Othmer Gold Medal
The Othmer Gold Medal recognizes outstanding individuals who contributed to progress in chemistry and science through their activities in areas including innovation, research, public understanding and philanthropy. The medal is presented annually under the sponsorship of the Science History Institute and four affiliated organizations: the American Chemical Society, the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, The Chemists' Club, the American section of the Société de Chimie Industrielle, at the Science History Institute's Heritage Day; the Othmer Medal commemorates chemist Donald Othmer, a researcher, inventor, professor, co-editor of the Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Each year, the recipient of the award designates an institution to receive a copy of the 26 volume Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology from John Wiley & Sons, Inc; the award is given yearly and was first presented in 1997
United States nationality law
The United States nationality law is a uniform rule of naturalization of the United States set out in the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, enacted under the power of Article I, section 8, clause 4 of the United States Constitution, which reads: Congress shall have Power - "To establish a uniform Rule of Naturalization..." The 1952 Act sets forth the legal requirements for the acquisition of, divestiture from, American nationality. The requirements have become more explicit since the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution, with the most recent changes to the law having been made by Congress in 2001. Adult citizens of the United States who are residents of one of the 50 states or the District of Columbia have the right to participate in the political system of the United States, as well as their state and local governments, to be represented and protected abroad by the United States, to live in the United States and certain territories without any immigration requirements.
Felons can vote in over 40 states, in at least 2 while incarcerated. Felons can serve jury duty if approved; some U. S. citizens have the obligation to serve in a jury, if selected and qualified. Citizens are required to pay taxes on their total income from all sources worldwide, including income earned abroad while living abroad. Under certain circumstances, however, U. S. citizens living and working abroad may be able to reduce or eliminate their U. S. federal income tax via the Foreign Earned Income Exclusion or the Foreign Tax Credit. U. S. taxes payable may be alternatively reduced by credits for foreign income taxes regardless of the length of stay abroad. The United States Government insists that U. S. citizens travel into and out of the United States on a U. S. passport, regardless of any other nationality they may possess. Male U. S. citizens from 18–25 years of age are required to register with the Selective Service System at age 18 for possible conscription into the armed forces. Although no one has been drafted in the U.
S. since 1973, draft registration continues in the case of a possible reinstatement on some future date. In the Oath of Citizenship, immigrants becoming naturalized U. S. citizens swear that when required by law they will bear arms on behalf of the United States, will perform noncombatant service in the U. S. Armed Forces, will perform work of national importance under civilian direction. In some cases, the USCIS allows the oath to be taken without the clauses regarding the first two of these three sworn commitments. There are various ways a person can acquire United States citizenship, either at birth or on in life. Section 1 of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution provides that "All persons born or naturalized in the United States, subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside."Because Native American tribes within the geographical boundaries of the U. S. held a special sovereignty status, the tribes were not "subject to the jurisdiction thereof" and thus Native Americans who were born into tribes were not considered citizens if they left the tribe and settled in white society, which the Supreme Court upheld in Elk v. Wilkins.
However, in 1924, Congress granted birthright citizenship to Native Americans through the Indian Citizenship Act. Furthermore, under the Insular Cases, unincorporated U. S. territories and commonwealths are appurtenant to the United States rather than part of the United States, which limits applicability of the U. S. Constitution. Congress has conferred birthright citizenship, through legislation, to persons born in all inhabited territories except American Samoa and Swains Island, who are granted the status of U. S. Nationals. In the case of United States v. Wong Kim Ark, the Supreme Court ruled that a person becomes a citizen of the United States at the time of birth, by virtue of the first clause of the 14th Amendment, if at a minimum that person: Is born in the United States Has parents that are subjects of a foreign power, but not in any diplomatic or official capacity of that foreign power Has parents that have permanent domicile and residence in the United StatesThe Supreme Court has not explicitly ruled whether children born in the United States to immigrants illegally present in the country are U.
S. citizens from birth, but it is presumed they are. The constitutional provision reads in pertinent part, "All persons born...in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens...". A child is automatically granted citizenship if: Both parents were U. S. citizens at the time of the child's birth. INA 301 and INA 301 state, "and one of whom has had a residence."The FAM states "no amount of time specified." A person's record of birth abroad, if registered with a U. S. consulate or embassy, is proof of citizenship. They may apply for a passport or a Certificate of Citizenship as proof of citizenship. A person born on or after November 14, 1986, is a U. S. citizen if all of the following are true: The person's parents were married at time of birth One of the person's parents was a U. S. citizen when the person in question was born
Taichung known as Taichung City, is a special municipality located in central Taiwan. Taichung has a population of 2.81 million people and is Taiwan's second most populous city, overtaking Kaohsiung in July 2017. It serves as the core of the Taichung–Changhua metropolitan area, the second largest metropolitan area in Taiwan; the current city was formed when Taichung County merged with the original provincial Taichung City to form the special municipality on 25 December 2010. Located in the Taichung Basin, the city was named under Japanese rule, became a major economic and cultural hub. Composed of several scattered hamlets, the city of Taichung was planned and developed by the Japanese, it was called "the Kyoto of Formosa" in Japanese era because of its beauty. The city is home to the National Museum of Natural Science, the National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts, the National Taichung Theater, the National Library of Public Information, the National Taiwan Symphony Orchestra, as well as many cultural sites, including the historic Taichung Park, the Lin Family Gardens, many temples.
The Atayal Taiwanese aborigines as well as several Taiwanese Plains Aboriginal tribes populated the plains that make up modern Taichung. They were hunter gatherers who lived by cultivating millet and taro. In the 17th century, the Papora, Babuza and Hoanya established the Kingdom of Middag, occupying the western part of present-day Taichung. In 1682, the Qing dynasty wrested control of western Taiwan from the Cheng family. In 1684, Zhuluo County was established, encompassing the underdeveloped northern two-thirds of Taiwan. Modern-day Taichung traces its beginnings to a settlement named Toatun in 1705. To strengthen Qing control, a garrison was established in 1721 near the site of present-day Taichung Park by Lan Ting-chen. North of the city, on the Dajia River, an aboriginal revolt broke out in 1731 after Chinese officials moved in and compelled them to provide labor; the revolt spread through the city as far south as Changhua County in May 1732 before the rebels were chased into the mountains by Qing forces.
In 1786, another rebellion against the Qing, known as the Lin Shuangwen rebellion, began as an attempt to overthrow the government and restore the Ming dynasty. As the rebels moved northward, they turned to slaughter and looting, they were defeated by a coalition of Qing forces, Quanzhou Fujianese descendants, aboriginal volunteers. When Taiwan Province was declared an independent province in 1887, the government intended to construct its capital city at the centrally located Toatun, designated as the seat of Taiwan Prefecture, thus the city took the title of "Taiwan-fu", meaning "capital city of Taiwan", from modern-day Tainan, which had held the title for more than 200 years. Qing official Liu Ming-chuan received permission to oversee development of the area, which included constructing a railway through the city. However, the provincial capital was moved to Taipei. After China lost the Sino-Japanese War in 1895, Taiwan was ceded to Japan by the Treaty of Shimonoseki, the name of the city was changed to Taichū.
The Japanese sought to develop the city to make it the first “modern” area of Taiwan and invested in roads and levees. In 1901, Taichū Chō was established as one of twenty local administrative districts on the island. In 1904, the town of Taichū had a population of 6,423, Taichū District had more than 207,000. Taichū Park was completed in 1903. A tower marking the old north gate was moved to the new park; the first market in Taichū was built in 1908, along Jiguang Road between the Zhongzheng and Chenggong Roads and it is still in use today. The Japanese undertook a north-south island railway project. Taichū Train Station was completed and began operation in 1917, still operates today. Taichū City was declared by Japanese Imperial authorities in 1920, Taichū City Hall was completed in 1924 after eleven years of construction. Kōkan Airport, now known as Taichung Airport, was constructed during Japanese rule. Taichū Middle School was founded in 1915 by elite members of local gentry, including Lin Hsien-tang and his brother Lin Lieh-tang, two wealthy Taiwanese intellectuals of the era.
This was in an effort to teach children the culture of Taiwan and to foster the spirit of the Taiwanese localization movement. The Taiwanese Cultural Association, founded in 1921 in Taipei by Lin Hsien-tang, was moved to Taichū in 1927. Most of the members of this association were from Taichū and the surrounding area; the city became a center of Taiwanese nationalism. From 1926 to 1945, Taichū Prefecture covered modern-day Taichung as well as Changhua County and Nantou County. At the end of the war, Japan handed over control of Taiwan. In 1947 the first Mayor of Taichung County was Lai Tien Shen; the position was appointed by the government to rule during the interim period. Both Taichung areas were declared a provincial city and county in 1949. Since the city has grown as a center of higher education and culture, where 70% of employees worked in service industries; the surrounding county developed manufacturing, which employed 48% of the workforce, focused so on precision machinery, from machine tools to bicycles, that it was nicknamed the “Mechanical Kingdom.”
On 25 December 20
Academia Sinica, headquartered in Nangang District, Taipei, is the national academy of Taiwan. It supports research activities in a wide variety of disciplines, ranging from mathematical and physical sciences, to life sciences, to humanities and social sciences; as an educational institute, it provides PhD training and scholarship through its English-language Taiwan International Graduate Program in biology, chemistry, physics and earth and environmental sciences. Academia Sinica is ranked 144th in Nature Publishing Index - 2014 Global Top 200 and 22nd in Reuters World's Most Innovative Research Institutions; the current president since 2016 is James C. Liao, an expert in metabolic engineering, systems biology and synthetic biology; as the most preeminent academic research institution in Taiwan, Academia Sinica is directly responsible to the Presidential Office, unlike other government-sponsored research institutes which are responsible to relevant Executive Yuan ministries. Thus AS enjoys autonomy in formulating its own research objectives.
In addition to academic research on various subjects in the sciences and humanities, its major tasks include providing guidelines, channels of coordination, incentives with a view to raising academic standards in the country. Academia Sinica has its main campus located in Nangang District of Taipei City and runs over 40 research stations distributed across the country and throughout the world; the main campus in Nangang was constructed in 1954. In addition to the Central Office of Administration and 28 institutes and research centers, the main campus has 10 museums or memorial halls open to the public, as well as an ecological pond, a forest park, a temple of Earth God, the Sih-Fen Brook that runs through the campus and in the north by the National Biotechnology Research Park; the National Biotechnology Research Park, finished in 2017 and inaugurated in October 2018 by the Taiwanese President Tsai Ing-wen, is located about 500 m north of the main campus and 500 m south of the Nankang Software Park, with the Nangang station to the west and the Taipei Nangang Exhibition Center MRT station to the east.
It is home to four Academia Sinica centers for translational medicine, innovation and bioinformatics service, as well as the Biotechnology Development Center of the Ministry of Economic Affairs, the Food and Drug Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the National Laboratory Animal Center of the Ministry of Science and Technology. Three physical sciences institutes, Mathematics and Atomic and Molecular Sciences, are located in the main campus of National Taiwan University in Gongguan, Da'an District, Taipei. A joint office between the two institutions was established in 2014. A campus in the Shalun Smart Green Energy Science City, near the Tainan High Speed Rail station, Guiren District, Tainan, is under construction and is expected to be finished in 2021; the groundbreaking ceremony took place in May 2018 after seven years of planning. The Southern Campus is part of an effort to promote regional balance in the academic landscape of Taiwan and will prioritize research on agricultural biotechnology, sustainable development, archaeology of early Taiwanese history and culture.
The Academia Sinica was founded in 1928 in Nanking, Republic of China, with the first meeting held in Shanghai. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, it relocated to Taiwan. In 1954, its main campus was constructed in Jiouhjuang, Taipei; the institutes at that time were Mathematics and Botany. The second Convocation was held in 1957. In the 2000s, many of the current institutes and research centers were established through reorganization of the old ones; the first PhD program of the AS, the Taiwan International Graduate Program, was inaugurated in 2006. Similar to the Max Planck Institutes of Germany, Taiwan's Academia Sinica covers three major academic divisions: The research stations in Taiwan include: Southern Taiwan Science Park Archaeological Station Green Island Marine Station Yuanyang Lake Station, Hsinchu Marine Research Station, Yilan Dongsha Atoll Research Station, Kaohsiung The research sites abroad include: Global Navigation Satellite System, the Philippines Sesoko Station, Japan Yuan Tseh Lee Array, Mauna Loa, United States South-East Asian Time Series Study on the Southeast Asian Sea In general Academia Sinica is a non-teaching institution, but it has close collaboration with the top research universities in Taiwan, such as National Taiwan University, National Tsing Hua University, National Chiao Tung University, National Yang-Ming University and National Central University.
Many research fellows from Academia Sinica have a second appointment or joint professorship at these universities. In addition, Academia Sinica established joint Ph. D. programs in biological sciences with Taiwan's universities, such as the Doctoral Degree Program in Marine Biotechnology with National Taiwan Ocean University. Through these mechanisms, the faculty at the Academia Sinica give lecture courses and supervise graduate students. Since 2002, Academia Sinica set up the Taiwan International Graduate Program, open to local and international students for Ph. D. programs. All courses at TIGP are conducted in English. Students can choose their advisor among a faculty selected for the program out of outstanding researchers and professors appointed at Academia Sinica or at one of the partner universities. Admittance to the programme guarantees a monthly stipend of 34,000 NTD $1,200 or €1,050. Applications can normally
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities; the Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College; the university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university; the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items; the University is cited as one of the world's top tertiary institutions by various organizations.
Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals, have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust".
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches; the leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena; when it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time; the popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students
National Tsing Hua University
National Tsing Hua University is a research university located in Hsinchu City, Taiwan, R. O. C; the university was first founded in Beijing, after the Kuomintang retreated to Taiwan in 1949 following defeat by the Communist Party of China in the Chinese Civil War, NTHU was re-established in Hsinchu City in 1956. Today, there are 17 departments and 22 research institutes affiliated to the university. College of Nuclear Science of NTHU is the sole educational and research institution focusing on the peaceful applications of nuclear power in Taiwan. In 1955, the President of Tsinghua University in Beijing, Mei Yi-chi left and re-established the National Tsing Hua Institute of Nuclear Technology in Hsinchu city, based on the foundation of the original institute, National Tsing Hua University was founded in Taiwan; the two Tsinghua universities both claim to be successors of the original Tsinghua University. As a result of this dispute, the universities claimed to be the rightful recipient of the funds from the Boxer Rebellion indemnity, used to start Tsinghua University.
This indemnity was transferred to the university in Taiwan after the Nationalist government retreated to Taiwan. Today, both Tsinghua universities have deep mutual cooperation, including an establishment of Tsinghua Strait Research Institute, dual degree program, MOOC program, academic exchange program. Since American Secretary of State John Hay suggested that the US$30 million plus Boxer Rebellion indemnity money paid to the United States was excessive, in 1909, President Roosevelt obtained congress approval to reduce the Qing Dynasty indemnity payment by $10.8 million USD, on the condition that the said fund was to be used as scholarship for Chinese students to study in the United States. Using this fund, the Tsinghua College was established in Beijing, China, on 22 April 1911 on the site of a former royal garden belonging to a prince, it was first a preparatory school for students sent by the government to study in the United States. The faculty members for sciences were recruited by the YMCA from the United States and its graduates transferred directly to American schools as juniors upon graduation.
In 1925, the school established its College Department and started its research institute on Chinese Study. In 1928, the authority changed its name to National Tsing Hua University. During the Second World War in 1937, Tsinghua University with Peking University and Nankai University, merged to form Changsha Temporary University in Changsha, National Southwestern Associated University in Kunming of Yunnan province. After the war, Tsinghua resumed its operation. During the Sino-Japanese War, the library lost 200,000 of a total of 350,000 volumes. In 1956, National Tsing Hua University was reinstalled on its current campus in Taiwan. Since its reinstallation, NTHU has developed from an institute focusing on Nuclear Science and Technology to that of a comprehensive research university offering degrees programs ranging from baccalaureate to doctorate in science, engineering and social sciences, as well as management. NTHU has been ranked as one of the premier universities in Taiwan and is recognized as the best incubator for future leaders in industries as well as academics.
Such stellar records are exemplified by the outstanding achievements of alumni, including two Nobel laureates in physics Dr. Chen-Ning Yang and Tsung-Dao Lee, one Nobel laureate in chemistry Dr. Yuan-Tseh Lee and one Wolf Prize winner in mathematics Dr. Shiing-Shen Chern. In recent decades, the National Tsing Hua University in Taiwan has had close ties with the Tsinghua University in People's Republic of China. Of all universities on Taiwan, the NTHU has arguably one of the strongest cooperations with universities in mainland China in academic research and with the creation of programs such as the "Center for Contemporary China." The Mei-Chu Tournament, held in March annually, is a sport competition between National Tsing Hua University and National Chiao Tung University. Since its establishment in 1969, the tournament known as the Mei-Chu Games, has become a tradition, is considered as one of the most important activities between these two prestigious universities in Taiwan; the history of the Meichu Games goes back to the 1960s.
After the end of the Chinese Civil War in 1949, National Tsing Hua University and National Chiao Tung University were both relocated in Hsinchu and became neighbors. The geographic and academic closeness prompted many intellectual and social exchanges between two universities. In 1966, an informal tournament was held; the arrangement of the formal event, was not institutionalized until 1968, when Chian Feng, an executive officer of NTHU student activity center, received the permission from the university authority to plan sport events for NTHU and NCTU students modeling after the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race. While both side agreed on the plan to hold such an annual event, there was a disagreement on the naming of the Games. At last, Zhang Zhi-yi solved this problem by proposing the conventional coin tossing. “If the head-side is up, the game would be called Mei-Chu. As the head-side of the coin went up, the tournament was thereby named Meichu to commemorate the two founding presidents of NTHU and NCTU, Mei Yi-chi and Ling Chu-Ming.
There are more than one hundred student clubs serving diverse interests. Club activities range from community services and sports, cinema and theater and martial arts and philosophy as well as scientific and academic interests. There are eighteen d
Taiwan the Republic of China, is a state in East Asia. Neighbouring states include the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the northeast, the Philippines to the south. Taiwan is the most populous state and largest economy, not a member of the United Nations; the island of Taiwan was inhabited by indigenous peoples for thousands of years before the 17th century, when Dutch colonialists opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed in 1683 by the Qing dynasty of China, ceded to Japan in 1895. Following the surrender of Japan in 1945, the Republic of China, which had overthrown and succeeded the Qing in 1911, took control of Taiwan; the resumption of the Chinese Civil War led to the loss of the mainland to the Communists and the flight of the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949. Although the ROC government continued to claim to be the legitimate representative of China, since 1950 its effective jurisdiction has been limited to Taiwan and several small islands.
In the early 1960s, Taiwan entered a period of industrialisation. In the 1980s and early 1990s, it changed from a one-party military dictatorship to a multi-party democracy with a semi-presidential system; as a founding member, the ROC represented China in the UN until it was replaced by the PRC in 1971. The PRC has claimed sovereignty over Taiwan and refused diplomatic relations with any country that recognises the ROC; as of 2019, Taiwan maintains official ties with 16 out of 193 UN member states. Most international organisations in which the PRC participates either refuse to grant membership to Taiwan or allow it to participate only as a non-state actor. Most major powers maintain unofficial ties with Taiwan through representative offices and institutions that function as de facto embassies and consulates. In Taiwan, the major political division is between parties favouring eventual Chinese unification and promoting a Chinese identity contrasted with those aspiring to independence and promoting a Taiwanese identity, though both sides have moderated their positions to broaden their appeal.
Taiwan is a high-income advanced economy, with a skilled and educated workforce. It has the 22nd-largest economy in the world, its high-tech industry plays a key role in the global economy, it is urbanised, is one of the most densely populated countries in the world, with most of the population concentrated on the western coast. The state is ranked in terms of civil and political liberties, health care and human development. Various names for the island of Taiwan remain in use today, each derived from explorers or rulers during a particular historical period; the name Formosa dates from 1542, when Portuguese sailors sighted an uncharted island and noted it on their maps as Ilha Formosa. The name Formosa "replaced all others in European literature" and remained in common use among English speakers into the 20th century. In the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company established a commercial post at Fort Zeelandia on a coastal sandbar called "Tayouan", after their ethnonym for a nearby Taiwanese aboriginal tribe Taivoan people, written by the Dutch and Portuguese variously as Taiouwang, Teijoan, etc.
This name was adopted into the Chinese vernacular as the name of the sandbar and nearby area. The modern word "Taiwan" is derived from this usage, seen in various forms in Chinese historical records; the area occupied by modern-day Tainan represented the first permanent settlement by both European colonists and Chinese immigrants. The settlement grew to be the island's most important trading centre and served as its capital until 1887. Use of the current Chinese name became official as early as 1684 with the establishment of Taiwan Prefecture. Through its rapid development the entire Formosan mainland became known as "Taiwan". In his Daoyi Zhilüe, Wang Dayuan used "Liuqiu" as a name for the island of Taiwan, or the part of it closest to Penghu. Elsewhere, the name was used for the Ryukyu Islands in general or Okinawa, the largest of them; the name appears in the Book of Sui and other early works, but scholars cannot agree on whether these references are to the Ryukyus, Taiwan or Luzon. The official name of the state is the "Republic of China".
Shortly after the ROC's establishment in 1912, while it was still located on the Chinese mainland, the government used the short form "China" to refer to itself, which derives from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne, the name was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state during the Qing era. During the 1950s and 1960s, after the government had withdrawn to Taiwan upon losing the Chinese Civil War, it was referred to as "Nationalist China" to differentiate it from "Communist China", it was a member of the United Nations representing "China" until 1971, when it lost its seat to the People's Republic of China. Over subsequent decades, the Republic of China has become known as "Taiwan", after the island that comprises 99% of the territory under its control. In some contexts ROC government publications, the name is written as "