The Youth Olympic Games is an international multi-sport event organized by the International Olympic Committee. The games are held every four years in staggered summer and winter events consistent with the current Olympic Games format, though in reverse order with Winter Games held in leap years instead of Summer Games; the first summer version was held in Singapore from 14 to 26 August 2010 while the first winter version was held in Innsbruck, Austria from 13 to 22 January 2012. The age limitation of the athletes is 14 to 18; the idea of such an event was introduced by Johann Rosenzopf from Austria in 1998. On 6 July 2007, International Olympic Committee members at the 119th IOC session in Guatemala City approved the creation of a youth version of the Olympic Games, with the intention of sharing the costs of hosting the event between the IOC and the host city, whereas the travelling costs of athletes and coaches were to be paid by the IOC; these Games will feature cultural exchange programs and opportunities for participants to meet Olympic athletes.
Several other Olympic events for youth, like the European Youth Olympic Festival held every other year with summer and winter versions, the Australian Youth Olympic Festival, have proven successful. The Youth Games are modelled after these sporting events; the YOG are a successor to the discontinued World Youth Games. The Summer Youth Olympic Games of Singapore in 2010 and Nanjing in 2014 each played host to 3600 athletes and lasted 13 days, whereas the Winter YOG of Innsbruck in 2012 had 1059 athletes and Lillehammer in 2016 had 1100 athletes and lasted 10 days. Though this exceeded initial estimates, the YOG are still both smaller in size as well as shorter than their senior equivalents; the most recent Summer YOG was the 2018 Summer Youth Olympic Games of Buenos Aires. The most recent Winter YOG was the 2020 Winter Youth Olympic Games of Lausanne; the next Summer YOG to take place will be the 2022 Summer Youth Olympics of Dakar while the 2024 Winter Youth Olympics will take place in Gangwon, South Korea.
The concept of the Youth Olympic Games came from Austrian industrial manager Johann Rosenzopf in 1998. This was in response to growing global concerns about childhood obesity and the dropping participation of youth in sport activities amongst youth in developed nations, it was further recognized that a youth version of the Olympic Games would help foster participations in the Olympic Games. Despite these reasons for having an Olympic event for young people, the IOC's response of holding a purely sporting event was negative. IOC delegates wanted the event to be as much about cultural education and exchange as it was about sports, why the Culture and Education Program was developed as a component of each celebration of the Games. Jacques Rogge, IOC President, formally announced plans for the Youth Olympic Games at the 119th IOC session in Guatemala City on 6 July 2007. There are several goals for the YOG, four of them include bringing together the world's best young athletes, offering an introduction into Olympism, innovating in educating and debating Olympic values.
The city of Singapore was announced as the host of the inaugural Summer Youth Olympics on 21 February 2008. On 12 December 2008 the IOC announced that Innsbruck, host of the 1964 and 1976 Winter Olympics, would be the host of the inaugural Winter Youth Olympics in 2012; the scale of the Youth Olympic Games is smaller than that of the Olympics, intentional and allows for smaller cities to host an Olympic event. Potential host cities are required to keep all events within the same city and no new sports venues should be built. Exceptions to this building moratorium include a media centre, amphitheatre facilities for classes and workshops, a village for coaches and athletes; this village is to be the heart of the Games for the athletes, the hub of activity. No new or unique transportation systems are required as all athletes and coaches will be transported by shuttles. According to bid procedures, the track and field stadium for the opening and closing ceremonies must hold 10,000 people, a city must have a 2,500-seat aquatics facility.
The original estimated costs for running the Games were US$30 million for the Summer and $15 million to $20 million for Winter Games, these costs do not include infrastructure improvements for venue construction. The IOC has stipulated; the IOC will pay travel costs to the host city and room and board for the athletes and judges, estimated at $11 million. The funding will come from not revenues; the budgets for the final two bids for the inaugural Summer Games as submitted by the IOC came in at $90 million, much higher than the estimated costs. The cost of the first games in Singapore escalated to an estimated S$387 million. Sponsors have been slow to sign on for the YOG, due to the fact that it is a new initiative and corporations are not sure what level of exposure they will get; the budget for the inaugural Winter Games to be held in Innsbruck has been estimated at $22.5 million, which does not include infrastructure improvements and venue construction. Over 200 countries and 3,600 athletes participated in the inaugural 2010 Youth Summer Olympics.
Participants are placed in the following age groups: 14–15 years, 16–17 years, 17–18 years. The athlete's age is determined by how old he or she is by 31 December of the year they are participating in the YOG. Qualification to participate in the Youth Olympics is determined by the IOC in conjunction with the International Sport Federations for the various sports on the program. To ensure that all nations are represented at the YOG the IOC instituted the concept of Univer
Lemontree is a locality in the Toowoomba Region, Australia. In the 2016 census, Lemontree had a population of 45 people; the northeastern boundary is aligned with the Condamine River. The main occupation is raising beef cattle and fodder; the name Lemontree comes from a pastoral run in the district, whose name in turn came from the Lemon Tree Lagoon, a place where lemons grew. Lemontree was part of the original vast Yandilla station established by the Gore brothers, St. George Richard Gore and Ralph Thomas Gore, in 1841, it was opened for settlement under the Crown Lands Alienation Act of 1876 when the Gore lease expired in 1887. In 1879, it was organized into part of the Jondaryan Division which became a shire in 1903. In 1913, along with other lands in and around the town of Millmerran, it became part of the Shire of Millmerran. In 2008 the area was incorporated into the new Toowoomba Region. "Images: "Lemontree Homestead", Queensland". Panoramio. "Images: Australia / Queensland / Lemontree". Flickriver.
"Images: Pierce's "Lemon Tree", Queensland". Panoramio
Tomellana leschkei is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Clavatulidae. The fusiform, translucent white shell contains 9 - 9 1/2 whorls; the shell is threaded with a somewhat incurved lateral contour. The aperture stands out from the curvature of the body whorl; the protoconch consists of 1 - 1½ smooth whorls. The spiral sculpture is pronounced on the first whorls, but decreases so that on the body whorl it becomes hard to detect; the callus at the top of the aperture is well-developed. This species occurs in the Atlantic Ocean off West Africa. Hermann Strebel, Bemerkungen zu den Clavatula-Gruppen Perrona und Tomella. "Tomellana lischkei". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 27 August 2011
Junko Mabuki is a pink film actress who became famous in Nikkatsu Roman Porno films in 1981. Born Sumiko Kono, she made her acting debut by 1979, in Aftermath of Battles Without Honor and Humanity, with the alias Jun Sakaki; the same year, Kono came under exclusive Nikkatsu contract with the stage name "Junko Mabuki". S&M author Oniroku Dan approved of Mabuki and scripted her first lead role in White Uniform in Rope Hell for her. Following Naomi Tani's sudden retirement in 1979, Mabuki was promoted by Nikkatsu as their new "SM Queen". Although Oniroku Dan was appreciative of her energy both onscreen and in actual sex life with her, Mabuki was not able to endure the physical strain that the S&M roles required, she retired from acting after only two years. Onsen Pleasures, Atsushi Fujiura Showa Erotica: Noble Lady of Roses, Katsuhiko Fujii Nympho Diver: Tingling, Atsushi Fujiura White Uniform in Rope Hell, Shōgorō Nishimura Blazing Bondage Lady a.k.a. Madam Rope Flame, Katsuhiko Fujii Hell of Roses, Shōgorō Nishimura Office Lady Rope Slave a.k.a.
Oniroku Dan's OL Rope Slave, Katsuhiko Fujii Secretary Rope Discipline, Hidehiro Ito Zoom Up: Woman From the Dirty Magazine, Katsuhiko Fujii Lustful Life: "Nights Make Me Wet!", Shōgorō Nishimura Lecherous Flower Train, Mamoru Watanabe Female Teacher in Rope Hell, Shōgorō Nishimura Female Beautician Rope Discipline, Hidehiro Ito Junko Mabuki on IMDb Junko Mabuki at the Japanese Movie Database
TACIS is an abbreviation of "Technical Assistance to the Commonwealth of Independent States" programme, a foreign and technical assistance programme implemented by the European Commission to help members of the Commonwealth of Independent States, in their transition to democratic market-oriented economies. TACIS is now subsumed in the EuropeAid programme. Launched by the EC in 1991, the Tacis Programme provides grant-financed technical assistance to 12 countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Mongolia was covered by the Tacis programme from 1991 to 2003, but is now covered by the ALA Programme. From the 2007-2013 EU Financial Perspective, the Tacis Programme has been replaced for the countries of the European Neighbourhood Policy and Russia by the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument. Nuclear safety projects are covered by the Instrument for Nuclear Safety Cooperation; however Tacis projects programmed from 2006 will continue to operate until 2012. The European Union remains the single largest donor of foreign assistance in the world.
Results of TACIS nuclear-safety-related projects EC website on the Instrument for Nuclear Safety Cooperation
Mata Hari: The Red Dancer shortened on release to Mata Hari, is a 1927 German silent drama film directed by Friedrich Feher and starring Magda Sonja, Wolfgang Zilzer and Fritz Kortner. It depicts the death of the German World War I spy Mata Hari, it was the first feature-length portrayal of Hari. It was shot at the Staaken Studios in Berlin with sets designed by Alfred Junge. Magda Sonja as Mata Hari Wolfgang Zilzer as Erzherzog Oskar Fritz Kortner as Graf Bobrykin Mathias Wieman as Grigori Emil Lind as Verteidiger Eduard Rothauser as Militär Auditor Max Maximilian as Kosaken Unteroffizier Leo Connard as Poliziehofrat Elisabeth Bach as Indische Dienerin Mata Haris Dorothea Albu as Dancer Alexander Murski Hermann Wlach Lewis Brody Eberhard Leithoff Georg Paeschke Zlatan Kasherov Carl Zickner Nico Turoff Georg Gartz Mata Hari Mata Hari, Agent H21 Mata Hari Kelly, Andrew. Cinema and the Great War. Routledge, 1997. Mata Hari on IMDb