Young British Artists

The Young British Artists, or YBAs—also referred to as Brit artists and Britart—is the name given to a loose group of visual artists who first began to exhibit together in London, in 1988. Many of the first generation of YBA artists graduated from the BA Fine Art course at Goldsmiths, in the late 1980s, the second rather from the Royal College of Art; the scene began around a series of artist-led exhibitions held in warehouses and factories, beginning in 1988 with the Damien Hirst-led Freeze and, in 1990, East Country Yard Show and Modern Medicine. However, there was a less prominent predecessor organized by artist Angus Fairhurst, featuring himself, Damien Hirst, Abigail Lane, Mat Collishaw in a little show called "Progress by Degree" at the Bloomsbury Gallery of the University of London shortly before Freeze, their attitudes were much influenced by the Art Group - The Grey Organisation - which had led the way in creating a desire for change in the British Art World during the mid 1980s. They are noted for "shock tactics", use of throwaway materials, wild-living, an attitude "both oppositional and entrepreneurial".

They achieved considerable media coverage and dominated British art during the 1990s—international survey shows in the mid-1990s included Brilliant! and Sensation. Many of the artists were supported and collected by Charles Saatchi, a notable exception is Angus Fairhurst. Leading artists of the group include Tracey Emin. Key works include Hirst's The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living, a shark preserved in formaldehyde in a vitrine, Emin's My Bed, a dishevelled double bed surrounded by detritus; the first use of the term "young British artists" was not by Michael Corris in a footnote in ArtForum, May 1992, as Saatchi entitled his exhibition as "Young British Artists I" in March 1992. The acronym term "YBA" was not coined until 1994, it has become a historic term. The core of the YBA group graduated from the Goldsmiths BA Fine Art degree course in the classes of 1987–90. Liam Gillick, Fiona Rae, Steve Park and Sarah Lucas, were graduates in the class of 1987. Ian Davenport, Michael Landy, Gary Hume, Anya Gallaccio, Lala Meredith-Vula, Henry Bond, Angela Bulloch, Nick Fudge, were graduates in the class of 1988.

During the years 1987–1990, the teaching staff on the Goldsmiths BA Fine Art included Jon Thompson, Richard Wentworth, Michael Craig-Martin, Ian Jeffrey, Helen Chadwick, Mark Wallinger, Judith Cowan and Glen Baxter. Gavin Turk is part of the YBA group of artists. Turk studied at Chelsea School of Art from 1986 to 1989, at the Royal College of Art from 1989 to 1991. Turk exhibited work in the Saatchi Sensation exhibition at the Royal Academy. A group of sixteen Goldsmiths students took part in a group exhibition of art, called Freeze, of which Damien Hirst became the main organiser. Commercial galleries had shown a lack of interest in the project, it was held in a cheap non-art space, a London Docklands admin block; the event resonated with the'Acid House' warehouse rave scene prevalent at the time, but did not achieve any major press exposure. One of its effects was to set an example of artist-as-curator—in the mid-1990s artist-run exhibition spaces and galleries became a feature of the London arts scene.

In liaison with Hirst, Carl Freedman and Billee Sellman curated two influential "warehouse" shows in 1990, Modern Medicine and Gambler, in a Bermondsey former factory they designated Building One. To stage Modern Medicine they raised £1,000 sponsorships from artworld figures including Charles Saatchi. Freedman has spoken about the self-fulfilling prophecy these sponsors helped to create, commented that not many people attended these early shows, including Freeze. In 1990, Henry Bond and Sarah Lucas organised the East Country Yard Show in a disused warehouse in London Docklands, installed over four floors and 16,000m2 of exhibition space. Writing in The Independent, art critic Andrew Graham-Dixon said:"Goldsmiths graduates are unembarrassed about promoting themselves and their work: some of the most striking exhibitions in London over the past few months—"The East Country Yard Show", or "Gambler", both staged in docklands—have been independently organized and funded by Goldsmiths graduates as showcases for their work.

This has given them a reputation for pushiness, yet it should be said that in terms of ambition, attention to display and sheer bravado there has been little to match such shows in the country's established contemporary art institutions. They were far superior, for instance, to any of the contemporary art shows that have been staged by the Liverpool Tate in its own multi-million-pound dockland site." Established alternative spaces such as City Racing at the Oval in London and Milch gave many artists their first exposure. There was much embryonic activity in the Hoxton/Shoreditch area of East London focused on Joshua Compston's gallery. In 1991, the Serpentine Gallery presented a survey of this group of artists with the exhibition Broken English. In 1992, Charles Saatchi staged a series of exhibitions of Young British Art, the first show included works by Sarah Lucas, Rachel Whiteread and Damien Hirst. A second wave of Young British Artists appeared in 1992–1993 through exhibitions such as'New Contemporaries','New British Summertime' and'Minky Man

Bric à brac

Bric à brac is the fourth album recorded by French singer Priscilla Betti. It was released on June 2005 by Jive Records; the album was less successful than Priscilla's previous ones in terms of sales and chart trajectories. The album had two singles, "Bric à brac" and "Je danse donc je suis", which achieved moderate success in France, reaching chart positions 31 and 45, respectively. "Bric à brac" — 4:12 "Je danse donc je suis" — 4:26 "Ce soir j'ai choisi..." — 3:57 "Tout est à refaire" — 3:47 "Fuir" — 4:14 "Tout nouveau tout beau" — 3:55 "Te rendre doux" — 3:37 "Si tout est fini" — 3:39 "L'amour et moi" — 4:18 "Loin d'ici" — 3:17 "Bric à brac" — 5:54

Dunfermline West (UK Parliament constituency)

Dunfermline West was a county constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1983 until 2005. It elected one Member of Parliament using the first-past-the-post voting system. Before 1983 the area was covered by the Dunfermline constituency and from 2005 the seat was replaced by the new Dunfermline and West Fife; the seat of Dunfermline West contained all of the town of Dunfermline as well as territory on the north bank of the Firth of Forth. It took in the affluent villages of Limekilns and Cairneyhill.