Yucatán Peninsula

The Yucatán Peninsula, in southeastern Mexico, separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico, with the northern coastline on the Yucatán Channel. The peninsula lies east of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, a northeastern geographic partition separating the region of Central America from the rest of North America, it is 181,000 km2 in area, is entirely composed of limestone. The proper etymology of the word Yucatán is debated. 17th century Fransiscan historian Diego López de Cogolludo offers two theories in particular. In the first one, Francisco Hernández de Córdoba, having first arrived to the peninsula in 1517, inquired the name of a certain settlement and the response in Yucatec Mayan was "I don't understand", which sounded like yucatán to the Spaniards. There are many possibilities of what the natives could have said, among which "mathan cauyi athán", "tectecán", "ma'anaatik ka t'ann" and "ci u t'ann"; this origin story was first told by Hernán Cortés in his letters to Charles V. 16th century historians Motolinia and Francisco López de Gómara repeat this version.

In some versions the expedition isn't the one captained by Córdoba but instead the one a year captained by Juan de Grijalva. The second major theory is. Others theories claim that that it is a derivative of Chontal Tabascan word yokat'an meaning speaker of the Yoko ochoco language, or an incorrect Nahuatl term yokatlan as "place of richness"; the Yucatán Peninsula is the site of the Chicxulub crater impact, created 66 million years ago by the impact of an asteroid of about 10 to 15 kilometers in diameter at the end of the Cretaceous Period. The Yucatán Peninsula comprises a significant proportion of the ancient Maya lowlands, was the center of the Mayan civilization. There are many Maya archaeological sites throughout the peninsula. Indigenous Maya and Mestizos of partial Maya descent make up a sizable portion of the region's population, Mayan languages are spoken there; the peninsula comprises the Mexican states of Yucatán, Quintana Roo, as well as large parts of Belize and Guatemala's Petén Department.

In the late historic and early modern eras, the Yucatán Peninsula was a cattle ranching, logging and henequen production area. Since the 1970s, the Yucatán Peninsula has reoriented its economy towards tourism in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. Once a small fishing village, Cancún in the northeast of the peninsula has grown into a thriving city; the Riviera Maya, which stretches along the east coast of the peninsula between Cancún and Tulum, houses over 50,000 beds. The best-known locations are the former fishing town of Playa del Carmen, the ecological parks Xcaret and Xel-Há and the Maya ruins of Tulum and Coba; the peninsula is the exposed portion of the larger Yucatán Platform, all of, composed of carbonate and soluble rocks, being limestone although dolomite and evaporites are present at various depths. The whole of the Yucatán Peninsula is an unconfined flat lying karst landscape. Sinkholes, known locally as cenotes, are widespread in the northern lowlands. According to the Alvarez hypothesis, the mass extinction of the dinosaurs at the transition from the Cretaceous to the Paleogene Period, recorded the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary, 65 million years ago was caused by an asteroid impact somewhere in the greater Caribbean Basin.

The buried Chicxulub crater is centered off the north coast of the peninsula near the town of Chicxulub. The now-famous "Ring of Cenotes" outlines one of the shockwaves from this impact event in the rock of ~66 million years of age, which lies more than 1 km below the modern ground surface near the center, with the rock above the impact strata all being younger in age; the presence of the crater has been determined first on the surface from the Ring of Cenotes, but by geophysical methods, direct drilling with recovery of the drill cores. The Arrowsmith Bank is a submerged bank located off the northeastern end of the peninsula. Due to the extreme karst nature of the whole peninsula, the northern half is devoid of rivers. Where lakes and swamps are present, the water is marshy and unpotable. Due to its coastal location, the whole of the peninsula is underlain by an extensive contiguous density stratified coastal aquifer, where a fresh water lens formed from meteoric water floats on top of intruding saline water from the coastal margins.

The thousands of sinkholes known as cenotes throughout the region provide access to the groundwater system. The cenotes have long been relied on by contemporary Maya people. Short and tall tropical jungles are the predominant natural vegetation types of the Yucatán Peninsula; the boundaries between northern Guatemala and western Belize are still occupied by the largest continuous tracts of tropical rainforest in Central America. However, these forests are suffering extensive deforestation. Like much of the Caribbean, the peninsula lies within the Atlantic Hurricane Belt, with its uniformly flat terrain it is vulnerable to these large storms coming from the east; the 2005 Atlantic Hurricane Season was a bad season for Mexico's

Alternative exhibition space

An alternative exhibition space is a space other than a traditional commercial venue used for the public exhibition of artwork. Comprising a place converted from another use, such as a store front, warehouse, or factory loft, it is made into a display or performance space for use by an individual or group of artists. According to art advisor Allan Schwartzman "alternative spaces were the center of American artistic life in the'70s." A prominent wave of alternative spaces in the United States occurred in the 1970s, with the first spaces established in 1969, including Billy Apple's APPLE and Robert Newman's Gain Ground where Vito Acconci produced many important early works and Philadelphia's Painted Bride Art Center in Philadelphia. Some date the start of the tendency from 1970, when 112 Greene Street was founded in New York and with the early curatorial work of Alanna Heiss; the Kitchen was established in New York in 1971. A. I. R. Gallery opened in September 1972 as an alternative space women's co-op gallery.

About this time And/Or Gallery opened in Seattle, the first alternative space of its kind in the Pacific Northwest. It was founded by Anne Focke. Bonnie Sherk's Crossroads Community, another early alternative space, was established in San Francisco in 1974. Real Art Ways, in Hartford, was founded in 1975; the wave of alternative spaces that emerged in the US through the mid-1970s were organized by collectives of artists whose interests were focused on conceptual art, mixed media, electronic media and performance art. For instance, Franklin Furnace Archive in New York was established in 1976 by Martha Wilson to exhibit performance work. LACE in Los Angeles and Washington Project for the Arts showed video work. One of the most enduring alternative spaces in New York, P. S 1, was founded in 1976. Exit Art in Manhattan opened in 1982. In 1981 the New Museum staged the exhibition "Alternatives in Retrospect: An Historical Overview 1969-1975", guest curated by Jacki Apple; this exhibition looked at early New York alternative galleries, Gain Ground, Apple, 98 Greene Street, 112 Greene Street Workshop, 10 Blecker Street, Idea Warehouse and 3 Mercer.

The exhibition was documented with a video. Macdonald argues that such spaces emerged in the wake of art practices in the 1960s and 1970s that reacted against the presumed neutrality of the "white cube" gallery space. In Chicago, the exhibition Alternative Spaces curated by Lynne Warren at the Museum of Contemporary Art catalogued the scores of artists and artists' spaces to emerge during that period, including Artemisia Gallery, ARC Gallery, Gallery Bugs Bunny, N. A. M. E. Gallery, NAB Gallery, Randolph Street Gallery. Earlier waves in Chicago produced the Hyde Park Art Center and Contemporary Art Workshop, while spaces included 1019 W. Lake St./Noise Factory, W. P. A. Gallery and Axe Street Arena. Hundreds of artists enacted those spaces, including Jim Nutt, H. C. Westermann, Ed Paschke, Leon Golub, Nancy Spero, Hollis Sigler, Vera Klement, Phil Berkman and Gary Justis. Among the factors contributing to the demise of alternative spaces in the late 1980s in the USA was the reduction of public funding for artists and for the arts.

With the election of Ronald Reagan as President came a restructuring of federal supports, such as an end to the CETA program, through which some artists found employment, restrictions placed upon the National Endowment for the Arts. The net result of the rightward ideological movement in government – with its open hostility to non-traditional art – was that'alternative artists' were not only de-funded and the galleries that featured them were prominently criminalized. By the 1990s, NEA funding was reduced, so was the number of non-profit galleries. In Europe the culture of alternative exhibition spaces differs somewhat from the situation in the United States and has a strong root in the squatting counterculture, not illegal in every European country. Many countries have governmental art funding structures that support many off spaces. In the Netherlands there is OT301, W139 and ADM, Nest, Sign. In the UK there is the MK Gallery in Milton Keynes and projects such as 491 Gallery and 121 Centre.

Belgium has Het Bos in Antwerp. Liebig 12 is an alternative exhibition space in Berlin. In Vienna there is Moë. Ljubljana has Metelkova with many alternative art spaces, Copenhagen has alternative spaces in Freetown Christiania. Grand Palace is an alternative art space in Switzerland. Hirvitalo is in Helsinki, Finland

Heroes in Crisis

Heroes in Crisis is an American comic book limited series published by DC Comics. It is illustrated by Clay Mann. Heroes in Crisis follows the "Crisis" naming convention of prior DC crossovers, but is billed as a murder-mystery; the first issue debuted on September 26, 2018, the last issue was released on May 29, 2019. Heroes in Crisis is a nine-issue limited series written by Tom King—who has worked on DC Vertigo titles and Mister Miracle—and illustrated by Clay Mann, it was published by DC Comics. The series follows the "Crisis" naming conventions of prior DC crossovers, but unlike prior "Crisis" events, Heroes in Crisis did not focus on a cosmic threat. Instead, it expands on a concept King introduced in Batman, the Sanctuary rehabilitation center, based on veterans' crisis centers. According to King, the idea for Heroes in Crisis was conceived in 2016 after he suffered from a panic attack and went to the hospital, his grandmother died on the same day. King had to go through therapy; the homestead of the Sanctuary on the cover of Heroes in Crisis #1 is modeled after his grandmother's house as a tribute to her.

Heroes in Crisis deals with the emotional cost of being a superhero and explores "what violence does to a society", a common theme in King's work. King, a former CIA counterterrorism officer, believed this was an important subject that needed to be discussed. "Comic books, throughout the whole history of the medium, have been reflective of history. In World War II, there were comics about fighting in World War II. In the seventies, the comics were about psychedelic escape. Our moment right now is a moment of violence and living with violence and our comics have to address that," he said. Rumors of a new DC event with the Crisis naming surfaced in May 2018; the rumors were denied by DC Comics co-publisher Jim Lee, who tweeted "Rumors of reboots are ridiculous. Just stop with the misinformation." DC announced the series on June 12, 2018, after King made an appearance on Late Night with Seth Meyers. The first issue was released on September 26, 2018. Billed as a murder-mystery, Heroes in Crisis chronicles the aftermath of a mass shooting in the Sanctuary rehabilitation center set up by Batman and Wonder Woman.

The Sanctuary is located in the middle of the United States, was created as a means to help treat superheroes dealing with mental health issues from Earth-threatening events, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. The three are the protagonists of the story, alongside Booster Gold. "The Sanctuary" is a secret rehabilitation center for superheroes and reformed supervillians dealing with mental health issues. A horrible massacre claims the lives of nearly all its patients, including Arsenal, Blue Jay, Commander Steel, Hot Spot, Lagoon Boy, Red Devil, Protector, the Tattooed Man, Wally West and Poison Ivy. Booster Gold and Harley Quinn become prime suspects; as neither of them remembers how it happened, they both believe the other did it and attempt to kill each other. Batman deduces one of the Sanctuary patients was responsible for the killings, seeks to catch the mysterious figure dubbed as "the Puddler". However, he cannot access the Sanctuary's A. I. program. When they try to track down Harley Quinn, she tricks Wonder Woman and threatens to break Batman's neck unless they allow her to escape.

While Booster consults Ted Kord about Wally's corpse, Harley consults Batgirl about chasing Booster. Lois Lane shares with her husband that she has been mysteriously receiving confessions of the murdered superheroes, she reveals the Sanctuary's existence and its purpose. The revelation generates fear of superheroes among the masses. Superman admits the Sanctuary's existence in public, requesting that they not mistrust them, despite their issues. In response, most of the heroes and their loved ones berate and accuse them for allowing that massacre to happen. Green Arrow and Donna Troy attend a funeral for Roy Harper, while Batman informs Jason Todd about Roy's death; the Flash and Iris West are devastated after Booster Gold tells them about Wally's death, but Wally's cousin Wallace West II is convinced he is still alive somewhere due to his ability to time travel. While Batman investigates the murders, the Flash reluctantly helps him, their investigation leads them to a facility where Bane makes experiments on a brainwashed Gotham Girl to revive her brother Henry Clover, Jr..

But Gotham Girl loses control of her newly-acquired powers to the point of nearly dying. After Booster and Harley settle their differences, he reveals Wally's corpse is from five days in the future, which leads them to believe the real Wally is still alive; that theory was proven true, as the present-day Wally revives Ivy from her rose and apologizes to her for causing harm in the first place. The truth is Wally caused the massacre by accident. Still grappling with the trauma related to having his family erased in the Nu52, he convinced himself that he was alone in his grief and that the Sanctuary was created by the Justice League for him out of pity. Desperate to find out the truth about which other heroes were being treated by the Sanctuary, he somehow broke into its A. I. program to retrieve Sanctuary patient data entailing all of their collective trauma. This discovery overwhelms Wally and causes him to lose control of the Speed Force, which unleashes an energy blast that kills everyone at the Sanctuary.

In a desperate attempt to buy himself five days to fix his mistake, he altered the scene to make it look like either Booster or Harley commi