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Yu Yue

Yu Yue, courtesy name Yinfu, hao Quyuan, was a prominent scholar and official of Qing Dynasty China. An expert in philology and textual studies, he taught and wrote prolifically on the classics and histories. Yu Pingbo was his great-grandson. Yu Yue hailed from Deqing and moved to Renhe, now a subdistrict of Hangzhou. In 1850, Yu passed the imperial examination as metropolitan graduate, was appointed junior compiler in the Hanlin Academy, he served successively in a variety of academic posts in the imperial bureaucracy, was promoted to educational instructor of Henan, not long before his resigning from this position and withdrawing to Suzhou, where he became a private teacher and devoted himself full-time to classical studies. From 1868 on, he was director of the Gujing Academy. Yu's analyses of the classics are admired for their philological acumen, he has had a large influence on both Chinese and foreign students of the Chinese classics in Japan. Yu's philosophy was inclined to the teachings of Wang Niansun and Wang Yinzhi, who interpreted Confucian classics in a practical way.

In the 1860s, Yu was intimately involved in restoring the Gujing Academy, a sishu established by Ruan Yuan in 1800 yet destroyed during the Taiping Rebellion. As opposed to the dominant goal of education—namely education as pathway towards an official career—Yu aimed to provide a non-political environment for classics studies and stressed philology and historical research during his teaching, an intellectual tradition initiated by Gu Yanwu and Dai Zhen. Yu allowed considerable freedom in readings of texts, which to a great extent stimulated Zhang Taiyan's creative thinking and developments to classical writings, he believed that the most important techniques in rendering the classics readable for contemporary readers were restoring original word and sentence orders, establishing the proper senses of individual words, most being more aware of the use of phonetic loan words. Yu believed that many of the difficulties encountered in reading the classics were due to a failure to recognize the use of loan characters—an quite challenging task, requiring an intimate knowledge of ancient Chinese phonology—and in his commentaries, he raises the possibility of this phenomenon to suggest alternate readings.

Yu maintained links with both the traditional philological school and scholars of new thoughts—to name a few, Song Xiangfeng and Zhuang Cunyu from Changzhou, who explored political messages carried in classics including the Gongyang Commentary and the Spring and Autumn Annals. He exchanged ideas with late-Qing reformers like Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao. Liang referred to Yu as one of the few orthodox scholars that survived the academic downfall during this period, yet Yu was not much stuck into the so-called orthodox Confucianism: unlike Kang Youwei's speculative method in interpreting the Analects, Yu supported a more textual and factual approach. Qunqing Pingyi — analysis and commentaries on Confucian classics, in which Yu followed the scholarly approach of Wang Yinzhi's work Jingyi Shuwen. Zhuzi Pingyi — a collection of works of the pre-Qin masters and philosophers, it includes Yu's analysis and commentaries to the Daoist writings Baopuzi and Huainanzi, the legalist classics Hanfeizi and Gongsun Longzi, as well as to the histories Songshiyi and Yizhoushu.

Gushu Yiyi Juli — scholarly work on 88 systematic errors that were seen in the interpretation of classical texts as a consequence of a different understanding of grammar or words. Point-by-point analyses to these errors were given by Yu; the book received great attention. The Seven Heroes and Five Gallants — a high-class version of the popular romance Sanxia Wuyi, revised by Yu under the standards of written literature of his time; the revision was published in 1889. Youtaixianguan Biji — an important Classical Chinese novel of the late-Qing period that much reflected Yu's modernity consciousness. Chunzaitang Quanshu, an eight-volume collection of Yu's works, which compiled other notable publications of Yu, including:Chaxiangshi Congchao — scholarly notes Chunzaitang Suibi — essays Liangzhe Fengyongji, vol. 4 — artistic essays Quyuan Zishu Shi — poems Yu Quyuan Suibi — essays Yu Yue Zhaji Wuzhong — essays Notes BibliographySlingerland, E.. Analects: With Selections from Traditional Commentaries.

Hackett Publishing. P. 267. ISBN 1603843450. Bartke, W.. Who was Who in the People's Republic of China: With more than 3100 Portraits. Walter de Gruyter. P. 590. ISBN 3110968231. Blader, Susan. Tales of Magistrate Bao and His Valiant Lieutenants: Selections from Sanxia Wuyi. Chinese University Press. ISBN 9622017754. Murthy, Viren; the Political Philosophy of Zhang Taiyan: The Resistance of Consciousness. BRILL. P. 43. ISBN 9004203877. Works by or about Yu Yue at Internet Archive


Hispanicization or hispanization known as castilianization refers to the process by which a place or person becomes influenced by Hispanic culture or a process of cultural and/or linguistic change in which something non-Hispanic becomes Hispanic. Hispanicization is illustrated by spoken Spanish and consumption of Hispanic food, Spanish language music, participation in Hispanic festivals and holidays. In the former Spanish colonies, the term is used in the narrow linguistic sense of the Spanish language replacing indigenous languages. Within Spain, the term "hispanization" can refer to the cultural and linguistic absorption of the ethnically Berber Guanches, the indigenous people of the Canary Islands in the century following their subjugation in the 15th century, it is rarely used as a synonym for castilianization i.e. the historical process whereby speakers of minority Spanish languages such as Catalan, Galician, Astur-Leonese or Aragonese are linguistically assimilated and progressively abandon their language for Spanish.

Since all of the aforementioned languages are co-official languages together with Castilian Spanish, the term castilianization is preferred. The Moriscos had undergone an forced Hispanicization. Upon conversion, they were all given Spanish names by which they were known in all official documents (though in private, they often continued to use their original Arabic names. In 1567, Philip II of Spain issued a royal decree forbidding Moriscos from the use of Arabic on all occasions and informal, speaking and writing. Using Arabic in any sense of the word would be regarded as a crime, they were given three years to learn a "Christian" language, after which they would have to get rid of all Arabic written material. It is unknown how many of the Moriscos complied with the decree and destroyed their own Arabic books and how many kept them in defiance of the King's decree. According to the 2000 United States Census, about 75% of all Hispanics spoke Spanish at home. Hispanic retention rates are so high in parts of Texas and New Mexico and along the border because the percentage of Hispanics living there is very high.

Laredo, Texas. Furthermore, these places have had a Hispanic-majority population since the time of the Spanish conquest and colonization of the area in the 15th and 16th centuries; some Anglo-majority cities have since become majority Hispanic, such as Miami and San Antonio. In Spanish America it is used to refer to the imposition of the Spanish language in the former Spanish colonies such as Mexico and its adoption by indigenous peoples; this refers to Spain's influence which began in the late 15th century and the Spanish Empire beginning in the colonization of the Canary Islands in 1402, now part of Spain. The landing of Christopher Columbus in 1492 in the Caribbean Central America and South America. All these countries were Hispanicized; until castilianization has been official policy by the governments of many Hispanic American countries. Only programs of intercultural bilingual education have been introduced to a substantial extent; the Philippines archipelago was ruled from Mexico City as a territory of New Spain, from 1565 to 1821 and as a province of Spain until 1898.

Since the late 16th century and Hispanic culture has intemperately influenced and became the foundation of modern Filipino cultural landscape. Derived from Austronesian and Iberian influences, modern Filipino culture is described as a blend of Eastern and Western traditions. Although most Filipinos speak an Austronesian language, the languages of the Philippines have thousands of Spanish loanwords. Furthermore, a number of Filipinos to the south speak a Spanish-based Creole known as Chavacano; this is true with the Chamorro language in Guam, which lived side by side with Spanish for over 300 years. Many people consider these languages of the Pacific, Hispano-Austronesian languages, because of the heavy influence of Spanish on the language. Beatriz Garza Cuaron and Doris Bartholomew. Languages of intercommunication in Mexico. In: Stephen Adolphe Wurm, Peter Mühlhäusler, Darrell T. Tyron, Atlas of languages of intercultural communication in the Pacific, pp. 1254–1290. Chapter 2. Historical outline, p. 1258, 2.1.5: Replacement of the dominant indigenous languages by Spanish, pp. 1260–1262.

Chapter 4: Spanish as a language of intercommunication, from the Conquest to present. Pp. 1270–1271. Rainer Enrique Hamel: Bilingual Education for Indigenous Communities in Mexico. Encyclopedia of Language and Education, Part 5, Part 18, pp. 1747–1758. Juan Carlos Godenzzi: Language Policy and Education in the Andes. Encyclopedia of Language and Education, Part 1, Part 4, pp. 315–329. Chilenization Language politics in Spain under Franco Nereo Hancco Mamani: Irqikunap qhichwa simi kastilla simi ima Qhiwar ayllupi rimasqankumanta - El quechua entre los niños de una comunidad bilingüe surandina del Perú y su fortalecimiento (in Spanish and Quechua, article on castilianizati


Sandlanding is a Tiriyó village in the Sipaliwini District of Suriname. The village lies just south of Apoera, inhabited by Arowaks. Sandlanding was founded by Tiriyó families with schoolgoing children from the village of Wanapan, who wanted to live closer to the schools of Apoera; the inhabitants of Sandlanding still fall under the authority of the captain of Wanapan. Sandlanding lies within the customary lands of the Arowak, by agreement between captain Alapate of Wanapan and captain Lewis of Apoera, Sandlanding residents can appeal to the latter for needs. Heemskerk, Marieke. Trio Baseline Study: A sustainable livelihoods perspective on the Trio Indigenous Peoples of South Suriname. Paramaribo: Stichting Amazon Conservation Team-Suriname. Mans, Jimmy. Amotopoan trails: a recent archaeology of Trio movements. Leiden: Sidestone Press. ISBN 978-90-8890-098-3

Bangladesh–India border

The Bangladesh–India border, known locally as the International Border, is an international border running between Bangladesh and India that demarcates the eight divisions of Bangladesh and the Indian states. Bangladesh and India share a 4,156-kilometre-long international border, the fifth-longest land border in the world, including 262 km in Assam, 856 km in Tripura, 180 km in Mizoram, 443 km in Meghalaya, 2,217 km in West Bengal; the Bangladeshi divisions of Mymensingh, Rajshahi, Rangpur and Chittagong are situated along the border. A number of pillars mark the border between the two states. Small demarcated portions of the border are fenced on both sides; the Land Boundary Agreement to simplify the border was ratified by both India and Bangladesh on 7 May 2015. The Radcliffe Line was published on 17 August 1947 as a boundary demarcation line between India and Pakistan upon the partition of India, it was named after its architect, Sir Cyril Radcliffe, who, as chairman of the Border Commissions, was charged with equitably dividing 450,000 square kilometres of territory with 88 million people.

The border is used as a route for smuggling livestock, food items and drugs from India to Bangladesh. Moreover, illegal immigrants from Bangladesh cross the border to India; because of a large number of illegal immigrants crossing from Bangladesh into India, a controversial shoot-on-sight policy has been enforced by the Indian border patrols. This policy was initiated with reports of violence between Indian soldiers; the border has witnessed occasional skirmishes between the Indian Border Security Force and the Border Guards Bangladesh, most notably in 2001. In July 2009, Channel 4 News reported that hundreds of Bangladeshis were killed by the BSF along the Indo-Bangladeshi Barrier; the BSF claims that the barrier's main purpose is to check illegal immigration and to prevent cross-border terrorism. In 2010, Human Rights Watch issued an 81-page report which brought up uncountable abuses of the BSF; the report was compiled from the interviews taken from the victims of BSF torture, members of the BSF, its Bangladeshi counterpart.

The report stated that over 1000 Bangladeshi citizens were killed during the first decade of the 21st century. According to HRW, BSF did not only shoot illegal migrants or smugglers but innocents who were seen near, sometimes people working in fields near the border. BSF has been accused by the Bangladeshi government of incursions into Bangladeshi territory, indiscriminate shooting of civilians along the India–Bangladesh borders; this was in retaliation to massive illegal immigration from Bangladesh to India, for which the India–Bangladesh Barrier is underway. In a news conference in August 2008, Indian BSF officials admitted that they killed 59 illegals who were trying to cross the border during the prior six months. Bangladeshi media accused the BSF of abducting 5 Bangladeshi children, aged between 8 and 15, from the Haripur Upazila in Thakurgaon District of Bangladesh, in 2010; the children were setting fishing nets near the border. In 2010, Human Rights Watch has accused the Border Security Force for the indiscriminate killings.

BSF forces killed and hanged the dead body over the fence – that of Ms. Felani – on 7 January 2011. Many conferences have been held between India and Bangladesh to discuss such issues as smuggling and trespassing, cattle lifting, trafficking of drugs and weapons. Colonel Muhammad Shahid Sarwar of BGB gave BSF a list of miscreants which took place in India, the BSF side handed over a similar list to the BGB; the enclaves or chitmahals between India and Bangladesh border in the Indian state of West Bengal were a long-standing issue between the countries. The enclaves were reputedly part of a high-stakes card game or chess games centuries ago between two regional kings, the Raja of Cooch Behar and the Maharaja of Rangpur, the result of the confused outcome of a treaty between the Kingdom of Koch Bihar and the Mughal Empire. After the partition of India in 1947, Cooch Behar district merged with India and Rangpur went to then-East Pakistan, which became Bangladesh in 1971; the prime ministers of India and Bangladesh signed a Land Boundary Agreement in 1974 to exchange all enclaves and simplify the international border.

In 1974 Bangladesh approved the proposed Land Boundary Agreement. In 2011 the two countries again agreed to adverse possessions. A revised version of the agreement was adopted by the two countries when the Parliament of India passed the 119th Amendment to the Indian Constitution on 7 May 2015. Inside the main part of Bangladesh, there were 111 Indian enclaves, while inside the main part of India, there were 51 Bangladeshi enclaves. In respect of adverse possessions, India received 2,777.038 acres of land and transferred 2,267.682 acres to Bangladesh. Under the agreement, the enclave residents could continue to reside at their present location or move to the country of their choice; the adverse possession of Boraibari went to Bangladesh. The undemarcated borders between the nations were finally solved with respect to Daikhata-Dumabari and Pyrdiwah. India and Bangladesh had engaged in eight rounds of bilateral negotiations starting 1974, but it remained inconclusive until 2009. In October 2009, Bangladesh served India with notice of arbitration proceedings under the UNCLOS.

The Arbitration Tribunal settled the dispute. Map of major border customs che

Glans penis

The glans penis, more referred to as the glans, is a structure at the distal end of the penis in male mammals. It is the sensitive bulbous structure at the end of the human penis, is anatomically homologous to the clitoral glans of the human female; the glans penis may be smooth, elongated, or divided in other mammals. The glans is or covered by the foreskin in humans, except in those who have been circumcised; the foreskin can be retracted over and past the glans, may automatically retract during an erection. The glans is more known as the "head" or the "tip" of the penis; the medical name comes from the Latin words glans and penis – the Latin genitive of this word has the same form as the nominative. The glans penis is the expanded cap of the corpus spongiosum, it is moulded on the rounded ends of the corpora cavernosa penis, extending farther on their upper than on their lower surfaces. At the summit of the glans is the slit-like vertical external urethral orifice; the circumference of the base of the glans forms a rounded projecting border, the corona glandis, overhanging a deep retroglandular sulcus, behind, the neck of the penis.

The proportional size of the glans penis can vary greatly. On some penises it is much wider in circumference than the shaft, giving the penis a mushroom-like appearance, on others it is narrower and more akin to a probe in shape; the soft cushiony texture of the glans is intended to absorb impact during rigorous instances of copulation. The foreskin maintains the mucosa in a moist environment. Circumcised penises have a glans, permanently exposed and dry. Several studies have suggested the glans is sensitive in both circumcised and uncircumcised penises, while others have reported it is more sensitive in people who are not circumcised. Halata & Munger report that the density of genital corpuscles is greatest in the corona glandis, while Yang & Bradley's report "showed no areas in the glans to be more densely innervated than others."Halata & Spathe reported. Merkel nerve endings and Meissner's corpuscles are not present."Yang & Bradley argue. Some researchers have suggested that the glans has evolved to become acorn, mushroom or cone shaped so that during copulation it acts as a semen-removal device in the vagina of previous sex partners, but this is not supported when looking at primate relatives who have different mating behaviors.

The meatus of the urethra is located at the tip of the glans penis. The epithelium of the glans penis is mucocutaneous tissue. Birley et al. report that excessive washing with soap may dry the mucous membrane which covers the glans penis and cause non-specific dermatitis. Inflammation of the glans penis is known as balanitis, occurs in 3–11% of males. Edwards reported that it is more common in males who have poor hygiene habits or have not been circumcised, it has infection with a wide variety of pathogens. Careful identification of the cause with the aid of patient history, physical examination and cultures, biopsy are essential in order to determine the proper treatment. Meatal stenosis is a late complication of circumcision, which occurs in about 2 to 20 percent of circumcised boys. Male felids are able to urinate backwards by curving the tip of the glans penis backward. In cats, the glans penis is covered with spines. Penile spines occur on the glans of male and female spotted hyenas. In male dogs, the glans penis consists of two parts called the bulbus glandis and pars longa glandis.

The glans of a fossa's penis is spiny except at the tip. In comparison, the glans of felids is spiny, while that of viverrids is smooth and long; the shape of the glans varies among different marsupial species. In most marsupials, the glans is divided; the glans penis is divided into two parts in platypuses and echidnas. The glans penis of the marsh rice rat is averaging 7.3 mm long and 4.6 mm broad. In Thomasomys ucucha the glans penis is rounded and small and is superficially divided into left and right halves by a trough at the top and a ridge at the bottom. Most of the glans is covered except for an area near the tip. Winkelmann's mouse can most be distinguished from its close relatives by its corrugated glans penis; when erect, the glans of a horse's penis increases by 3 to 4 times. The urethra opens within a small pouch at the distal end of the glans. Unlike the human glans, the glans of a horse's penis extends backwards on its shaft. Males of Racey's pipistrelle bat have a egg-shaped glans penis.

The glans penis of a male cape ground squirrel is large with a prominent baculum. Clitoris Corona of glans penis Corpus cavernosum penis Foreskin Frenulum of prepuce of penis Hirsuties papillaris genitalis Anatomy photo:42:07-0102 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "The Male Perineum and the Penis: The Corpus Spongiosum and Corpora Cavernosa" Anatomy photo:44:06-0101 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "The Male Pelvis: The Urethra"

USS Sabine (1855)

The first USS Sabine was a sailing frigate built by the United States Navy in 1855. The ship was among the first ships to see action in the American Civil War. In 1862, a large portion of the USS Monitor crew were volunteers from the Sabine, she was built at the New York Navy Yard. Her keel was laid in 1822, but she was not launched until 3 February 1855. During this period, she underwent various alterations, the most extensive being a lengthening of her hull by twenty feet. Built from Brandywine plans, she was commissioned on 23 August 1858, Capt. Henry A. Adams in command, her first cruise took the frigate to Montevideo and Buenos Aires in October 1858 with the Paraguay expedition, a task force commanded by Flag Officer William B. Shubrick, after that country's firing on USS Water Witch, she conveyed Commissioner Bowlin and served as flagship during the voyage to South America, but was not considered part of the expedition fleet, as she was not designed to act against Paraguay, not being able to ascend the river.

The expedition won the United States an indemnity, an apology, a renewed treaty. Sabine operated out of New York with the Home Fleet until July 1861. Through July and August, she was out of commission at Portsmouth Navy Yard. Recommissioning on 30 August, she was ordered to join the Atlantic Blockading Squadron on 9 September. During the Civil War, Sabine was employed along the east coast searching for Confederate raiders, she participated in the relief and reinforcement of Fort Pickens, Florida, in April 1861, under command of Capt. Adams. Sabine returned to New York for blockade duty with the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron until ordered in August 1864 to Norfolk, Virginia as a training ship for Navy apprentices and landsmen. After the war, she was transferred to New London, Connecticut for the same purpose until 1868. In 1867, an apprentice on Sabine, Frank Du Moulin, was awarded the Medal of Honor for rescuing a crewmate who had fallen from the rigging into the water. In 1869 and 1870, the ship conducted midshipman training cruises to European and Mediterranean ports.

In 1871 Sabine was repaired at Boston. In 1877, she was laid up until she was sold on 23 September 1883 at Portsmouth to J. L. Snow of Rockland, Maine; the last remaining armament from the Sabine, a 6.4 inch 100 Pounder Parrot Rifled Naval Cannon resides on display outside the Grand Traverse County courthouse in Traverse City, Michigan. It was one of the two 100 pounder rifled cannons that were mounted on swiveling carriages on the Sabine; the cannon was donated to Grand Traverse County by Senator William Alden Smith in 1910. Union Navy Union Blockade List of United States Navy ships This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships; the entry can be found here