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Yser

The Yser is a river that rises in French Flanders, enters the Belgian province of West Flanders and flows through the Ganzepoot and into the North Sea at the town of Nieuwpoort. The source of the Yser is in the Nord department of northern France, it flows through Bollezeele and Bambecque. After 30 kilometres of its 78-kilometre course, it leaves France and enters Belgium, it flows through Diksmuide and out into the North Sea at Nieuwpoort. During the Battle of the Yser in the First World War, by opening the sluices, part of the polder west of the Yser was flooded with seawater between Nieuwpoort and Diksmuide to provide an obstacle to the advancing German Army and keep westernmost Belgium safe from German occupation; the Yser river itself never overflowed its banks. Peene Becque Sale Becque Ey Becque Zwyne Becque GéoPortail The Yser at the Sandre database Image of the basin of the Yser

Coastal Troops of the Russian Navy

The Coastal Troops are a service arm of the Russian Navy, designed to guard Russian fleets' forces, troops and seashore objects against exposure to enemy surface ships. The Coastal Troops of the Russian Navy include three Arms: Coastal Defence Missile Artillery Motorized coastal defense troops Naval InfantryEach Arm achieves certain objectives on its own and in conjunction with the other Arms of the Coastal Troops and Forces of the Navy, as well as formations and units of the other Services and Arms of the Armed Forces. Brigades and battalions are the main organizational elements of the Coastal Troops; the Coastal Troops are equipped with combined-arms armaments and equipment. They are armed with coastal missile systems of anti-ship guided missiles and mobile artillery mounts, designed to destroy sea and ground targets, special reconnaissance means, etc. Pacific Fleet - Chief of the Coastal Forces - Major General Pushkin, Sergey Vitalyevich 72nd Coastal Missile Brigade. Defense of the main base of the Pacific Fleet is Vladivostok.

216th Electronic Warfare Regiment 40th Naval Infantry Brigade. The basis of the troops and forces in the Northeast. 155th Naval Infantry Brigade. The brigade is the basis of the fleet landing forces. 520th Coastal Missile-Artillery Brigade 140th Communications Center 471st Electronic Warfare Center 474th Electronic Warfare Center 1532nd Anti-Aircraft Missile Regiment. Since April 2015, the regiment is armed with the S-400 air defense system. Black Sea Fleet - Chief of the Coastal Forces - Major General Andrei Kolotovkin 127th Reconnaissance Brigade 810th Naval Infantry Brigade 880th Naval Infantry Battalion 881st Air-Assault Battalion 888th Reconnaissance Battalion 1613th Artillery Battery 1619th Air-Defense Artillery Battery 15th Coastal Missile-Artillery Brigade 854th Coastal Missile Regiment 529th Communications Center, 475th Electronic Warfare Center, 224th Management Battalion 126th Coastal Defense Brigade. Since 2019, the brigade is armed with the Tornado-G MLRS. 11th Coastal Missile-Artillery Brigade 1096th Anti-Air Missile Regiment 68th Naval Engineer Regiment, 4th Nuclear and Chemical Protection Troops Regiment 382nd Naval Infantry Battalion 133th Logistics and Support Brigade 8th Coastal Artillery Regiment.

Since 2019, the regiment is armed with the Tornado-G MLRS. Baltic Fleet - Head of the coastal troops - Lieutenant-General Andrei Guschin 336th Naval Infantry Brigade 877th Naval Infantry Battalion 879th Air Assault Battalion 884th Naval Infantry Corps Battalion 724th Reconnaissance Battalion 1612th Self-Propelled Artillery Battery 1592nd Self-Propelled Artillery Battery 1618th anti-airc missile and artillery Battery 7th Motorized Rifle Regiment 79th Motorized Rifle Brigade 152nd Missile Brigade 244th Artillery Brigade. 25th Coastal Missile Regiment 22nd Anti-Air Missile Regiment 742nd Communications Center 69th Naval Engineer Regiment 752nd Guard platoon 46th Reconnaissance Battalion Northern Fleet - Chief of the Coastal Forces - from January 2015, Major-General Dmitry Kraev 61st Naval Infantry Brigade: Headquarters, Severomorsk 125th Tank Battalion 886th Reconnaissance Battalion 874th Naval Infantry Battalion, 876th Air Assault Battalion 1611th Self-Propelled Artillery Battery 1591st Self-Propelled Artillery Battery 1617th Anti-Air missile Artillery Battery 75th Naval Infirmary 317th Naval Infantry Battalion 318th Naval Infantry BattalionCaspian Flotilla 177th Naval Infantry Regiment 46th Coastal Missile Battery Other units HQ Protection Company of the Severomorsk garrison 160th PDSS Detachment 269th PDSS Detachment 313rd PDSS Detachment 211st Guard Battalion 536th Coastal Missile and Artillery Brigade.

Covers the deployment of submarine forces. 63rd Marine Engineer Regiment, military unit 36085 80th Motorized Rifle Brigade Designed for combat operations in the Arctic region, protecting the interests of Russia on the continental shelf. 200th Motorized Rifle Brigade This article incorporates text by Ministry

PLUTO reactor

PLUTO was a materials testing nuclear reactor housed at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, a former Royal Air Force airfield at Harwell, Oxfordshire in the United Kingdom. PLUTO was one of five reactors on the site; the site was selected as the scientific center for research and development of UK's expanding nuclear programs. Designed by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, the reactor was built by Head Wrightson Processes Ltd, an industrial firm in Teesside, England. PLUTO was one of two high flux reactors. PLUTO was the second of three DIDO class reactors to become operational. PLUTO and DIDO were located at Harwell; the development of multi-purpose type PLUTO reactors gave rise to many countries building their own materials testing reactors based on DIDO's design. On 27 October 1957, the PLUTO reactor was commissioned and operated for thirty three years before decommissioning in 1990. PLUTO was based on the design of DIDO and used enriched uranium metal fuel, heavy water as both neutron moderator and primary coolant.

The core was a cylinder with a diameter of 87.5 centimetres and a height of 61 centimetres. The radioactive shielding consisted of 0.65 centimetres boral, 10.2 centimetres lead, 45 centimetres of iron shot concrete, 120 centimetres of barytes concrete. There was a graphite neutron reflector surrounding the core; the fuel element was an eighty-percent enriched uranium, U-235, alloyed with aluminum plates, producing a specific power of 3,850,000 kW/kg. The PLUTO reactor started operating at 10 MW thermal power but increased during upgrades to 25 MW during its operation; the multipurpose PLUTO reactor had many diverse functions. Its main functions were fuel production, materials testing and sample activation experiments which involved testing the effects of graphite behavior under irradiation. Materials testing at the Harwell site involved irradiating materials using the reactors; this happened in one of 3 locations, a Mark V hollow fuel element in the Pluto reactor, a flux position in DIDO, the flux converter in PLUTO.

The aim of the flux converter was to give the materials the spectrum of low spatial variation of neutron and gamma fluxes seen by a light-water reactor rather than the heavy-water reactor, PLUTO. An experiment performed to test the effects of graphite behavior under irradiation revealed the effects of irradiation for 20–30 years in a civil reactor from materials tested in these reactors during the course of a few months. Other activities and experiments carried out were:physics research such as neutron scattering, chemistry studies, radioisotopes production used in medical facilities and other industries; because the twin reactors, PLUTO and DIDO, worked on a continuous basis rotating in and out of operation, there was continued flow of short-lived radioisotopes for hospitals. The radioisotopes generated account for 70% of the UK radioisotopes sold on the international markets. PLUTO reactor went critical in 1957 and reached its end of life in 1990, it is expected to be dismantled by 2024. Decommissioning is carried out in three stages, as defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency Standards.

It began with the shutdown of the reactor following closure of nuclear plant. The first stage was removing operational waste. Second stage involved dismantling active and non-active plants but keeping building structure and the reactor shield intact. Stage three involved demolishing building structures, dismantling the reactor core and bio shield, site cleanup of all radioactive waste to restore site for other purposes. By 1994 and 1995, PLUTO was at stage two decommissioning List of nuclear reactors