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In the geologic timescale the Ypresian is the oldest age or lowest stratigraphic stage of the Eocene. It spans the time between 56 and 47.8 Ma, is preceded by the Thanetian age and is followed by the Eocene Lutetian age. The Ypresian is consistent with the lower Eocene; the Ypresian age begins during the throes of the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum. The Fur Formation in Denmark and the Messel shales in Germany are from this age; the Ypresian stage was introduced in scientific literature by Belgian geologist André Hubert Dumont in 1850. The Ypresian is named after the Flemish city of Ypres in Belgium; the definitions of the original stage were different from the modern ones. The Ypresian shares its name with the Belgian Ieper Group; the base of the Ypresian stage is defined at a strong negative anomaly in δ13C values at the PETM. The official reference profile for the base of the Ypresian is the Dababiya profile near the Egyptian city of Luxor, its original type section was located in the vicinity of Ieper.

The top of the Ypresian is identified by the first appearance of the foram genus Hantkenina in the fossil record. The Ypresian stage overlaps the upper Neustrian and most of the Grauvian European Land Mammal Mega Zones, the Wasatchian and lower and middle Bridgerian North American Land Mammal Ages, the Casamayoran South American Land Mammal Age and the Bumbanian and most of the Arshantan Asian Land Mammal Ages, it is coeval with the upper Wangerripian and lowest Johannian regional stages of Australia and the Bulitian and Ulatisian regional stages of California. Dumont, A. H.. Dupuis, C.. Gradstein, F. M.. Steurbaut, É.. GeoWhen Database – Ypresian Paleogene timescale, at the website of the subcommission for stratigraphic information of the ICS Stratigraphic chart of the Paleogene, at the website of Norges Network of offshore records of geology and stratigraphy

Fran├žois Cyrille Grand'Eury

François Cyrille Grand'Eury was a French geologist and mathematics teacher. He studied at the École Loritz in Nancy and at the École des mines in Saint-Étienne, worked as a mining engineer in Roche-la-Molière. From 1863 to 1899 he taught classes in mathematics at the École des mines in Saint-Étienne, where in 1883 he received the title of professor. From 1877 he was a member of the Société géologique de France and in 1885 was elected a correspondent member of the Académie des Sciences, he is remembered for his stratigraphic research of coal fields and for his investigations involving the formation of coal. He is credited with establishing the chronological succession of floras associated with the coal seams of the Stephanian stage, he conducted exhaustive studies of coal flora, in 1877 described the genus Tubiculites. La flore carbonifère de la Loire et du centre de la France – The Carboniferous flora of the department of Loire and of central France. Mémoire sur la formation de la houille – Treatise on the formation of coal.

Formation des couches de houille et du terrain houiller – Stratigraphy associated with coal and coal fields. Géologie et paléontologie du bassin houiller du Gard – Geology and paleontology of the coal fields in Gard

Black Disciples

The Black Disciples is a large street gang based in Chicago, Illinois. The founders of the Black Disciples came with the intention of creating an organization to help fight civil rights injustices and prevent bullying from caucasian gangs; these intentions took a turn in the opposite direction as the gangs are now infamous for notorious acts. These acts include murder, theft and more; the gang received news coverage after the murder of 11-year-old Robert Sandifer. In 1958, a group of young teenagers from Hyde Park and Kenwood came together as friends to create an alliance to combat their enemies.. The founders, Richard Strong, David Barksdale, Mingo Shread, Prince Old Timer, Leonard Longstreet, Night Walker and more named their new organization the “Devil’s Disciples” with inspiration from the Bible. By the beginning of 1961 David Barksdale known as “King David”, took sole leadership of the Devils Disciples and appointed different members to oversee different areas of neighborhoods. Barksdale’s goal was to claim small gangs around the area and turn them into factions of the Disciples.

In 1966 to help increase recruitment and counteract threats of other gangs David Barksdale created the “Black Disciples Nation” which helped increased recruitment into the thousands. In 1969, Larry Hoover, the leader of the rival gang “Gangster Disciples”, agreed to a merger with Barksdale to create a unified gang called “Black Gangster Disciples nation”; this made both David and Larry “Kings” therefore the name “King David” came about. Soon after the alliance Larry Hoover was charged and convicted along with another member for murdering a member and received 150-200 years in prison. With Larry in Prison, King David was in charge of the gang but died due to Kidney complications at the age of 27 on September 2nd, 1974; the death of King David led to problems within the Black Gangster Disciple Nation. The majority of the B. G. D. N believed in coming more unified after the passing of King David but some Disciples did not want that; this led to the creation of the “Black Gangsters Disciples” and the “Black Disciples”.

This brought about a rivalry between these two gangs as there was bloodshed in the streets after they were created. Mickey Bull made peace with the Gangster Disciples; this reduced the bloodshed in the streets until Mickey Bull was murdered in the streets by Gangster Disciples during August of 1991. This caused immediate backlash from Black Disciples as they went on a rampage and killed three Gangster Disciples on August the 7th. Between 1991 and 1994 the rivalry between the Gangster Disciples and Black Disciples became more intense; the rivalry came to an end with the stepping in of Marvell Thompson. Robert “Yummy” Sandifer joined the Black Disciples in 1994 at the age of 11 years old, he was given a 9mm semiautomatic pistol by his gang chief and was sent out to kill some rival gang members. While aiming for his rivals a stray bullet from Yummy’s gun hit and killed 14-year-old pedestrian Shavon Dean; this brought much-unwanted attention to the Black Disciples from national news. The gang leader set out two brothers Derrick Cragg Hardaway to get rid of Yummy.

The two brothers shot him in the back of his head twice. They were convicted of murder and more attention was brought upon the Black Disciples despite their efforts to cover it up; the Black Disciples has over 300 sets with around 30 to 40 members in each set. The highest-ranking leadership role is “King Shorty”. Permanent Leadership ranks include the Minister, Assistant Co-Minister, the Demetrius; the lowest ranking positions are the representatives. Keith Cozart known as "Chief Keef", is a member of a faction of the Black Disciples. Crime in Chicago Folk Nation

Insurance patent

Under some patent laws, patents may be obtained for insurance-related inventions. Patents could only cover the technological aspects of a new insurance invention; this is still the case in most countries. In the United States, recent court decisions have encouraged more inventors to file patent applications on methods of doing business; these patents may be used to get more comprehensive coverage of improvements in basic insurance processes, such as the methods of calculating premiums, underwriting, etc. This is causing controversy in the insurance industry as some see it as a positive development and others see it as a negative development. An early example of an insurance patent is U. S. Patent 467,872 Means for Securing Travelers Against Loss by Accident; this patent was issued in 1892. It discloses a means for selling travelers' insurance by combining coupons with a newspaper. A more recent example of an insurance patent is EP application 0700009, granted as EP 0700009B "Individual evaluation system for motorcar risk".

This patent issued by the European Patent Office in 1996 to Salvador Minguijon Perez. It discloses a means for auto insurance risk selection whereby a driver’s mileage and driving behavior are monitored and insurance premiums are charged accordingly; the United Kingdom part of this European patent has been sold to Norwich Union insurance company. Only about one or two patents per year issued in the US on inventions related to insurance policies; this changed however, with the 1998 State Street Bank Decision. The State Street Bank Decision was a ruling by the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit that confirmed that there was no “business method exception” under United States patent law; the number of patent applications filed per year after this decision was handed down jumped to about 150. The number of patents issuing per year jumped to about 30; this changed again in 2014 after the Alice Corp. v. CLS Bank International decision by the Supreme Court of the United States, holding that an abstract idea does not become patentable just because it is implemented on a computer.

After Alice, the allowance rate for U. S. patent applications in the financial arts, including insurance, plummeted. In September 2006, Lincoln National Corporation filed a patent infringement lawsuit against Transamerica Life Insurance Company and other entities for infringing U. S. Patent 7,089,201, “Method and apparatus for providing retirement income benefits”; this patent covers methods for administering variable annuities. The jury infringed; the court ordered Transamerica to pay Lincoln $13 million in damages. At a rate of 11 basis points of assets under management, this was considered a reasonable royalty. In June 2010, the verdict against Transamerica was overturned on appeal In June 2010, Progressive Auto Insurance filed a patent infringement lawsuit against Liberty Mutual over one of Progressive’s Pay As You Drive auto insurance patents; some in the insurance industry see the growth in insurance patents as a positive development. They cite that by being able to protect inventions, insurance companies will be more inclined to invest in new product development.

Some are concerned. They are concerned that invalid patents will issue and that this will lead to patent trolls inhibiting new product introductions by demanding excessive license fees for these questionable patents. Inventors can now have their insurance U. S. patent applications reviewed by the public in the Peer to Patent program. The first insurance patent application to be posted was US2009005522 “Risk assessment company”, it was posted on March 6, 2009. This patent application describes a method for increasing the ease of changing insurance companies to get better rates. EP 0700009 “Individual evaluation system for motorcar risk”. First patent on telematic automobile insurance. Commercialized as PAYD auto insurance in the UK. US 6235176 “Computer apparatus and method for defined contribution and profit sharing pension and disability plan”. Patented disability insurance for a defined contribution pension plans. Adopted by IBM for their employees. Insurance Business method patent


Lahib was an American-bred, British-trained Thoroughbred racehorse and sire. He was unraced as a juvenile and won once from two starts as a three-year-old in the spring of 1991. In the following year he improved to become one of the best milers in Europe, winning the Queen Anne Stakes and the Queen Elizabeth II Stakes as well as finishing second in the Lockinge Stakes, Prix Jacques le Marois and Champion Stakes, he became a breeding stallion. He had some success as a sire of winners. Lahib was a brown horse with a white sock on his left hind leg bred in Kentucky by his owner Hamdan Al Maktoum, he was sired by Riverman a French horse who won the Poule d'Essai des Poulains in 1972. As a breeding stallion he was successful, being the sire of many important winners including Irish River, Bahri, Gold River, River Memories and Triptych. Lahib's dam, Lady Cutlass won three races from seven starts in the United States between 1980 and 1982 and was a half-sister to General Store, whose descendants have included Al Bahathri, Military Attack, Red Cadeaux and Haafhd.

Hamdan Al Maktoum opted to race Lahib in Europe and sent him into training with John Dunlop at Arundel in West Sussex. He was ridden in all but one of his races by the Scottish jockey Willie Carson. Lahib did not race as a two-year-old, making his debut in a maiden race over one mile at Newbury Racecourse on 20 April 1991. Starting at odds of 7/1 he took the lead a furlong out but was caught in the final strides and beaten a head by Ristna, a filly who went on to win the Sun Chariot Stakes. Twelve days at Newmarket Racecourse Lahib started 11/10 favourite for a similar event over the same distance and recorded his first victory, beating Close Fried by a neck; the colt had training problems thereafter, missed the rest of the season. He underwent surgery on a further operation on an undescended testicle. After an absence of more than eleven months, Lahib returned to the track in April 2012 and finished sixth of the eight runners behind Sure Sharp in the Group Three Earl of Sefton Stakes at Newmarket.

A month the colt was moved up to Group Two level and started a 16/1 outsider in the Lockinge Stakes at Newbury. Ridden by Richard Quinn Lahib stayed on well in the closing stages and finished second, two and a half lengths behind the winner Selkirk. On 16 June at Royal Ascot, Lahib was reunited with Carson and started 100/30 favourite for the Queen Anne Stakes, his seven opponents were Second Set, Exit To Nowhere, Goofalik, Star of Gdansk, Approach the Bench and Lovealoch. Lovealoch set the pace. Second Set went to the front inside the final furlong but Lahib, amongst the leaders from the start, stayed on in the closing stages, took the lead in the final strides, won by a head. In August Lahib was sent to France to contest the Group One Prix Jacques le Marois at Deauville Racecourse and finished second of the fourteen runners, a length behind the winner Exit To Nowhere; the unplaced runners included Star of Hatoof, El Prado and Sikeston. On 26 September Lahib was one of nine horses to contest the Group One Queen Elizabeth II Stakes at Ascot and started the 8/1 fifth choice in the betting behind Selkirk, All At Sea and Brief Truce.

The other runners were Second Set, Mystiko and Sharp Review. After tracking the leaders, Lahib overtook the pacemaker Hamas two furlongs from the finish and was "driven out" by Carson to win by two lengths from Brief Truce with Selkirk taking third ahead of All At Sea. On his final racecourse appearance, Lahib was moved up in distance for the Champion Stakes over ten furlongs at Newmarket on 17 October. Starting at odds of 2/1 in a ten-runner field, he took the lead a quarter of a mile from the finish but was overtaken inside the final furlong and beaten a neck by Rodrigo de Triano. Lahib was retired from racing to become a breeding stallion at his owner's Derrinstown Stud, he was based at the Scarvagh House Stud before moving to the Old Road Stud in Tallow, County Waterford in 2009. His best offspring have included Vicious Circle, Super Tassa, Last Resort, Late Night Out, Mus-If, Dutch Gold, La-Faah, River Belle, he was pensioned from stud duties in 2011 and retired to Derrinstown

Lamouri Djediat

Lamouri Ben Kadda Djediat is an Algerian footballer who plays for USM Bel-Abbès in the Algerian Ligue Professionnelle 1. Born in Sour El-Ghozlane, Djediat began his career in the junior ranks of his hometown club of Entente Sour El Ghozlane. In 2003, he joined newly promoted Algerian Championnat National 2 side Paradou AC. In June 2007, after four seasons with Paradou, Djediat joined defending Algerian Championnat National champions ES Sétif. ES Sétif paid a transfer fee of 22,000,000 Algerian dinars, the highest transfer fee in Algeria at the time. In his first season with the club, he helped the club retain its Arab Champions League title, beating Wydad Casablanca 2-0 o aggregate in the final. Djediat was chosen as the best player of the competition. On August 24, 2010, Djediat signed a one-year contract with ASO Chlef. In his first season with the club, Djediat made 24 league appearances, scoring 5 goals, to lead ASO Chlef to its first league title. On July 27, 2011, Djediat signed a one-year contract with USM Alger.

On September 10, 2011, he made his official debut for the club as a starter in a league match against CA Batna, scoring a goal in the 42nd minute. Won the Arab Champions League twice Once with ES Sétif in 2008 Once with USM Alger in 2013 Won the Algerian Ligue Professionnelle 1 twice: Once with ES Sétif in 2009 Once with ASO Chlef in 2011 Won the Algerian Cup twice Cnce with ES Sétif in 2010 Once with USM Alger in 2013 Won the North African Cup of Champions once with ES Sétif in 2009 Chosen as the Best Player of the 2007–08 Arab Champions League Top scorer of the 2012–13 UAFA Club Cup Lamouri Djediat at Lamouri Djediat at