A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Marysville is the county seat of Yuba County, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 12,072, reflecting a decrease of 196 from the 12,268 counted in the 2000 Census, it is included in the Yuba City Metropolitan Statistical Area referred to as the Yuba–Sutter area after the two counties and Sutter. The metropolitan statistical area is part of the Greater Sacramento area. In 1842, John Sutter leased part of his Rancho New Helvetia land to Theodore Cordua, a native of Mecklenburg in Prussia, who raised livestock, in 1843 built a home and trading post he called New Mecklenburg; the trading post and home was situated at what would become the southern end of'D' Street, Marysville's main street. In 1844, the Mexican government granted Cordua Rancho Honcut. In 1848, Charles Covillaud, a former employee of Cordua, discovered riches in the gold fields and bought half of the Cordua ranch. In January 1849, Michael C. Nye and William Foster, brothers-in-law of Covillaud's wife, Mary Murphy, a survivor of the Donner Party, bought the other half of the Cordua ranch.
They sold their interest to Covillaud. In October of the same year, Covillaud sold most of the ranch to Jose Ramirez, John Sampson, Theodore Sicard. During the Gold Rush, the ranch became a stopping point for the riverboats from Sacramento and San Francisco that brought prospectors to the digging grounds. Today a sign on the roadside as one enters Marysville describes it as the "Gateway to The Gold Fields." In 1850, Ramirez and Sicard hired Augustus Le Plongeon, a French surveyor, to create a plan for a town called Jubaville called Yubaville. Stephen J. Field, a newly relocated attorney, purchased 65 lots of land and drew up proper deeds for land being sold. After just three days in the mining camp, he accepted the nomination to run for alcalde, a Mexican official, which combined the duties of a mayor and justice of the peace, in a new government, being formed. On January 18, 1850, Field defeated his rival, in town just six days, a town council was elected; that night, the townsfolk decided to name the new town Marysville after Charles Covillaud's wife, Mary Murphy Covillaud, the former wife of William Johnson of Johnson's Ranch, one of the surviving members of the Donner Party.
After Marysville was incorporated by the new California Legislature, the first mayor was elected in 1851. Field went on to become one of the longest sitting members of the United States Supreme Court. A post office was established at Marysville in 1851. By 1853, the tent city had been replaced by brick buildings. In addition to the brick merchant buildings, Marysville had developed mills, iron works, machine shops, schools and two daily newspapers; the population was 10,000. By 1857, Marysville had become one of the largest cities in California, due to its strategic location. Over $10 million in gold was shipped from the banks in Marysville to the U. S. Mint in San Francisco; the city's founders imagined Marysville becoming "The New York of the Pacific." However, debris loosed by hydraulic mining above Marysville raised the riverbeds of both the Feather and the Yuba Rivers and rendered the city vulnerable to flooding during winter storms and spring run-offs. The city built a levee system, still maintained today.
The levee system sealed the city off and has made additional city growth impossible. The hydraulic mining debris choked the Feather River and soon the riverboats could not make the trip to Marysville. Marysville was home to a significant Chinese American community in the 1860s, but it violently drove all its Chinese American residents out of town in February 1886; the Chinese American population has not recovered since. There was an active Jewish merchant community in Marysville from the Gold Rush era through the early years of the twentieth century. Nathan Schneider established Schneider's Clothing in 1862, it was advertised as "the Home of Values", it existed until the late 1980s. Isaac and Simon Glazier ran the Old Corner Cigar Store from 1851 to 1862, when they moved to San Francisco. J. H. Marcuse founded Palace Cigar Store. Philip Brown advertised himself as "Marysville's leading tailor, pants made to order from $4.00 up and P. Brown's specialty, White Labor Overall." Union Lumber, established in 1852 by W.
K. Hudson and Samuel Harryman, was purchased by bookkeeper H. J. Cheim, is still owned by the Cheim family. In 2010, the Marysville City Council made a controversial decision to sell a portion of Washington Square Park for development of a commercial shopping center, part of an effort to increase tax revenue; this came after the city won a costly legal battle brought on by the Citizens to Preserve Marysville's Parks, a group of citizens opposed to development in the city's green spaces. Subsequently, a mitigation measure to offset the loss of city green space has drawn criticism for using city property, technically within city limits, but fall outside the city's leevee ring; the National Register list the following 9 Historic sites and 1 Historic district as cultural resources worthy of preservation. Bok Kai Temple, Decker-Jewett Bank, Ellis Building, Forbes House, Hart Building, Warren P. Miller House: Also known as the "Mary Aaron Museum", Packard Library, Jose Manuel Ramirez House: Also known as "The W.
T. Ellis House" or "The Castle", US Post Office - Marysville Main, Marysville Historic Commercial District. Other sites of historic interest include homes designed by Julia Morgan, Hotel Marysville, the State Theater. Marysville is located at 39°08′45″N 121°35′29″W. A
Yuba City, California
Yuba City is a city in Northern California and the county seat of Sutter County, United States. The population was 64,925 at the 2010 census. Yuba City is the principal city of the Yuba City Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of Sutter County and Yuba County; the metro area's population is 164,138. It is the 21st largest metropolitan area in California ranked behind Chico, its metropolitan statistical area is part of the Greater Sacramento CSA. The Maidu people were settled in the region when they were first encountered by Spanish and Mexican scouting expeditions in the early 18th century. One version of the origin of the name "Yuba" is that during one of these expeditions, wild grapes were seen growing by a river, so it was named "Uba", a variant spelling of the Spanish word uva; the Mexican government granted a large expanse of land which included the area in which Yuba City is situated to John Sutter, the same John Sutter upon whose land gold was subsequently discovered in 1848.
He sold part of this tract to some enterprising men who wished to establish a town near the confluence of the Yuba River and the Feather River, tributaries of the Sacramento River, with an eye to developing a commercial center catering to the thousands of gold miners headed upstream to the gold fields. At the same time, another town was developing on the eastern bank of the Feather River, the beginnings of what would become Marysville. By 1852, Yuba City was a steamboat landing, had one hotel, a grocery store, a post office, 20 dwelling homes with a population of about 150. Yuba City was chosen as county seat for Sutter County in 1854; the same year, voters decided that Nicolaus would be a better location, the county seat was moved there. County voters returned to their first choice of Yuba City two years in 1856, it has remained the county seat since. Yuba City saw its first major influx of population after World War II, pushing residential areas west and south from the city's original center.
Orchards were turned into residential areas as new homes were built for people migrating to the city. In December 1955, a series of storms dropped torrential rain throughout northern California; the deluge caused all the rivers in the region to break through levees. The Christmas Eve levee break at Yuba City was disastrous, with 38 people losing their lives, heavy damage occurring in the downtown section. According to Dick Brandt, manager of the Yuba County airport in 1955, between 550 and 600 Sutter County residents were rescued from the floodwater by helicopter. On March 14, 1961, a Boeing B-52 Stratofortress carrying nuclear weapons, flying near Yuba City encountered a pressurization problem, had to drop to a lower altitude; because of this, more fuel than expected was used, the aircraft ran out of fuel. It crashed before meeting with a tanker aircraft; the pilot gave the bailout command, the crew egressed at 10,000 ft, except for the pilot, who ejected at 4,000 ft, while avoiding a populated area.
The aircraft was destroyed. The weapons, two Mark 39 thermonuclear bombs were destroyed on impact though no explosion took place, there was no release of radioactive material as a result. On May 21, 1976, a school bus carrying members of the Yuba City High School's choir to a performance at Miramonte High School in Orinda, California plunged 28 feet off the exit ramp on I-680 at Marina Vista Road in Martinez, California. Twenty-seven students and one adult chaperone died and twenty-three students were injured. On February 24, 1978, five young men from Yuba City, called Gary Dale Mathias, Jack Madruga, Jackie Huett, Theodore Weiher and William Sterling, aged between 24 and 32 years, disappeared under mysterious circumstances, they went to a basketball game in Chico and on their way back drove up to a mountain road away from the main road back to Yuba, where their car had been found undamaged and with enough gas to drive back to Yuba City. Four of the men were found in and near a trailer on June 4 of the same year.
Ted Weiher was found inside the trailer, covered in blankets. Inside the trailer there was enough food to supply all five men for about a year, enough paper and wood to light a fire, but nothing was used this way; the corpses and bones of three of the other men were found outside the trailer, but Gary Mathias was never found. Yuba City has been home to a significant Muslim population, including Pakistani Americans descended from c. 1902 immigrants. In 1994 the Muslim community completed a mosque that cost an estimated $1.8 million and many hours of donated work. Soon after, the mosque was destroyed by an act of arson, the first time that a mosque was destroyed in the United States; the mosque was rebuilt with help of Sikhs, Mormons and other groups. The story is told in the 2012 documentary An American Mosque. Yuba City is located at 121 ° 37' 34" West. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 14.7 square miles, of which, 14.6 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water.
The total area is 0.53% water. The Yuba City area is situated in the Sacramento Valley, it is home to the Sutter Buttes, the smallest mountain range in the world. The Feather River borders the city to the east and the area is sometimes referred to as the "Feather River Valley", which divides the city from its neighbor Marysville. Yuba City has a hot-summer mediterranean climate which consists of cool, wet winters
Beale Air Force Base
Beale Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located 8 miles east of Marysville, California. The host unit at Beale is the 9th Reconnaissance Wing assigned to the Air Combat Command and part of Twenty-Fifth Air Force; the 9 RW collects intelligence essential for Presidential and Congressional decisions critical to the national defense. To accomplish this mission, the wing is equipped with the nation's fleet of U-2 Dragon Lady and RQ-4 Global Hawk unmanned aircraft and associated support equipment; the wing maintains a high state of readiness in its combat support and combat service support forces for potential deployment in response to theater contingencies. The 940th Air Refueling Wing is a tenant Air Force Reserve Command wing at Beale AFB flying the KC-135 Stratotanker and operationally-gained by the Air Mobility Command. Beale AFB was established in 1942 as Camp Beale and is named for Edward Fitzgerald Beale, a former Lieutenant in the U. S. Navy and a Brigadier General in the California Militia, an explorer and frontiersman in California.
Camp Beale became a United States Air Force installation on 1 April 1951 and was renamed Beale Air Force Base. Beale AFB is the home of the 9th Reconnaissance Wing, which serves as the host wing for the base; the installation is located outside of Linda, about 10 miles east of the towns of Marysville and Yuba City and about 40 miles north of Sacramento. Beale has five gates providing access on all sides of the base. Visitors enter the base through a main gate that local merchants and the Beale Military Liaison Committee donated $100,000 to construct; the base is home for 4,000 military personnel. Beale Air Force Base covers nearly 23,000 acres of rolling hills in northern California; the base's natural resources are as rich as its significant historical heritage. Native Americans lived on this land. German prisoners of war were held captive on the base during World War II. To preserve these and other historic areas, the base proudly maintains 38 Native American sites, 45 homestead sites, 41 World War II sites.
The 9th Reconnaissance Wing is composed of four groups at Beale AFB and various overseas operating locations. 9th Operations GroupConsists of multiple squadrons and detachments. The 9th Operations Group trains and equips U-2 Dragon Lady and RQ-4 Global Hawk for worldwide employment to include peacetime intelligence gathering, contingency operations, conventional warfighting and Emergency War Order support. Squadrons located at Beale include: the 1st Reconnaissance Squadron, 99th Reconnaissance Squadron, 9th Operations Support Squadron, the 12th Reconnaissance Squadron.9th Maintenance GroupConsists of the 9th Maintenance Operations Squadron, the 9th Maintenance Squadron, the 9th Aircraft Maintenance Squadron and the 9th Munitions Squadron. The group provides flight line maintenance, shop maintenance and quality assurance in support of U-2 high altitude reconnaissance aircraft, T-38 companion trainers and Global Hawk Unmanned Air Vehicles; the group is responsible for a $5.8 million annual budget.
The group is the Air Force's single focal point for providing mass ammunition production training.9th Mission Support GroupProvides trained combat support forces to theater commanders- in-chief worldwide. Additionally, the group provides Beale AFB with facilities and infrastructure, security, personnel support and logistical support functions enabling home station sustainment and global expeditionary operations. Eight squadrons comprise the group: 9thCivil Engineer Squadron, 9th Communications Squadron, 9th Contracting Squadron, 9th Mission Support Squadron, 9th Security Forces Squadron, 9th Force Support Squadron, 9th Support Division and 9th Logistics Readiness Squadron. 9th Medical GroupConsists of three squadrons: 9th Medical Operations, 9th Medical Support and 9th Physiological Support Squadrons. They provide for the medical needs of Beale AFB beneficiaries and support Beale's high-altitude flyers in the U-2 aircraft; the Beale Clinic is located at 15301 Warren Shingle Road on a gentle hillside near base housing.
The clinic's primary mission is to support the worldwide operational readiness and high altitude mission of the 9th Reconnaissance Wing. They provide comprehensive health care and environmental support and promote health education and wellness to the Beale AFB community; the Beale Clinic is accredited by the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations and is dedicated to providing support to active duty members of base tenant organizations and their family members. This outpatient clinic consists of both the 9th Medical Operations and 9th Medical Support Squadrons that provide primary care services with aerospace medicine and limited ancillary capabilities. No inpatient or emergency services are available and minimal specialty services exist. However, ambulance services are available by calling 634-4444 on base. All other care is arranged through referrals to neighboring military hospitals or the TRICARE network; the clinic's range of services include Family Practice/Primary Care, Women's Health, Flight Medicine, Life Skills Support, Family Advocacy, Pharmacy, Physical Therapy, Public Health, Radiology and Wellness and Immunizations.
The 940th Air Refueling Wing is compose
Roseville is the largest city in Placer County, United States, in the Sacramento metropolitan area. As of 2016, the US Census Bureau estimated the city's population to be 132,683. Interstate 80 runs through Roseville and State Route 65 runs through part of the northern edge of the city; the settlement was a stage coach station called Griders. According to the Roseville Historical Society, in 1864 the Central Pacific Railroad tracks were constructed northeastward from Sacramento; the point where the tracks met the California Central Railroad line was named "Junction". Junction became known as Roseville. In 1909, three years after the Southern Pacific Railroad moved its facilities from Rocklin to Roseville, the town became an incorporated city. What followed was a period of expansion, with the community building more than 100 structures, including what was the largest ice manufacturing plant in the world; the city was a railroad town for decades, with the railroad employing up to 1,225 people by 1929, out of a population of only 6,425 people.
With the onset of World War II, the rail yards became busier than and the post-war building boom brought continued prosperity. However, the nature of the city changed in the 1950s. During the 1950s the railroad continued to expand and upgrade, converting its steam engine fleet to all diesel engines by the end of the decade. However, the railroads began falling in the shadow of air travel and the development of the national Interstate Highway System. Thus, although the railroad remained a major employer, the expansion of the city began branching out into other employment sectors. Another important change during this period was the Washington Boulevard railroad underpass construction in 1950. While this improved the ability of people to travel from one side of the tracks to the other, it meant that people were no longer traveling through the Roseville business district north of the tracks; the completion of Interstate 80 in 1956 shifted the population from downtown to what would become known as East Roseville.
The old downtown area slid into a gradual decline. The Roseville Yard of the Southern Pacific was the site of a major explosion and fire on 28 April 1973; the city saw steady population growth throughout the ensuing decades, as shopping centers, major retailers, homes were constructed throughout the city. The growth rate was modest until 1985. Between 1929 when the population was 6,425 people and 1985, the population grew by only 22,563 people. In 1985 the population stood at 28,988 people. Five years it was 44,685 people, by the year 2000 it was 74,234 people; some of this growth was fueled by the location of major employers, such as Hewlett Packard and NEC. The population as of 2014 was 126,956 people. In 1988, the city embarked on a multi-million dollar plan to redevelop 207 acres of land in the downtown core, revitalize historic areas, in decline. Projects included the Vernon Streetscape Project, Atlantic Street Beautification, Civic Plaza Complex, Downtown Vernon Street and Historic Old Town, Historic Old Town Streetscape project, Riverside Avenue Streetscape project, Oak Street Improvement Project, Washington Boulevard pedestrian underpass.
A new parking garage opened in 2007, the Roseville Arts! Blueline Gallery opened in 2008, a new Civic Center opened in 2013, the Vernon Street Town Square now features a small raised stage, a water spray for children, a venue for community events. According to the Roseville Civic Center, the city has a total area of 42.26 square miles, of which, 42.24 square miles of it is land and 0.002 square miles of it is water. Several streams flow through Roseville, including Dry Creek, Linda Creek, Secret Ravine and Cirby Creek. Roseville has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate, characterized by cool, wet snowless winters and hot, dry summers; the wet season is October through April. Because Roseville is east of Sacramento and at a higher elevation, it receives more rainfall. Average daily high temperatures range from 53 °F in January to 92 °F in August. Daily low temperatures range from 39 °F in winter to 61 °F in summer. On March 27, 2014, an EF-0 tornado touched down in Roseville; the 2010 United States Census reported that Roseville had a population of 118,788.
The population density was 3,279.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Roseville was 94,199 White, 2,329 African American, 885 Native American, 10,026 Asian, 346 Pacific Islander, 5,087 from other races, 5,916 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 17,359 persons; the Census reported that 117,941 people lived in households, 478 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 369 were institutionalized. There were 45,059 households, out of which 16,885 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 24,050 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 4,901 had a female householder with no husband present, 2,088 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 2,518 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 286 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 11,042 households were made up of individuals and 4,502 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62. T
Placer County, California
Placer County the County of Placer, is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 348,432; the county seat is Auburn. Placer County is included in the Greater Sacramento metropolitan area, it is in what is known as the Gold Country. The county stretches 65 miles from Sacramento's suburbs at Roseville to the Nevada border and the shore of Lake Tahoe; the discovery of gold in 1848 brought tens of thousands of miners from around the world during the California Gold Rush. In addition, many more thousands came to provide services to the miners. Only three years after the discovery of gold, the fast-growing county was formed from portions of Sutter and Yuba counties on April 25, 1851, with Auburn as the county seat. Placer County took its name from the Spanish word for gravel deposits containing gold. Miners washed away the gravel, leaving the heavier gold, in a process known as "placer mining". Gold mining was a major industry through the 1880s, but the new residents turned to farming the fertile foothill soil, harvesting timber and working for the Southern Pacific Railroad.
Auburn was settled when Claude Chana discovered gold in Auburn Ravine in May 1848 and became a shipping and supply center for the surrounding gold camps. The cornerstone of Placer's beautiful and historic courthouse, visible from Interstate 80 through Auburn, was laid on July 4, 1894; the building itself was renovated during the late 1980s and continues to serve the public today with courtrooms, a historic sheriff's office and the Placer County Museum. Roseville, once a small agricultural center, became a major railroad center and grew to the county's most populous city after Southern Pacific Railroad moved its railroad switching yards there in 1908. Loomis and Newcastle began as mining towns, but soon became centers of a booming fruit-growing industry, supporting many local packing houses. Penryn was founded by a Welsh miner, Griffith Griffith, who turned from mining to establish a large granite quarry. Rocklin became home to a number of granite quarries. Lincoln and Sheridan continue to support farming.
Lincoln is the home of one of the county's oldest businesses, the Gladding, McBean terra cotta clay manufacturing plant established in 1875. The 1960 Winter Olympics were hosted in Squaw Valley, located in Placer County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,502 square miles, of which 1,407 square miles is land and 95 square miles is water. Watercourses in Placer County include the American Bunch Creek. Lake Tahoe has 40.96% of its surface area in Placer County, more than in any of the four other counties in which it lies. Nevada County - north Washoe County, Nevada - northeast Carson City, Nevada - east Douglas County, Nevada - southeast Amador County - east El Dorado County - south Sacramento County - southwest Sutter County - west Yuba County - northwest Eldorado National Forest in part Tahoe National Forest in part The 2010 United States Census reported that Placer County had a population of 348,432; the racial makeup of Placer County was 290,977 White, 4,751 African American, 3,011 Native American, 20,435 Asian, 778 Pacific Islander, 13,375 from other races, 15,105 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 44,710 persons. As of the census of 2000, there were 248,399 people, 93,382 households, 67,701 families residing in the county; the population density was 177 people per square mile. There were 107,302 housing units at an average density of 76 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 88.6% White, 0.8% Black or African American, 0.9% Native American, 3.0% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 3.4% from other races, 3.2% from two or more races. 9.7% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 15.5% were of German, 12.3% English, 10.6% Irish, 7.1% Italian and 7.0% American ancestry according to Census 2000. 89.7% spoke only English at home. There were 93,382 households out of which 35.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.4% were married couples living together, 9.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.5% were non-families. 21.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.06. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.5% under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 29.00% from 25 to 44, 24.5% from 45 to 64, 13.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.9 males. The median income for a household in the county was $57,535, the median income for a family was $65,858. Males had a median income of $50,410 versus $33,763 for females; the per capita income for the county was $27,963. About 3.9% of families and 5.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.3% of those under age 18 and 3.8% of those age 65 or over. Unemployment in the county is just under 7%, lower than the state's average. County government is by a five-person four-year term elected board of supervisors with a board-appointed county manager and his/her department administrators; the Placer County Sheriff's Office provides court protection, jail administration, coroner services for all of Placer County.
It provides patrol and other police services for the uni
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower. In 2015, hydropower generated 16.6% of the world's total electricity and 70% of all renewable electricity, was expected to increase about 3.1% each year for the next 25 years. Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generating 33 percent of global hydropower in 2013. China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 920 TWh of production in 2013, representing 16.9 percent of domestic electricity use. The cost of hydroelectricity is low, making it a competitive source of renewable electricity; the hydro station consumes no water, unlike gas plants. The average cost of electricity from a hydro station larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U. S. cents per kilowatt hour. With a dam and reservoir it is a flexible source of electricity since the amount produced by the station can be varied up or down rapidly to adapt to changing energy demands. Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the project produces no direct waste, in many cases, has a lower output level of greenhouse gases than fossil fuel powered energy plants.
Hydropower has been used since ancient times to perform other tasks. In the mid-1770s, French engineer Bernard Forest de Bélidor published Architecture Hydraulique which described vertical- and horizontal-axis hydraulic machines. By the late 19th century, the electrical generator was developed and could now be coupled with hydraulics; the growing demand for the Industrial Revolution would drive development as well. In 1878 the world's first hydroelectric power scheme was developed at Cragside in Northumberland, England by William Armstrong, it was used to power a single arc lamp in his art gallery. The old Schoelkopf Power Station No. 1 near Niagara Falls in the U. S. side began to produce electricity in 1881. The first Edison hydroelectric power station, the Vulcan Street Plant, began operating September 30, 1882, in Appleton, with an output of about 12.5 kilowatts. By 1886 there were 45 hydroelectric power stations in the U. S. and Canada. By 1889 there were 200 in the U. S. alone. At the beginning of the 20th century, many small hydroelectric power stations were being constructed by commercial companies in mountains near metropolitan areas.
Grenoble, France held the International Exhibition of Hydropower and Tourism with over one million visitors. By 1920 as 40% of the power produced in the United States was hydroelectric, the Federal Power Act was enacted into law; the Act created the Federal Power Commission to regulate hydroelectric power stations on federal land and water. As the power stations became larger, their associated dams developed additional purposes to include flood control and navigation. Federal funding became necessary for large-scale development and federally owned corporations, such as the Tennessee Valley Authority and the Bonneville Power Administration were created. Additionally, the Bureau of Reclamation which had begun a series of western U. S. irrigation projects in the early 20th century was now constructing large hydroelectric projects such as the 1928 Hoover Dam. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers was involved in hydroelectric development, completing the Bonneville Dam in 1937 and being recognized by the Flood Control Act of 1936 as the premier federal flood control agency.
Hydroelectric power stations continued to become larger throughout the 20th century. Hydropower was referred to as white coal for its plenty. Hoover Dam's initial 1,345 MW power station was the world's largest hydroelectric power station in 1936; the Itaipu Dam opened in 1984 in South America as the largest, producing 14,000 MW but was surpassed in 2008 by the Three Gorges Dam in China at 22,500 MW. Hydroelectricity would supply some countries, including Norway, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Brazil, with over 85% of their electricity; the United States has over 2,000 hydroelectric power stations that supply 6.4% of its total electrical production output, 49% of its renewable electricity. The technical potential for hydropower development around the world is much greater than the actual production: the percent of potential hydropower capacity that has not been developed is 71% in Europe, 75% in North America, 79% in South America, 95% in Africa, 95% in the Middle East, 82% in Asia-Pacific.
The political realities of new reservoirs in western countries, economic limitations in the third world and the lack of a transmission system in undeveloped areas result in the possibility of developing 25% of the remaining technically exploitable potential before 2050, with the bulk of that being in the Asia-Pacific area. Some countries have developed their hydropower potential and have little room for growth: Switzerland produces 88% of its potential and Mexico 80%. Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator; the power extracted from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the source and the water's outflow. This height difference is called the head. A large pipe delivers water from the reservoir to the turbine; this method produces electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations. At times of low electrical demand, the excess generation capacity is used to pump water into the higher reservoir.
When the demand becomes greater, water is released back into the lower reservoir through a turbine. Pumped-storage schemes provide the most commercially important means of large-scale grid energy storage and improve the daily capacity factor of the generation system. Pumped storag