Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew on the genres of blues and blues, from country music. Rock music drew on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, incorporated influences from jazz and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar as part of a rock group with electric bass and one or more singers. Rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become diverse. Like pop music, lyrics stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene.
New genres that emerged included progressive rock. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s. Rock music has embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. 1970s punk culture spawned the goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race and drug use, is seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularity of rock and roll. It was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists; the sound of an electric guitar in rock music is supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era, percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of instruments has been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments keyboards such as the piano, the Hammond organ, the synthesizer; the basic rock instrumentation was derived from the basic blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed as a rock group. Furthermore, it consists of between three and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist and keyboard player or other instrumentalist. Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four.
Melodies originate from older musical modes such as the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel perfect fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Since the late 1950s and from the mid 1960s onwards, rock music used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock; because of its complex history and its tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition." Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes, including romantic love, rebellion against "The Establishment", social concerns, life styles. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources such as the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music, rhythm and blues.
Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more noise." The predominance of white and middle class musicians in rock music has been noted, rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young and male audience. As a result, it has been seen to articulate the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". Since the term "rock" started being used in preference to "rock and roll" from the late-1960s, it has been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from wh
The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960. The line-up of John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr led the band to be regarded as the foremost and most influential in history. With a sound rooted in skiffle, beat and 1950s rock and roll, the group were integral to the evolution of pop music into an art form, to the development of the counterculture of the 1960s, they incorporated elements of classical music, older pop forms, unconventional recording techniques in innovative ways, in years experimented with a number of musical styles ranging from pop ballads and Indian music to psychedelia and hard rock. As they continued to draw influences from a variety of cultural sources, their musical and lyrical sophistication grew, they came to be seen as embodying the era's sociocultural movements. Led by primary songwriters Lennon and McCartney, the Beatles built their reputation playing clubs in Liverpool and Hamburg over a three-year period from 1960 with Stuart Sutcliffe playing bass.
The core trio of Lennon, McCartney and Harrison, together since 1958, went through a succession of drummers, including Pete Best, before asking Starr to join them in 1962. Manager Brian Epstein moulded them into a professional act, producer George Martin guided and developed their recordings expanding their domestic success after their first hit, "Love Me Do", in late 1962; as their popularity grew into the intense fan frenzy dubbed "Beatlemania", the band acquired the nickname "the Fab Four", with Epstein and other members of the band's entourage sometimes given the informal title of "fifth Beatle". By early 1964, the Beatles were international stars, leading the "British Invasion" of the United States pop market, breaking numerous sales records, they soon made their motion-picture debut with A Hard Day's Night. From 1965 onwards, they produced innovative recordings, including the albums Rubber Soul, Sgt. Pepper's The Beatles and Abbey Road. In 1968, they founded Apple Corps, a multi-armed multimedia corporation that continues to oversee projects related to the band's legacy.
After the group's break-up in 1970, all four members enjoyed success as solo artists. Lennon was shot and killed in December 1980. McCartney and Starr remain musically active; the Beatles are the best-selling band in history, with estimated sales of over 800 million records worldwide. They are the best-selling music artists in the US, with certified sales of over 178 million units, have had more number-one albums on the British charts, have sold more singles in the UK, than any other act; the group were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1988, all four main members were inducted individually between 1994 and 2015. In 2008, the group topped Billboard magazine's list of the all-time most successful artists; the band have received an Academy Award and fifteen Ivor Novello Awards. They were collectively included in Time magazine's compilation of the twentieth century's 100 most influential people. In March 1957, John Lennon aged sixteen, formed a skiffle group with several friends from Quarry Bank High School in Liverpool.
They called themselves the Blackjacks, before changing their name to the Quarrymen after discovering that a respected local group was using the other name. Fifteen-year-old Paul McCartney joined them as a rhythm guitarist shortly after he and Lennon met that July. In February 1958, McCartney invited his friend George Harrison to watch the band; the fifteen-year-old auditioned for Lennon, impressing him with his playing, but Lennon thought Harrison was too young for the band. After a month of Harrison's persistence, during a second meeting, he performed the lead guitar part of the instrumental song "Raunchy" on the upper deck of a Liverpool bus, they enlisted him as their lead guitarist. By January 1959, Lennon's Quarry Bank friends had left the group, he began his studies at the Liverpool College of Art; the three guitarists, billing themselves at least three times as Johnny and the Moondogs, were playing rock and roll whenever they could find a drummer. Lennon's art school friend Stuart Sutcliffe, who had just sold one of his paintings and was persuaded to purchase a bass guitar, joined in January 1960, it was he who suggested changing the band's name to Beatals, as a tribute to Buddy Holly and the Crickets.
They used this name until May, when they became the Silver Beetles, before undertaking a brief tour of Scotland as the backing group for pop singer and fellow Liverpudlian Johnny Gentle. By early July, they had refashioned themselves as the Silver Beatles, by the middle of August shortened the name to The Beatles. Allan Williams, the Beatles' unofficial manager, arranged a residency for them in Hamburg, but lacking a full-time drummer they auditioned and hired Pete Best in mid-August 1960; the band, now a five-piece, left four days contracted to club owner Bruno Koschmider for what would be a 31⁄2-month residency. Beatles historian Mark Lewisohn writes: "They pulled into Hamburg at dusk on 17 August, the time when the red-light area comes to life... flashing neon lights screamed out the various entertainment on offer, while scantily clad women sat unabashed in shop windows waiting for business opportunities." Koschmider had converted a couple of strip clubs in the district into music venues, he placed the Beatles at the Indra Club.
The bass guitar is a plucked string instrument similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, except with a longer neck and scale length, four to six strings or courses. The four-string bass is tuned the same as the double bass, which corresponds to pitches one octave lower than the four lowest-pitched strings of a guitar, it is played with the fingers or thumb, or striking with a pick. The electric bass guitar has pickups and must be connected to an amplifier and speaker to be loud enough to compete with other instruments. Since the 1960s, the bass guitar has replaced the double bass in popular music as the bass instrument in the rhythm section. While types of basslines vary from one style of music to another, the bassist plays a similar role: anchoring the harmonic framework and establishing the beat. Many styles of music include the bass guitar, it is a soloing instrument. According to the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, an "Electric bass guitar a Guitar with four heavy strings tuned E1'-A1'-D2-G2."
It defines bass as "Bass. A contraction of Double bass or Electric bass guitar." According to some authors the proper term is "electric bass". Common names for the instrument are "bass guitar", "electric bass guitar", "electric bass" and some authors claim that they are accurate; the bass guitar is a transposing instrument, as it is notated in bass clef an octave higher than it sounds. In the 1930s, musician and inventor Paul Tutmarc of Seattle, developed the first electric bass guitar in its modern form, a fretted instrument designed to be played horizontally; the 1935 sales catalog for Tutmarc's electronic musical instrument company, featured his "Model 736 Bass Fiddle", a four-stringed, solid-bodied, fretted electric bass guitar with a 30 1⁄2-inch scale length, a single pick up. The adoption of a guitar's body shape made the instrument easier to hold and transport than any of the existing stringed bass instruments; the addition of frets enabled bassists to play in tune more than on fretless acoustic or electric upright basses.
Around 100 of these instruments were made during this period. Audiovox sold their “Model 236” bass amplifier. Around 1947, Tutmarc's son, began marketing a similar bass under the Serenader brand name, prominently advertised in the nationally distributed L. D. Heater Music Company wholesale jobber catalogue of 1948. However, the Tutmarc family inventions did not achieve market success. In the 1950s, Leo Fender and George Fullerton developed the first mass-produced electric bass guitar; the Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company began producing the Precision Bass in October 1951. The "P-bass" evolved from a simple, un-contoured "slab" body design and a single coil pickup similar to that of a Telecaster, to something more like a Fender Stratocaster, with a contoured body design, edges beveled for comfort, a split single coil pickup; the "Fender Bass" was a revolutionary new instrument for gigging musicians. In comparison with the large, heavy upright bass, the main bass instrument in popular music from the early 1900s to the 1940s, the bass guitar could be transported to shows.
When amplified, the bass guitar was less prone than acoustic basses to unwanted audio feedback. In 1953 Monk Montgomery became the first bassist to tour with the Fender bass guitar, in Lionel Hampton's postwar big band. Montgomery was possibly the first to record with the bass guitar, on July 2, 1953 with The Art Farmer Septet. Roy Johnson, Shifty Henry, were other early Fender bass pioneers. Bill Black, playing with Elvis Presley, switched from upright bass to the Fender Precision Bass around 1957; the bass guitar was intended to appeal to guitarists as well as upright bass players, many early pioneers of the instrument, such as Carol Kaye, Joe Osborn, Paul McCartney were guitarists. In 1953, following Fender's lead, Gibson released the first short-scale violin-shaped electric bass, with an extendable end pin so a bassist could play it upright or horizontally. Gibson renamed the bass the EB-1 in 1958. In 1958, Gibson released the maple arched-top EB-2 described in the Gibson catalogue as a "hollow-body electric bass that features a Bass/Baritone pushbutton for two different tonal characteristics".
In 1959 these were followed by the more conventional-looking EB-0 Bass. The EB-0 was similar to a Gibson SG in appearance. Whereas Fender basses had pickups mounted in positions in between the base of the neck and the top of the bridge, many of Gibson's early basses featured one humbucking pickup mounted directly against the neck pocket; the EB-3, introduced in 1961 had a "mini-humbucker" at the bridge position. Gibson basses tended to be smaller, sleeker instruments with a shorter scale length than the Precision. A number of other companies began manufacturing bass guitars during the 1950s: Kay in 1952, Hofner and Danelectro in 1956, Rickenbacker in 1957 and Burns/Supersound in 1958. 1956 saw the appearance at the German trade fair "Musikmesse Frankfurt" of the distinctive Höfner 500/1 violin-shaped bass made using violin construction techniques by Walter Höfner, a second-generation violin luthier. The design was known popularly as the "Beat
"Beautiful Liar" is a song recorded by American singer Beyoncé and Colombian singer Shakira. It was written by Beyoncé, Amanda Ghost, Ian Dench, Stargate members Mikkel S. Eriksen and Tor Erik Hermansen, produced by Stargate and Beyoncé for the deluxe edition of Beyoncé's second solo studio album, B'Day; the mixing of the song was done by Gustavo Celis. "Beautiful Liar" was released on March 14, 2007 through Columbia Records and Music World Entertainment as the only single from the deluxe edition of the album. A Spanish and English mixed version of the song was produced and titled "Bello Embustero". "Beautiful Liar" is a mid-tempo song. Its theme is female empowerment; the song was well received by music critics, who praised Beyoncé's and Shakira's collaboration. "Beautiful Liar" was nominated for Grammy Award for Best Pop Collaboration with Vocals at the 50th Grammy Awards, while the Spanish version was nominated for Latin Grammy Award for Record of the Year at the Latin Grammy Awards of 2007.
It won an Ivor Novello Awards for Best-Selling British Song in 2008. "Beautiful Liar" was commercially successful. It peaked at number three on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart and experienced the largest upward movement on that chart until 2008; the song peaked at number one in various European countries, including France, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. Its accompanying music video was directed by Jake Nava, incorporates belly dancing moves. "Beautiful Liar" won the MTV Video Music Award for Most Earthshattering Collaboration at the 2007 MTV Video Music Awards. The song was included on Beyoncé's set list during her world tour The Beyoncé Experience. "Beautiful Liar" was written by Mikkel S. Eriksen, Tor Erik Hermansen, Amanda Ghost, Ian Dench, Beyoncé, it was produced by Eriksen and Hermansen using their stage name and Beyoncé. Eriksen told Sound on Sound, "This song is simple. Most of the time we have more chords in a song, because we find it hard writing a great song on just one chord.
But if you do it right, you can make it work, this song is an example." The track had been written in 2006. Eriksen and Hermansen played it to their manager, Tyran Smith, who said that it would be perfect for a duet between Shakira and Beyoncé. Eriksen and Hermansen considered this to be impossible, however Smith was devoted to that idea; as they had no lyric or top melody, various writers attempted to finish the song. The first three attempts were not satisfactory, Smith put Eriksen and Hermansen to work together with Ghost and Dench, who wrote a significant part of the lyrics and the melody. "Beautiful Liar" had a Spanish title and different lyrics. Hermansen re-titled it; when the production of the song was completed, it was presented to Beyoncé, who approved it. She added a few lines to the lyrics and recorded a solo version a few months before the release of the deluxe edition of B'Day. Beyoncé confirmed that she would perform a duet with Shakira in an interview for Univision in December 2006.
In another interview for MTV News, Beyoncé said that she met Shakira several times at various awards shows, they talked about plans to collaborate on a song as they are both fans of each other and respect each other's work. Beyoncé said that she was happy that they were able to work together after waiting for years; when Beyoncé invited her to record a song for the re-release of Beyoncé's studio second album, B'Day, Shakira was touring and had difficulties to match her schedule with Beyoncé's. A few months Shakira agreed to sing on the track; as she recorded her vocals, the songwriters and producers added the ethnic strings and percussion break. Beyoncé and Shakira recorded their vocals in different studios. "Beautiful Liar" is a contemporary R&B and pop song, written in the key of G Phrygian dominant, set in common time at a tempo of 96 beats per minute. Beyoncé's vocal range spans from G3 to B♭5. Anna Pickard of The Guardian bounce music; the song opens with Shakira's vocals accompanied by a piping, Middle Eastern figure joined by a mariachi-flavored horn section.
Groaning noises can be heard in the background. The names of the two singers are heard: "Bee on say, be-on-SAY! Sha kee ra, Sha-ki-RA"; the verses are sung on a mid-tempo, hip-thrusting arrangement, accented by rapid, flamenco-like hand claps and guitar strums. The song features Arabic instruments such as, oud and ney. Lyrically, "Beautiful Liar" speaks about two women who chose not to end a friendship because of a man who has cheated both of them, its theme is one of female independence. Beyoncé told MTV News that "Beautiful Liar" is about female empowerment, in keeping with the theme of the album: "It's about a guy who's kind of playing both of us, instead of us arguing over the guy we say,'Forget him. Let's stick together. He's a beautiful liar." The chorus features the lines, "Let's not kill the karma, let's not start a fight" with the female protagonists bonding in their mutual betrayal. Beyoncé and Shakira sing with intense vocal approach throughout the song. Beyoncé sings the lines "I didn't know about you till I saw y
This Is My Truth Tell Me Yours
This Is My Truth Tell Me Yours is the fifth studio album by Welsh alternative rock band Manic Street Preachers. It was released on 14 September 1998 by record label Epic. Like its 1996 predecessor Everything Must Go, This Is My Truth Tell Me Yours was a commercial and critical success; the album debuted at number 1 in the UK Albums Chart, selling 136,000 copies, going Gold in the first week. It sold well in the United Kingdom and Asia, represented a change in the sound from the furious alternative rock sound to a more melodic and tender approach. By March 1999 the album was Triple Platinum in the UK alone and since its release it has sold more than five million copies worldwide, it earned the band further nominations and accolades at the BRIT Awards in 1999. The title is a quotation taken from a speech given by Aneurin Bevan, a Labour Party politician from Wales, its working title was Manic Street Preachers. The cover photograph was taken on Black Rock Sands near Wales, it was the first Manics album to feature lyrics by Nicky Wire, while all the music was written by the duo of James Dean Bradfield and Sean Moore.
This Is My Truth Tell Me Yours shows less hard rock influence than their previous efforts and finds the band experimenting with sound and production techniques. It features cleaner guitar sounds in general and the increased use of additional instrumentation such as strings and both real and programmed percussion. Clash magazine described the album's sound as "a glacial distillation of the anthemic rock that had served them so well two years previous", an approach further developed on 2004's Lifeblood. In an interview with Dave Eringa he admitted that: "James was piling on the pressure at the time. He's got this idea. After recording "If You Tolerate This Your Children Will Be Next", he said that the song went through a four-month gestation period. Eringa said that in the week of release he was nervous: "You get midweek chart positions and sales figures all week, it was my first chance of a possible Number One, such an exciting thing; every day it was just getting worse. If it had been released the same week as a Nirvana record or an Oasis record, you'd just have to put your hands up and say'c'est la vie' – but the horror of losing out to Steps would have been unbelievable!".
James Dean Bradfield has cited John Frusciante as the main influence for the intro riff of "My Little Empire." The album was preceded by the single "If You Tolerate This Your Children Will Be Next", released on 24 August 1998, which debuted at No. 1 on the UK Singles Chart, their first single to do so. The album itself was released on 14 September 1998, its sales were such that a spokesperson for Virgin Megastores claimed it to be the biggest selling album of the year, it is their highest charting album to date, reaching No. 1 on the UK Albums Chart. Like the preceding single, This Is My Truth Tell Me Yours prevented Steps from topping the U. K. charts. The album remained at the top of the albums chart for 3 weeks, selling around 250,000 copies on those 3 weeks, the album is Triple Platinum in the UK and spent a total time of 74 weeks in the UK Albums Chart. Apart from the lead single, the album presented another three singles, with the second one being The Everlasting. You Stole the Sun from My Heart was released on March 1999 and it was nominated for "Best British Single" at the 2000 BRIT Awards.
The final single from the album was Tsunami, the song was inspired by The Silent Twins and Jennifer Gibbons, who gave up speaking when they were young, became involved in crime and ended up being sent to Broadmoor Hospital. Both singles The Everlasting and Tsunami peaked at number 11, You Stole the Sun from My Heart ended up peaking at number 5 in the UK Singles Chart. In Japan the band released. Around the world the album was as successful as it was in the UK, in Sweden the album managed to remain in the chart for a total of 43 weeks, debuting at number 2, but peaking at number 1 in the second week, in Finland the album sold enough to stay in the charts for 32 weeks, peaking at number 1, securing the top spot for 2 consecutive weeks. In Ireland the album debuted at number 1 and it charted within the Top 20 in Norway, New Zealand, Denmark and Australia, it was Europe's number 1 album for 2 weeks, it has been certified Platinum by the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry. The album's success ensured.
To the present day This Is My Truth Tell Me Yours alone has sold more than five million copies since its release. The album was well received by critics. NME awarded the album with a 7/10, stating: "No longer is James Dean Bradfield required to turn metrical somersaults in order to translate screeds of vituperative prose into the realm of the performable. Nicky's opaque verses lend themselves more to poetic contemplation, James responds with his most incontrovertibly delicate vocals, singing as opposed to lacerating his larynx in the quest for empathy."Sputnikmusic wrote in 2014 that the album was "the most indecisive piece of works in the Manic's canon. Technically proficient and brilliantly written in spats", finishing with: "Still, This Is My Truth's spot as one of the bands weakest releases is overstated, if only because the rot was just beginning and the future predicted a bigger storm to come."Sarah Zupko, writing fo
Badfinger were a Welsh rock band formed in Swansea that were active from the 1960s to the 1980s. Called "Beatlesque", their best-known lineup consisted of Pete Ham, Mike Gibbins, Tom Evans, Joey Molland, they are recognised for their influence on the 1970s power pop genre. The band evolved from an earlier group called the Iveys, formed in 1961, which became the first group signed by the Beatles' Apple label in 1968; the band renamed themselves Badfinger, after the working title for the Beatles' 1967 song "With a Little Help from My Friends". From 1968 to 1973, Badfinger recorded five albums for Apple and toured extensively, before they became embroiled in the chaos of Apple Records' dissolution. Badfinger had four consecutive worldwide hits from 1970 to 1972: "Come and Get It", "No Matter What", "Day After Day", "Baby Blue", their song "Without You" has been recorded many times, including a US number-one hit for Harry Nilsson, decades a UK number-one for Mariah Carey. After Apple Records folded in 1973, Badfinger struggled with a host of legal and financial issues, leading Ham to commit suicide in 1975.
Over the next three years, the surviving members struggled to rebuild their personal and professional lives against a backdrop of lawsuits, which tied up the songwriters' royalty payments for years. Their subsequent albums floundered, as Molland and Evans alternated between cooperation and conflict in their attempts to revive and capitalise on the Badfinger legacy. In 1983, Evans committed suicide; the Iveys formed in 1961 in Swansea, Wales from The Panthers, whose line-up consisted of Pete Ham, Ron Griffiths, David "Dai" Jenkins, Roy Anderson. Playing under various names including The Black Velvets and the Wild Ones, by 1964 they settled on The Iveys, after a street in Swansea called Ivey Place. In March 1965, drummer Mike Gibbins joined The Iveys; the group secured concerts around Swansea area, opening for prominent British groups such as the Spencer Davis Group, The Who, The Moody Blues and The Yardbirds. By June 1966, Bill Collins had started to manage the group. In December 1966 the entire group moved into Collins' home at 7 Park Avenue, Golders Green, sharing space with an act called The Mojos.
The house was terminally overcrowded, so the only place to find any privacy was in a room equipped with a two-track recording machine. The group performed a wide range of cover tunes on the London circuit, from Motown, soul to Top 40, psychedelic pop, Beatles hits, which garnered interest from record labels. Ray Davies of The Kinks auditioned to produce them, recording three of their songs at a 4-track demo studio in London's Old Kent Road on 15 January 1967: "Taxi" and "Sausage And Eggs", songs by Ham. On 8 December 1966, Collins and the group signed a five-year contract giving Collins a 20% share of net receipts, the same as the individual group members, but only after managerial expenses had been deducted. Collins said at the time, "Look, I can't promise you lads anything, except blood and tears"; the group performed occasional concerts backing David Garrick, while performing as The Iveys across the United Kingdom throughout the rest of the decade. In August 1967, Dai Jenkins was asked to leave the group, was replaced by Liverpudlian guitarist Tom Evans of Them Calderstones.
Jenkins' departure was remembered by Griffiths as being "politely asked if he would step down", as Jenkins seemed more interested in girls than the music. After receiving an invitation from Collins, Beatles roadie/assistant Mal Evans and Apple Records' A&R head Peter Asher saw the Iveys perform at the Marquee Club, London, on 25 January 1968. Afterward, Evans pushed their demo tapes to every Beatle until he gained approval from all four to sign the group; the demos were accomplished using a mono "sound-on-sound" tape recorder: two individual tracks bouncing each overdub on top of the last. When Evans signed the Iveys to Apple on 23 July 1968, they became the first non-Beatle recording artists on the label; each of The Iveys' members were signed to Apple Corps' publishing contracts. The Iveys' early sessions for Apple were produced by either Evans; the group's first single, "Maybe Tomorrow", produced by Visconti, was released worldwide on 15 November 1968. It reached the Top Ten in several European countries and Japan, but only number 67 on the US Billboard Hot 100, failed to chart in the UK.
The US manager of Apple Records, Ken Mansfield, ordered 400,000 copies of the single—considered to be a bold move at the time in the music business—and pushed for automatic airplay and reviews from newspapers, which he secured. Mansfield remembered the problems: "We had a great group. We had a great record. We were missing just one thing... the ability to go out and pick up people, convince them to put their money on the counter". A second Tom Evans composition, "Storm in a Teacup", was included on an Apple EP promoting Wall's Ice Cream, along with songs by Apple artists such as James Taylor, Mary Hopkin and Jackie Lomax; the chart success of "Maybe Tomorrow" in Europe and Japan led to a follow-up single release in those markets in July 1969: Griffiths' "Dear Angie" prod
A CD single is a music single in the form of a compact disc. The standard in the Red Book for the term CD single is an 8cm CD, it now refers to any single recorded onto a CD of any size the CD5, or 5-inch CD single. The format was introduced in the mid-1980s but did not gain its place in the market until the early 1990s. With the rise in digital downloads in the early 2010s, sales of CD singles have decreased. Commercially released CD singles can vary in length from two songs up to six songs like an EP; some contain multiple mixes of one or more songs, in the tradition of 12" vinyl singles, in some cases, they may contain a music video for the single itself as well as a collectible poster. Depending on the nation, there may be limits on the number of songs and total length for sales to count in singles charts. Dire Straits' "Brothers in Arms" is reported to have been the world's first CD single, issued in the UK in two separate singles as a promotional item, one distinguished with a logo for the tour, Live in'85, a second to commemorate the Australian leg of the tour marked Live in'86.
Containing four tracks, it had a limited print run. The first commercially released CD Single was Angeline by John Martyn released on 1 February 1986. CD singles were first made eligible for the UK Singles Chart in 1987, the first number 1 available on the format in that country was "I Wanna Dance with Somebody" by Whitney Houston in May 1987; the Mini CD single CD3 format was created for use for singles in the late 1980s, but met with limited success in the US. The smaller CDs were more successful in Japan and had a resurgence in Europe early this century, marketed as "Pock it" CDs, being small enough to fit in a shirt pocket. By 1989, the CD3 was in decline in the US, it was common in the 1990s for US record companies to release both a two-track CD and a multi-track maxi CD. In the UK, record companies would release two CDs but these consisted of three tracks or more each. During the 1990s, CD single releases became less common in certain countries and were released in smaller editions, as the major record labels feared they were cannibalizing the sales of higher-profit-margin CD albums.
Pressure from record labels made singles charts in some countries become song charts, allowing album cuts to chart based only on airplay, without a single being released. In the US, the Billboard Hot 100 made this change in December 1998, after which few songs were released in the CD single format in the US, but they remained popular in the UK and other countries, where charts were still based on single sales and not radio airplay. At the end of the 1990s, the CD was the biggest-selling single format in the UK, but in the US, the dominant single format was airplay. With the advent of digital music sales, the CD single has been replaced as a distribution format in most countries, most charts now include digital download counts as well as physical single sales. In Australia, the Herald Sun reported the CD single is "set to become extinct". In early July 2009, leading music store JB Hi-Fi ceased stocking CD singles because of declining sales, with copies of the week's No. 1 single selling as few as only 350 copies across all their stores nationwide.
While CD singles no longer maintain their own section of the store, copies are still distributed but placed with the artist's albums. That is predominantly the case for popular Australian artists such as Jessica Mauboy, Kylie Minogue and, most Delta Goodrem, whose then-recent singles were released on CD in limited quantities; the ARIA Singles Chart is now "predominantly compiled from legal downloads", ARIA stopped compiling their physical singles sales chart. "On a Mission" by Gabriella Cilmi was the last CD single to be stocked in Kmart and Big W, who concluded stocking newly released singles. Sanity Entertainment, having resisted the decline for longer than the other major outlets, has ceased selling CD singles. In China and South Korea, CD single releases have been rare since the format was introduced, due of the amount of infringement and illegal file sharing over the internet, most of the time singles have been album cuts chart based only on airplay, but with the advent of digital music the charts have occasionally included digital download counts.
In Greece and Cyprus, the term "CD single" is used to describe an extended play in which there may be anywhere from three to six different tracks. These releases charted on the Greek Singles Chart with songs released as singles; the original CD single is a music single released on a mini Compact Disc that measures 8 cm in diameter, rather than the standard 12 cm. They are manufactured using the same methods as standard full-size CDs, can be played in most standard audio CD players and CD-ROM disc drives; the format was first released in the United States, United Kingdom, France, West Germany, Hong Kong in 1987 as the replacement for the 7-inch single. While mini CDs have fallen out of popularity among most major record labels, they remain a popular, low cost way for independent musicians and groups to release music. Capable of holding up to 20 minutes of music, most mini CD singles contain at least two tracks, ofte