Congress Poland or Russian Poland, formally known as the Kingdom of Poland, was a polity created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna as a sovereign Polish state. Until the November Uprising in 1831, the kingdom was in a personal union with the Tsars of Russia. Thereafter, the state was forcibly integrated into the Russian Empire over the course of the 19th century. In 1915, during World War I, it was replaced by the Central Powers with the nominal Regency Kingdom of Poland, which continued to exist until Poland regained independence in 1918. Following the partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland ceased to exist as an independent state for 123 years; the territory, with its native population, was split between the Austrian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, the Russian Empire. An equivalent to Congress Poland within the Austrian Empire was the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria commonly referred to as "Austrian Poland"; the area incorporated into Prussia and subsequently the German Empire had little autonomy and was a province within Prussia - the Province of Posen.
The Kingdom of Poland enjoyed considerable political autonomy as guaranteed by the liberal constitution. However, its rulers, the Russian Emperors disregarded any restrictions on their power, it was, little more than a puppet state of the Russian Empire. The autonomy was curtailed following uprisings in 1830–31 and 1863, as the country became governed by namiestniks, divided into guberniya, thus from the start, Polish autonomy remained little more than fiction. The capital was located in Warsaw, which towards the beginning of the 20th century became the Russian Empire's third-largest city after St. Petersburg and Moscow; the moderately multicultural population of Congress Poland was estimated at 9,402,253 inhabitants in 1897. It was composed of Poles, Polish Jews, ethnic Germans and an insignificant Russian minority; the predominant religion was Roman Catholicism and the official language used within the state was Polish until the January Uprising when Russian became co-official. Yiddish and German were spoken by its native speakers.
The territory of Congress Poland corresponds to modern-day Kalisz Region and the Lublin, Łódź, Masovian and Holy Cross Voivodeships of Poland as well as southwestern Lithuania and part of Grodno District of Belarus. Although the official name of the state was the Kingdom of Poland, in order to distinguish it from other Kingdoms of Poland, it is sometimes referred to as "Congress Poland"; the Kingdom of Poland was created out of the Duchy of Warsaw, a French client state, at the Congress of Vienna in 1815 when the great powers reorganized Europe following the Napoleonic wars. The Kingdom was created on part of the Polish territory, partitioned by Russia and Prussia replacing, after Napoleon's defeat, the Duchy of Warsaw, set up by Napoleon in 1807. After Napoleon's 1812 defeat, the fate of the Duchy of Warsaw was dependent on Russia. Prussia insisted on the Duchy being eliminated, but after Russian troops reached Paris in 1812, Tsar Alexander I intended to annex to the Duchy the Lithuanian-Belarusian lands, now controlled by the Tsardom, which used to be a part of the First Polish Republic and to unite thus created Polish country with Russia.
Both Austria and England did not approve of that idea, Austria issuing a memorandum on returning to the 1795 resolutions, this idea supported by England under George IV and Prime Minister Robert Jenkinson and the English delegate to the Congress, Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh, so in effect the Tsar, after the so-called Hundred Days, established the Kingdom of Poland and the 1815 Congress of Vienna approved. After the Congress, Russia gained a larger share of Poland and, after crushing an insurrection in 1831, the Congress Kingdom's autonomy was abolished and Poles faced confiscation of property, forced military service, the closure of their own universities; the Congress was important enough in the creation of the state to cause the new country to be named for it. The Kingdom lost its status as a sovereign state in 1831 and the administrative divisions were reorganized, it was sufficiently distinct that its name remained in official Russian use, although in the years of Russian rule it was replaced with the Privislinsky Krai.
Following the defeat of the November Uprising its separate institutions and administrative arrangements were abolished as part of increased Russification to be more integrated with the Russian Empire. However after this formalized annexation, the territory retained some degree of distinctiveness and continued to be referred to informally as Congress Poland until the Russian rule there ended as a result of the advance by the armies of the Central Powers in 1915 during World War I; the Kingdom had an area of 128,500 km2 and a population of 3.3 million. The new state would be one of the smallest Polish states smaller than the preceding Duchy of Warsaw and much smaller than the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth which had a population of 10 million and an area of 1 million km2, its population reached 6.1 million by 1870 and 10 million by 1900. Most of the ethnic Poles in the Russian Empire lived in the Congress Kingdom, although some areas outside it contained a Polish majority; the Kingdom of Poland re-emerged as a result of the efforts of Adam Jerzy Czartoryski, a Pole who aimed to resurrect the Polish state in alliance with Russia.
The Kingdom of Poland was one of the few contemporary constitutional monarchies in Europe, with the Emperor of Russia serving as the Polish King. His title as chief of Poland in Russian, was Tsar, similar to usage in
Klemens von Metternich
Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar, Prince of Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein, KOGF was an Austrian diplomat, at the center of European affairs for four decades as the Austrian Empire's foreign minister from 1809 and Chancellor from 1821 until the liberal Revolutions of 1848 forced his resignation. Born into the House of Metternich in 1773 as the son of a diplomat, Metternich received a good education at the universities of Strasbourg and Mainz. Metternich rose through key diplomatic posts, including ambassadorial roles in the Kingdom of Saxony, the Kingdom of Prussia, Napoleonic France. One of his first assignments as Foreign Minister was to engineer a détente with France that included the marriage of Napoleon to the Austrian archduchess Marie Louise. Soon after, he engineered Austria's entry into the War of the Sixth Coalition on the Allied side, signed the Treaty of Fontainebleau that sent Napoleon into exile and led the Austrian delegation at the Congress of Vienna that divided post-Napoleonic Europe amongst the major powers.
For his service to the Austrian Empire, he was given the title of Prince in October 1813. Under his guidance, the "Metternich system" of international congresses continued for another decade as Austria aligned itself with Russia and to a lesser extent Prussia; this marked the high point of Austria's diplomatic importance and thereafter Metternich slipped into the periphery of international diplomacy. At home, Metternich held the post of Chancellor of State from 1821 until 1848 under both Francis I and his son Ferdinand I. After a brief exile in London and Brussels that lasted until 1851, he returned to the Viennese court, this time to offer only advice to Ferdinand's successor, Franz Josef. Having outlived his generation of politicians, Metternich died at the age of 86 in 1859. A traditional conservative, Metternich was keen to maintain the balance of power, in particular by resisting Russian territorial ambitions in Central Europe and lands belonging to the Ottoman Empire, he disliked liberalism and strove to prevent the breakup of the Austrian Empire, for example, by crushing nationalist revolts in Austrian north Italy.
At home, he pursued a similar policy, using censorship and a wide-ranging spy network to suppress unrest. Metternich has been both praised and criticized for the policies he pursued, his supporters pointed out that he presided over the "Age of Metternich", when international diplomacy helped prevent major wars in Europe. His qualities as a diplomat were commended, some noting that his achievements were considerable in light of the weakness of his negotiating position. Meanwhile, his detractors argued that he could have done much to secure Austria's future, he was deemed as a stumbling block to reforms in Austria. Klemens Metternich was born into the House of Metternich on 15 May 1773 to Franz George Karl Count Metternich-Winneburg zu Beilstein, a diplomat who had passed from the service of the Archbishopric of Trier to that of the Imperial court, his wife Countess Maria Beatrice Aloisia von Kageneck, he was named in honour of Prince Clemens Wenceslaus of Saxony, the archbishop-elector of Trier and the past employer of his father.
He had one older sister. At the time of his birth the family possessed a ruined keep at Beilstein, a castle at Winneberg, an estate west of Koblenz, another in Königswart, won during the 17th century. At this time Metternich's father, described as "a boring babbler and chronic liar" by a contemporary, was the Austrian ambassador to the courts of the three Rhenish electors. Metternich's education was handled by his mother influenced by their proximity to France; as a child he went on official visits with his father and, under the direction of Protestant tutor John Frederick Simon, was tutored in academic subjects and horsemanship.<In the summer of 1788 Metternich began studying law at the University of Strasbourg, matriculating on 12 November. While a student he was for some time accommodated by Prince Maximilian of Zweibrücken, the future King of Bavaria. At this time he was described by Simon as "happy and lovable", though contemporaries would recount how he had been a liar and a braggart. Metternich left Strasbourg in September 1790 to attend Leopold II's October coronation in Frankfurt, where he performed the honorific role of Ceremonial Marshall to the Catholic Bench of the College of the Counts of Westphalia.
There, under the wing of his father, he met with the future Francis II and looked at ease among the attendant nobility. Between the end of 1790 and summer of 1792 Metternich studied law at the University of Mainz, receiving a more conservative education than at Strasbourg, a city the return to, now unsafe. In the summers he worked with his father, appointed plenipotentiary and effective ruler of the Austrian Netherlands. In March 1792 Francis succeeded as Holy Roman Emperor and was crowned in July, affording Metternich a reprisal of his earlier role of Ceremonial Marshall. In the meantime France had declared war on Austria, beginning the War of the First Coalition and making Metternich's further study in Mainz impossible. Now in the employment of his father, he was sent on a special mission to the front. Here he led the interrogation of the French Minister of War the Marquis de Beurnonville and several accompanying National Convention commissioners. Metternich observed the siege and fall of Valenciennes looking back on these as substantial lessons about warfare.
In early 1794 he was sent to England, ostensibly on official business helping Visc
The Czechs or the Czech people, are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture and Czech language. Ethnic Czechs were called Bohemians in English until the early 20th century, referring to the medieval land of Bohemia which in turn was adapted from late Iron Age tribe of Celtic Boii. During the Migration Period, West Slavic tribes of Bohemians settled in the area, "assimilated the remaining Celtic and Germanic populations", formed a principality in the 9th century, part of Great Moravia, in form of Duchy of Bohemia and Kingdom of Bohemia, the predecessors of the modern republic; the Czech diaspora is found in notable numbers in the United States, Israel, Germany, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, Russia and Brazil, among others. The Czech ethnic group is part of the West Slavic subgroup of the larger Slavic ethno-linguistical group; the West Slavs have their origin in early Slavic tribes which settled in Central Europe after East Germanic tribes had left this area during the migration period.
The West Slavic tribe of Bohemians settled in the area of Bohemia during the migration period, assimilated the remaining Celtic and Germanic populations. They formed a principality in the 9th century, the Duchy of Bohemia, under the Přemyslid dynasty, part of the Great Moravia under Svatopluk I. According to mythology, the founding father of the Czech people were Forefather Čech, who according to legend brought the tribe of Czechs into its land; the Czech are related to the neighbouring Slovaks. The Czech–Slovak languages form a dialect continuum rather than being two distinct languages. Czech cultural influence in Slovak culture is noted as having been much higher than the other way around. Czech people have a long history of coexistence with Germanic people. In the 17th century, German replaced Czech in local administration; the Czech National Revival took place in the 18th and 19th centuries aiming to revive Czech language and national identity. The Czech were the initiators of Pan-Slavism; the Czech ethnonym was the name of a Slavic tribe in central Bohemia that subdued the surrounding tribes in the late 9th century and created the Czech/Bohemian state.
The origin of the name of the tribe itself is unknown. According to legend, it comes from their leader Čech. Research regards Čech as a derivative of the root čel-; the Czech ethnonym was adopted by the Moravians in the 19th century. The population of the Czech lands has been influenced by different human migrations that wide-crossed Europe over time. In their Y-DNA haplogroups, which are inherited along the male line, Czechs have shown a mix of Eastern and Western European traits. According to a 2007 study, 34.2% of Czech males belong to R1a. Within the Czech Republic, the proportion of R1a seems to increase from west to east According to a 2000 study, 35.6% of Czech males have haplogroup R1b, common in Western Europe among Germanic and Celtic nations, but rare among Slavic nations. A mtDNA study of 179 individuals from Western Bohemia showed that 3% had East Eurasian lineages that entered the gene pool through admixture with Central Asian nomadic tribes in the early Middle Ages. A group of scientists suggested that the high frequency of a gene mutation causing cystic fibrosis in Central European and Celtic populations supports the theory of some Celtic ancestry among the Czech population.
The population of the Czech Republic descends from diverse peoples of Slavic and Germanic origin. Presence of West Slavs in the 6th century during the Migration Period has been documented on the Czech territory. Slavs settled in Bohemia and Austria sometime during the 6th or 7th centuries, "assimilated the remaining Celtic and Germanic populations". According to a popular myth, the Slavs came with Forefather Čech. During the 7th century, the Frankish merchant Samo, supporting the Slavs fighting against nearby settled Avars, became the ruler of the first known Slav state in Central Europe, the Samo's Empire; the principality Great Moravia, controlled by the Moymir dynasty, arose in the 8th century and reached its zenith in the 9th when it held off the influence of the Franks. Great Moravia was Christianized, the crucial role played Byzantine mission of Methodius; the Duchy of Bohemia emerged in the late 9th century. In 880, Prague Castle was constructed by Prince Bořivoj, founder of the Přemyslid dynasty and the city of Prague was established.
Vratislav II was the first Czech king in 1085 and the duchy was raised to a hereditary kingdom under Ottokar I in 1198. The second half of the 13th century was a period of advancing German immigration into the Czech lands; the number of Czechs who have at least German ancestry today runs into hundreds of thousands. The Habsburg Monarchy focused much of its power on religious wars against the Protestants. While these religious wars were taking place, the Czech estates revolted against Habsburg from 1546 to 1547 but were defeated. Defenestrations of Prague in 1618, signaled an open revolt by the Bohemian estates against the Habsburgs and started the Thirty Years' War. After the Battle
Josef Barák was a Czech politician and poet. He was a member of the Májovci literary group. List of Czech writers
Imperial Council (Austria)
The Imperial Council was the legislature of the Austrian Empire from 1861, from 1867 the legislature of Cisleithania within Austria-Hungary. It was a bicameral body: the upper house was the House of Lords, the lower house was the House of Deputies. To become law, bills had to be passed by both houses, signed by the government minister responsible, granted royal assent by the Emperor. After having been passed, laws were published in the Reichsgesetzblatt. In addition to the Imperial Council, the fifteen individual crown lands of Cisleithania had their own diets; the seat of the Imperial Council from 4 December 1883 was in the Parliament Building on Ringstraße in Vienna. Prior to the completion of this building, the House of Lords met in the Estates House of Lower Austria, the House of Deputies met in a temporary wooden building designed by Ferdinand Fellner on Währinger Straße; the Imperial Council was dissolved on 12 November 1918, following Austria-Hungary's defeat in the First World War. In the course of the Revolutions of 1848, representatives from those crown lands of the Austrian Empire incorporated in the German Confederation met in a "Imperial Diet" at Vienna.
The convention was inaugurated by Archduke John on 22 July 1848 and after the Vienna Uprising of October moved to Kroměříž in Moravia. It not only abolished the last remnants of serfdom in the Austrian lands, but undertook to draw up a constitution that would reflect the Empire's character of a multinational state in view of the Austroslavic movement led by the Czech politician František Palacký. On 4 March 1849, minister-president Felix zu Schwarzenberg took the initiative and imposed the March Constitution, which promised the equality of all Austrian people and provided for a bicameral "Imperial Diet", it was only a sidestep, as Schwarzenberg three days forcefully disbanded the Kremsier Parliament and had the constitution annulled with the New Year's Eve Patent of 1851. Emperor Franz Joseph went on to rule with absolute power. In place of the Imperial Diet, he installed an "Imperial Council", whose members were appointed on his authority. In the 1850s, chronic fiscal malaise became acute; the dire nature of the situation was revealed to the Emperor after the Second Italian War of Independence and the bloody defeat of Austrian forces at the 1859 Battle of Solferino.
To calm the domestic front and to gain the support of wealthy Bourgeoisie, Franz Joseph issued the October Diploma in 1860. An "Imperial Diet", still meant as a conciliatory body, was supposed to have 100 delegates elected by provincial diets that were to be established for each Austrian crown land; this electoral system, satisfied neither the bourgeois liberals nor the Hungarian nobility, who refused to accept any authority higher than the Hungarian Diet. For this reason, the Diploma was discarded and replaced by the February Patent of 1861, drafted by liberal minister-president Anton von Schmerling; this established a bicameral Imperial Council: the upper house was the House of Lords, the lower house was the House of Deputies. The House of Lords was convened for the first time on 29 April 1861, it was similar in form to the present day House of Lords of the United Kingdom. It met in the Palais Niederösterreich in Vienna until the Parliament Building was completed in 1883; the House of Lords was composed of: The last meeting of the House of Lords was held on 30 October 1918.
The meeting was adjourned within five minutes. The House of Lords chamber of the Parliament Building was destroyed by bombing during the Second World War, it was rebuilt in a contemporary style, serves as the chamber of the now democratically elected National Council of the Republic of Austria. Upon establishment of the Imperial Council by the February Patent, elections to the House of Deputies were conducted through a system of "curiae". In this system, there were 343 deputies elected by the diets of the crown lands; the diets themselves were elected by four curiae. The curiae were assemblies of certain social classes. There was one curia for the landowning class, one curia for the towns and cities, one curia for the chambers of commerce, one curia for rural communities; each curia would elect a select number of deputies to the diets, which would in turn elect deputies to the Imperial Council. To be part of the curia of the cities and the curia of the rural communities, a man had to pay at least ten guilders in tax.
This system was rejected by Hungary, as with the October Diploma, Hungary never sent any delegates to the Council. The February Patent was suspended in 1865. With the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, Hungary would no longer send deputies to the Imperial Council. Instead, the Empire was reorganised into two equal parts: Transleithania. Cisleithania consisted of the Austrian part of the Empire "the Kingdoms and Lands represented in the Imperial Council". Transleithania consisted of the Kingdom of Hungary and its subordinate, the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. Instead of a subordinate regional diet, Hungary was granted its own parliament, attained the status of "sovereign state"; the curia system, remained in place. At this point, the Council had extensive legislative powers in all Cisleithanian matters. Appointment and dismissal of the government of the Cisleithania and the Minister-President remained the right of the emperor; the number of deputies each diet sent to the Imperial Council was set
Kingdom of Bohemia
The Kingdom of Bohemia, sometimes in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom, was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Central Europe, the predecessor of the modern Czech Republic. It was an Imperial State in the Holy Roman Empire, the Bohemian king was a prince-elector of the empire; the kings of Bohemia, besides Bohemia ruled the Lands of the Bohemian Crown, which at various times included Moravia, Silesia and parts of Saxony and Bavaria. The kingdom was established by the Přemyslid dynasty in the 12th century from Duchy of Bohemia ruled by the House of Luxembourg, the Jagiellonian dynasty, since 1526 by the House of Habsburg and its successor house Habsburg-Lorraine. Numerous kings of Bohemia were elected Holy Roman Emperors and the capital Prague was the imperial seat in the late 14th century, at the end of the 16th and beginning of the 17th centuries. After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the territory became part of the Habsburg Austrian Empire, subsequently the Austro-Hungarian Empire from 1867.
Bohemia retained its name and formal status as a separate Kingdom of Bohemia until 1918, known as a crown land within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, its capital Prague was one of the empire's leading cities. The Czech language was the main language of the Diet and the nobility until 1627. German was formally made equal with Czech and prevailed as the language of the Diet until the Czech National Revival in the 19th century. German was widely used as the language of administration in many towns after Germans immigrated and populated some areas of the country in the 13th century; the royal court used the Czech and German languages, depending on the ruler and period. Following the defeat of the Central Powers in World War I, both the Kingdom and Empire were dissolved. Bohemia became the core part of the newly formed Czechoslovak Republic. Although some former rulers of Bohemia had enjoyed a non-hereditary royal title during the 11th and 12th centuries, the kingdom was formally established in 1198 by Přemysl Ottokar I, who had his status acknowledged by Philip of Swabia, elected King of the Romans, in return for his support against the rival Emperor Otto IV.
In 1204 Ottokar's royal status was accepted by Otto IV as well as by Pope Innocent III. It was recognized in 1212 by the Golden Bull of Sicily issued by Emperor Frederick II, elevating the Duchy of Bohemia to Kingdom status. Under these terms, the Czech king was to be exempt from all future obligations to the Holy Roman Empire except for participation in the imperial councils; the imperial prerogative to ratify each Bohemian ruler and to appoint the bishop of Prague was revoked. The king's successor was his son, from his second marriage. Wenceslaus I's sister Agnes canonized, was an extraordinarily courageous and energetic woman for her time. Corresponding with the Pope, she established the Knights of the Cross with the Red Star in 1233, the first military order in the Kingdom of Bohemia. Four other military orders were present in Bohemia: the Order of St. John of Jerusalem from c. 1160. 1200–1421. The 13th century was the most dynamic period of the Přemyslid reign over Bohemia. German Emperor Frederick II's preoccupation with Mediterranean affairs and the dynastic struggles known as the Great Interregnum weakened imperial authority in Central Europe, thus providing opportunities for Přemyslid assertiveness.
At the same time, the Mongol invasions absorbed the attention of Bohemia's eastern neighbors and Poland. Přemysl Ottokar II married a German princess, Margaret of Babenberg, became duke of Austria, he thereby acquired Upper Austria, Lower Austria, part of Styria. He conquered the rest of Styria, most of Carinthia, parts of Carniola, he was called "the king of iron and gold". He campaigned as far as Prussia, where he defeated the pagan natives and in 1256, founded a city he named Královec in Czech, which became Königsberg. In 1260, Ottokar defeated Hungary in the Battle of Kressenbrunn, where more than 200,000 men clashed, he ruled an area from Austria to the Adriatic Sea. From 1273, Habsburg king Rudolf began to reassert imperial authority, checking Ottokar's power, he had problems with rebellious nobility in Bohemia. All of Ottokar's German possessions were lost in 1276, in 1278 he was abandoned by part of the Czech nobility and died in the Battle on the Marchfeld against Rudolf. Ottokar was succeeded by his son King Wenceslaus II, crowned King of Poland in 1300.
Wenceslaus II's son Wenceslaus III was crowned King of Hungary a year later. At this time, the Kings of Bohemia ruled from Hungary to the Baltic Sea; the 13th century was a period of large-scale German immigration, during the Ostsiedlung encouraged by the Přemyslid kings. The Germans populated towns and mining districts on the Bohemian periphery and in some cases formed German colonies in the interior of the Czech lands. Stříbro, Kutná Hora, Německý Brod, Jihlava were important German settlements; the Germans brought their own code of law – the ius teutonicum – which formed the basis of the commercial law of Bohemia and Moravia. Marriages between Czech nobles
A Landtag is a representative assembly in German-speaking countries with legislative authority and competence over a federated state. Landtage assemblies are the legislative bodies for the individual states of Germany and states of Austria, have authority to legislate in non-federal matters for the regional area; the Landtag of South Tyrol is the legislature of the autonomous province of South Tyrol in northeast Italy. In the sovereign principality of Liechtenstein the national parliament is called the Landtag of Liechtenstein; the German word Landtag is composed of the words Tag. The German word Tagung is derived from the German word Tag, as such meetings were held at daylight and sometimes spanned several days; the English word'diet' comes from Latin: dies. In feudal society, the formal class system was reflected in the composition of the Imperial States' representative assemblies, regardless of their name well described as estates of the realm: it was not intended as an elected reflection of public opinion, but a fixed expression of established power as recognized in formal privileges, including the right to be seated in person or to be represented as elector in a college, entitled to one or more seats.
Therefore, the representatives defended class interests, decisions were based on a class-based electoral system. In some of the Imperial States that were known as Land, the name of such estates assembly was Landtag, analogous to the Reichstag, which comprised most of the Princes of the Holy Roman Empire plus Reichsgrafen, Imperial prelates and Free imperial cities; the precise composition varied and could change over time, as the result of privileges granted or lost, entities split or merged, border changes et cetera. Since 1466, Prussian Landtag were held in Royal Prussia. Prior to that, Prussian Landtag meetings were held in the Monastic state of the Teutonic Order. See Prussian estates. Since 1525, Prussian Landtag were held in Ducal Prussia. See Preußischer Landtag; as Austria and Prussia escaped the French'exporting the revolution', Napoleon was happy to maintain satellite monarchies in most German territories under his control, the more democratic principles of the Enlightenment would have less effect in the German-speaking lands, or only much later.
1806 the German Confederation was founded as successor of the Holy Roman Empire. § 13 of the "Bundesakte" forced the German states to pass constitutions and implement parliaments called Landstände or Landtag. The first constitution was passed in Nassau; until 1841 all but 2 states parliaments. 1871 the German Empire was founded. All 25 states of the German Empire and the "Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen" had Landtage as legislative authorities; the most important one was the Prussian Landtag. In the Weimar Republic 1918 till 1933 all German states had Landtage. In difference to the former Landstände and Landtage the Weimar Republik Landtage have been elected in free an equal elections. 1933 the Nazis abandoned the federal structure of the Weimar Republic and established a unitary state. The Landtage were abolished as a result; the Diet of Finland, created when the country was ceded from Sweden to Russia in 1809, was called lantdag in Swedish until 1906 when it was replaced by the unicameral Parliament of Finland.
Parliament continued using the name lantdag in Swedish until 1919, when Finland adopted its first constitution following the declaration of independence in 1917. Since the official term in Swedish is riksdag, equivalent of the German Reichstag; the Finnish name is eduskunta. The first Landtag of the Livonian Confederation was called by archbishop of Riga Johannes Ambundii in 1419 and reconvened on a regular basis until the incorporation of Livonian lands into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Denmark in 1561. Separate Landtags for Livonia and Estonia continued to exist as legislative authorities of the Duchies of Livonia, Estonia and Semigallia, the Russian Governorates of Livonia and Courland. After the independence of Estonia and Latvia in 1918, they were replaced by the Riigikogu and the Saeima. In the contemporary Federal Republic of Germany, the Republic of Austria and the Italian Republic's province of South Tyrol, a Landtag is a unicameral legislature for a constitutive federal state. In the Principality of Liechtenstein, the Landtag is the sole national parliament, because Liechtenstein has no federal structure due to its size.
In most of the German constitutive federal states, the unicameral legislature is called Landtag: Landtag of Baden-Württemberg Landtag of Bavaria Landtag of Brandenburg Landtag of Hesse Landtag of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Landtag of Lower Saxony Landtag of North Rhine-Westphalia Landtag of Rhineland-Palatinate Landtag of Saarland Landtag of Saxony Landtag of Saxony-Anhalt Landtag of Schleswig-Holstein Landtag of ThuringiaIn the German city states, the parliamentary city council serves the function of the state parliament within the federal system - in the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen and in the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg it is called the Bürgerschaft (short for Stadtbürgerschaft, municipal a