, she performed a double loop-triple loop in the short program, seven triples in the free skating: Lutz, double axel-half loop-triple salchow, triple toe loop-triple toe loop, salchow, she received 7 "5.9" marks for technical merit, despite skating before the final flight. She became the first woman to land seven triples in a free skating; that same year, she perfected the triple Axel, which she had been working on since her early teens, landed it at a regional competition in the Aichi prefecture. She became the first woman to land it in international competition at the 1988 NHK Trophy, she repeated the feat at the World Championships in 1989. Her win at the 1989 World Championships was the first world title in the sport for an Asian competitor, she received. During the start of the 1989–90 season, Ito made history again at the 1989 NHK Trophy competition, where she received a rare 6.0 technical/6.0 artistic score from the Hungarian judge, again landed seven triples, including the triple axel.
At the 1990 World Championships, Ito was 10th after the compulsory figures but placed first in both the short program and the free skating and won the silver medal, second to Jill Trenary. Compulsory figures were eliminated from competitions following that season. Ito commented: "In training, I spend about two-thirds of my time on the figures. So I will sort of miss them as part of my life, but I will not miss them in the actual event." In June 1990, she was invited to meet Emperor Akihito. Ito had chronically sore knees due to her jumps. In February 1991, she underwent surgery to remove two glandular cysts in her throat and was in the hospital for 18 days. In March, at the 1991 World Championships, Ito collided with France's Laetitia Hubert during a practice session – her hip and the top of her foot were bruised. In the short program, she placed her jump combination too close to the corner of the rink and fell into the opening in the boards for the television camera but was back on the ice within seconds.
She finished 4th at the event. At the 1991 Grand Prix International de Paris – a pre-Olympic event in Albertville – Ito beat Kristi Yamaguchi by completing a triple axel and five other triple jumps in her free skating. During the warm-up before the free skating, she landed a triple Axel-triple toe loop jump combination. At the 1992 Winter Olympics, Ito placed fourth in the short program. During a practice session, Surya Bonaly of France performed a back flip near her. Ito's free skate began with a failed triple Axel but she attempted it again at the end of her program and landed it becoming the first woman to land one in the Olympics, she won the silver medal, apologized to her country for not winning the gold. Ito turned professional afterwards, bringing the triple Axel for the first time to the professional ranks, performed with ice shows in Japan, she returned to competitive skating in the 1995–96 season, but without her former success. During the peak of her career, Ito performed much the same jump content as the top male skaters of the time.
She was the first ladies' skater to perform a triple-triple jump combination and the first to perform the triple axel. In March 1990, Jill Trenary said, "I was in awe of how high she jumps." In 1990, Scott Hamilton said "it will be 50 years before we see anything like Midori Ito again