United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
Hovenweep National Monument
Hovenweep National Monument is located on land in southwestern Colorado and southeastern Utah, between Cortez and Blanding, Utah on the Cajon Mesa of the Great Sage Plain. Shallow tributaries run through the deep canyons into the San Juan River. Although Hovenweep National Monument is known for the six groups of Ancestral Puebloan villages, there is evidence of occupation by hunter-gatherers from 8,000 to 6,000 B. C. until about AD 200. A succession of early puebloan cultures settled in the area and remained until the 14th century. Hovenweep is administered by the National Park Service. In July 2014, the International Dark-Sky Association designated Hovenweep an International Dark Sky Park. Evidence from the area indicates that there were people of the Archaic period. During the transitional period from a traditional hunter-gatherer society to pueblo people, there were several distinct cultural changes:Early hunters Hunter-gatherers from 10,000 years Before Present hunted and lived in a difficult terrain, traversed deep canyons and areas of few animals and limited vegetation, managed limited access to water – which made life difficult and limited the size of their hunt groups.
They were adaptive to find sufficient food, supplementing their diet with nuts and fruit from wild plants. Artifacts were found 1) of Paleo-Indians who camped and hunted along the Cajon Mesa of Hovenweep as early as 8,000 BC and 2) from 20 sites with evidence of Archaic-Early Basketmaker people from about 6,000 BC. Late Basketmaker II Era AD 50 to 500 The people living in the Four Corners region were introduced to maize and basketry through Mesoamerican trading about 2,000 years ago. Able to have greater control of their diet through cultivation, the hunter-gatherers lifestyle became more sedentary as small disperse groups began cultivating maize and squash, they continued to hunt and gather wild plants. They were named "Basketmakers" for their skill in making baskets for storing food, covering with pitch to heat water, using to toast seeds and nuts, they wove bags, belts out of yucca plants and leaves – and strung beads. They lived in dry caves where they dug pits and lined with stones to store food.
These people were ancestors of the pueblo people of Mesa Verde. Basketmaker III Era 500 to 750 The next era, Modified Basketmakers, resulted in the introduction of pottery which reduced the number of baskets that they made and eliminated the creation of woven bags; the simple, gray pottery allowed them a better tool for storage. Beans were added to the cultivated diet. Bows and arrows made hunting easier and thus the acquisition of hides for clothing. Turkey feathers were woven into robes. On the rim of Mesa Verde, small groups built pit houses which were built several feet below the surface with elements suggestive of the introduction of celebration rituals. Pueblo I Era 750 to 900 From pueblos at Mesa Verde we learn of some advancements during this period which are reflected in the Hovenweep structures built in the next cultural period. Pueblo buildings were built with stone, windows facing south, in U, E and L shapes; the buildings were placed more together and reflected deepening religious celebration.
Towers were built near kivas and used for look-outs. Pottery became more versatile, not just for cooking, but now included pitchers, bowls and dishware for food and drink. White pottery with black designs emerged. Water management and conservation techniques, including the use of reservoirs and silt-retaining dams emerged during this period. Pueblo II Era – 900–1150 About 900, the number of Hovenweep residential sites increased. Like the people at Mesa Verde and Canyon de Chelly National Monument, about 1100 the Hovenweep village communities moved from mesa tops to the heads of canyons. People considered part of the Mesa Verde branch of the northern San Juan Pueblo culture, transitioned from disperse housing and built pueblos in the late 12th century alongside springs or other water sources near or at the canyon heads. Most of the pueblo building was conducted, about the same time as the Mesa Verde cliff dwellings, between 1230 and 1275 when there were about 2,500 residents; the Hovenweep architecture and pottery was like that of Mesa Verde.
Pueblo III Era – 1150–1350 The Hovenweep inhabitants completed construction over a period of time. Buildings with one story towers were built about 1000. By about 1160, they began building larger pueblo residential complexes, up to 3-story towers and reservoirs, they moved their fields into areas. They built large stone towers, living quarters and other shelters to safeguard springs and seeps; the stone course pueblos and towers of the Hovenweep people exhibit expert masonry skills and engineering. The builders did not level foundations for their structures, but adapted construction designs to the uneven surfaces of rock slabs; these stone pueblos were understandably referred to as castles by 19th-century explorers. Prominent structures are Hovenweep Castle, Hovenweep House, Square Tower, Rim Rock House, Twin Towers, Stronghold House and Unit-type house; these structures are part of larger community pueblos that surround the heads of canyons where springs are located. Two murals from Hovenweep conserved prior to area construction.
The kiva murals, which provide great insight into the life of the Ancient people, are now at the Anasazi Heritage Center. Warren Hurley describes them as "some of the best preserved examples of Pueblo III wall paintings in the Northern San Juan Region."Six clusters of pueblo buildings Cajon Group
Ute Mountain, is a peak within the Ute Mountains, a small mountain range in the southwestern corner of Colorado. It is on the northern edge of the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe Reservation; the Reservation forms the southwestern corner of Montezuma County. Nomenclature for this peak and its range varies; the highest peak is sometimes known as Sleeping Ute Mountain. All of these forms of the mountain's name and of the range's name can be found on various USGS maps and reports; the Ute Mountains, with a collective profile known as “The Sleeping Ute”, are a dense cluster of peaks 5 by 12 miles in extent and stand in isolation from other mountains. Despite being much lower than Colorado's highest peaks, Ute Mountain is the eighth most topographically prominent peak in the state, due to this isolation, it is notable for its large local relief in all directions its rise of 4,250 ft over the Montezuma Valley to the southeast. The Sleeping Ute is said to resemble a Ute Chief lying on his back with arms folded across his chest.
The mountains were valued as a sacred place by the Weeminuche Ute band. It is still a sacred place to their descendants, the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe and still plays a role in their ceremonies as indicated by the “Sundance Ground” on some topographical maps nestled between The Knees and Horse Peak; the northern part of the mountains were outside the reservation boundaries as reduced following a series of treaties in the late 19th century, but a trade of land now in Mesa Verde National Park 15 miles east, for federal land on the mountain, allowed the reservation boundary to be extended north to McElmo Creek and encompass the entire mountain range. In particular, this means that recreational access to the range by outsiders is restricted. Few roads or trails are found in the mountains, although radio towers and water tanks have been built, a road along Cottonwood Wash from Towaoc nearly reaches the summit of Ute Peak. A Ute Indian legend describes the Sleeping Ute as the sleeping form of a “Great Warrior God, known as a chief” who fell asleep while recovering from wounds received in a great battle with “the Evil Ones”.
Various other forms of the legend can be found. Recognized from many spots up to 50 miles east or west, the profile is best seen from 15 to 25 miles somewhat north of east of the mountains as in the accompanying photograph. Identified features of the profile include the following: Head - the profile of Marble Mountain provides recognized facial features while a feathered headdress can be seen tapering north from Black Mountain and Marble Mountain.. Crossed Arms – Ute Peak is the highest, the most prominent and eastern-most peak in the Ute Mountains Ribcage – Horse Mountain to the east and the twin peaks Black Mountain/Ute Mountain to the west form a recognizable ribcage. Knees – Hermano Mountain or “The Knees” are the knees of the figure. Toes – East Toe is a small and prominent igneous protrusion at the south-eastern end of the Ute Mountains proportioned and placed to complete the figure from the east. West Toe, a second protrusion, has a similar profile and is placed to complete the figure from the west.
The illusion of a reclining figure is further reinforced by its symmetry. The figure is nearly as complete seen from the west as from the east.located east of cortez Though on the southwestern fringe of the original Rocky Mountain home of the Ute Tribe, the Sleeping Ute is the most prominent feature of the high-desert Ute Mountain Ute Reservation. The only town on the Reservation, lies at the feet of the figure and is home to most of the Reservation's population; as the Reservation capital, Towaoc is the Ute Mountain Ute tribal headquarters. Cortez, the largest town in the area with a population of over 8000, lies outside the reservation 11.5 miles east-northeast of Ute Peak. The elevation of Cortez can be considered the base elevation of the Ute Mountains; the Ute Mountain Ute Tribal Park adjoins Mesa Verde National Park to the east of the mountains. The western boundary of Mesa Verde National Park is 12 miles east of Ute Peak; the Mesa and the Sleeping Ute share equal prominence as regional landmarks.
McElmo Creek and Canyon Of The Ancients National Monument form the northern terminus of the Ute Mountains and the Reservation. The Ute Mountains were formed by intrusion of igneous rocks at about 72 million years, concurrent doming, subsequent erosion; the most common type of igneous rock is porphyritic hornblende diorite, but rock types present range from gabbro to granite. Forms of intrusions include laccoliths, stocks and sills. One dike can be examined at a roadside there; the igneous rocks intrude a sedimentary section of Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks and the youngest rocks intruded are in the Point Lookout Sandstone. The intrusions are similar in form and rock type to those in other Colorado Plateau mountain ranges, such as the Henry Mountains and the La Sal Range and the Abajo Mountains, all nearby in Utah, but the intrusions at these three Utah occurrences are about 20 to 30 million years in age; the Ute Mountains and the similar Carrizo Mountains, nearby in Arizona, lie within a southwest extension of the Colorado Mineral Belt, but no ore deposits are known to be associated with these igneous rocks.
Cortez is a Home Rule Municipality, the county seat and the most populous municipality of Montezuma County, United States. The city population was 8,482 at the 2010 United States Census. In 1886, the town was built to provide housing for the men working on the tunnels and irrigation ditches required to divert water out of the Dolores River and into Montezuma Valley; the town was named for Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés. It is a popular stop for tourists, who stay there because of its central location among surrounding attractions, such as Mesa Verde National Park, Monument Valley, the Four Corners. There are many prehistoric sites in the Cortez area, listed on the Colorado State Register of Historic Properties or both the state register and the National Register of Historic Places: They include large parks or centers, such as Crow Canyon Archaeological Center, Hovenweep National Monument, Mesa Verde National Park. There are smaller or individuals sites, such as Cowboy Wash, Hawkins Pueblo and cliff dwellings, Lowry Ruin, Mitchell Springs Archeological Site known as the Mitchell Springs Ruin Group, Mud Springs Pueblo, Yucca House National Monument.
Within the McElmo Drainage Unit is Cannonball Ruins, Maxwell Community, Roy's Ruin, Sand Canyon Archaeological District, Wallace Ruin. There following are trails or byways through the Cortez area: Old Spanish National Historic Trail San Juan Skyway National Scenic Byway Trail of the Ancients A Lockheed U-2 reconnaissance aircraft made an emergency nighttime forced landing August 3, 1959, at the Cortez Municipal Airport. Major H. Mike Hua was on a training flight originating at Texas. Maj. Hua established best glide and was able to navigate through a valley to a lighted airport that wasn't on his map nor did he know of its existence beforehand; the airport was the only one in the area with a lighted runway, illuminated overnight. Cortez is located at 37°20′57″N 108°34′45″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.5 square miles, of which 5.5 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water. Cortez is located in the area of the southwest known as the "High Desert", as are most of northwestern, western and southern Colorado.
Cortez is a local commercial center, competing with Durango in the east, Farmington, New Mexico in the south, draws trade from southeastern Utah, the extreme northeastern corner of Arizona, the Shiprock area of Northwestern New Mexico, San Miquel, Dolores and parts of LaPlata County in Colorado. Its economy is based heavily on tourism, both to nearby Mesa Verde National Park as well as to San Juan National Forest, Bureau of Land Management lands in the area. Mesa Verde National Park, featuring Ancient Pueblo cliff dwellings, is situated southeast of Cortez. Cortez has a cold and continental semi-arid climate with hot summer days and cold winter nights, the latter a result of its elevation; as of the census of 2010, there were 8,482 people, 3,590 households, 2,234 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,449.9 people per square mile. There were 3,885 housing units at an average density of 637.6 per square mile. The gender makeup of the city was 51.9 % female. The racial makeup of the city was 79.2% White, 0.4% African American, 11.8% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 6.04% from other races, 2.44% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 13.30% of the population. There were 3,590 households out of which 30.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.0% were married couples living together, 14.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.8% were non-families. 30.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.92. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.7% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 26.6% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $28,776, the median income for a family was $35,533. Males had a median income of $30,755 versus $20,280 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,040. About 14.8% of families and 18.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.3% of those under age 18 and 17.3% of those age 65 or over.
Cortez Public Schools are part of the Montezuma-Cortez School District RE-1. The district has five elementary schools, one middle school and one high school; the educational system is suffering a loss of 1.6% according to the Transitional Colorado Assessment Program. Montezuma-Cortez RE-1 Pre-School, Kemper Elementary School, Lewis-Arriola Elementary School, Manaugh Elementary School, Mesa Elementary Schools, Pleasant View Elementary School, Cortez Middle School and Montezuma-Cortez High School are located in Cortez; the high school mascot is the Panthers, Dr. Jason Wayman is the High School Principal. Cortez Municipal Airport serves Cortez. Eli Tomac, motocross champion. Scott Tipton, U. S. House of Representatives - Colorado's 3rd District William B. Ebbert, popular rancher and politician, represented Cortez in the Colorado General Assembly in early 20th century. Michael Milenski, Cortez n
Index of Colorado-related articles
The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to the U. S. state of Colorado..co.us – Internet second-level domain for the state of Colorado 4 Corners 4 Corners Monument 6th Principal Meridian 10-mile Range 10th Mountain Division 16th Street Mall 25th meridian west from Washington 32nd meridian west from Washington 37th parallel north 38th parallel north 39th parallel north 40th parallel north 41st parallel north 64 counties of the State of Colorado 100 km isolated peaks of Colorado 103rd meridian west 104th meridian west 105th meridian west 106th meridian west 107th meridian west 108th meridian west 109th meridian west 1500 meter prominent peaks of Colorado 4000 meter peaks of Colorado 5280 magazine website 14,000-foot peaks of Colorado Adams County, Colorado Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819 Adjacent States: State of Arizona State of Kansas State of Nebraska State of New Mexico State of Oklahoma State of Utah State of Wyoming Airports of Colorado Alamosa County, Colorado Sidney Altman Colorado in the American Civil War Amusement parks in Colorado Ancient Pueblo Peoples - Native Americans Antilocapra americana Aquamarine - Colorado state gemstone Aquaria in Colorado commons:Category:Aquaria in Colorado Aquilegia coerulea - Colorado state flower Arapaho Nation of Native Americans Arapahoe County, Colorado Arapahoe County, Kansas Territory Arrappahoe County, Jefferson Territory Arboreta in Colorado commons:Category:Arboreta in Colorado Archuleta County, Colorado Art museums and galleries in Colorado commons:Category:Art museums and galleries in Colorado Arkansas River Astronomical observatories in Colorado commons:Category:Astronomical observatories in Colorado Attorney General of the State of Colorado website Aurora, Colorado Baca County, Colorado Battle of Beecher Island Ballot measures of Colorado Beaver County, Utah Territory Charles Bent William Bent Bent County, Colorado Blue grama - Colorado state grass Boards of cooperative educational services in Colorado website Botanical gardens in Colorado commons:Category:Botanical gardens in Colorado Boulder County, Colorado Bouteloua gracilis - Colorado state grass Broderick County, Kansas Territory City and County of Broomfield, Colorado Margaret Brown Mary Babnik Brown Buildings and structures in Colorado commons:Category:Buildings and structures in Colorado Calamospiza melanocorys - Colorado state bird Calhan Paint Mines Archeological District Camp Carson Camp Collins Camp Hale Ben Nighthorse Campbell Capital of the State of Colorado website commons:Category:Denver, Colorado Capitol of the State of Colorado website commons:Category:Colorado State Capitol Carbonate County, Colorado Scott Carpenter Kit Carson Thomas Cech Census designated areas of Colorado Census statistical areas of Colorado Centennial State - Colorado state nickname Chaffee County, Colorado Don Cheadle Cheyenne County, Colorado Cheyenne County, Jefferson Territory Cheyenne Nation of Native Americans Chronology of the Colorado Constitution Chrysemys picta bellii - Colorado state reptile Cities and towns in Colorado commons:Category:Cities in Colorado City nicknames of Colorado Civil War military units from Colorado Clear Creek County, Colorado Climate of Colorado CO – United States Postal Service postal code for the State of Colorado Coal mining in Colorado Colleges and universities in Colorado commons:Category:Universities and colleges in Colorado Colorado website Category:Colorado commons:Category:Colorado commons:Category:Maps of Colorado Colorado Air National Guard website Colorado Amendment 20 Colorado Army National Guard website Colorado Aviation Hall of Fame Colorado blue spruce - Colorado state tree Colorado breweries Colorado census designated places Colorado census statistical areas Colorado cities and towns List of city nicknames in Colorado Colorado City, territorial capital 1862 Colorado Convention Center Colorado counties Colorado counties ranked by per capita income List of counties in Colorado Colorado Court of Appeals Colorado drainage basins Colorado Eastern Plains Colorado Education Association Colorado Engineering Experiment Station, Inc.
Colorado forts Colorado Front Range Colorado General Assembly Colorado ghost towns Colorado Governor's Mansion Colorado hairstreak butterfly - Colorado state insect Colorado House of Representatives Colorado in the American Civil War Colorado Labor Wars Colorado Lottery website Colorado lunar sample displays Colorado Media School Colorado Melanoma Foundation Colorado metropolitan areas Colorado Mineral Belt Colorado Mining Association Colorado municipalities Colorado municipalities by county commons:Category:Cities in Colorado Colorado orogeny Colorado Piedmont Colorado places Colorado places ranked by per capita income Colorado Plateau Colorado poetry fellowship Colorado professional sports teams Colorado Public Radio Colorado Public Utilities Commission website Colorado River Colorado River Water Conservation District Colorado Scenic and Historic Byways Colorado School of Mines website Colorado Senate Colorado Silver Boom Colorado Springs, Colorado Colorado State Capitol website commons:Category:Colorado State Capitol Colorado State Fair website Colorado State Forest website Colorado state government website Colorado state highways website Colorado State Parks website commons:Category:State parks of Colorado Colorado State Patrol website Colorado state prisons Colorado state representatives Colorado state senators Colorado state symbols website Colorado State Tartan website Colorado State University website Colorado Supreme Court Colorado War Colorado Water Trust Colorado wine Colorado World War II Army Airfields Colorado-Big Thompson Project Columbine High School massacre of 1999 Columbine Mine massacre of 1927 Columbine State Comanche Nation of Native Americans website Community colleges of Colorado website commons:Category:Universities and colle
Ute Mountain Ute Tribe
The Ute Mountain Ute Tribe is one of three federally recognized tribes of the Ute Nation, are descendants of the historic Weeminuche Band who moved to the Southern Ute reservation in 1897. Their reservation is headquartered at Towaoc, Colorado on the Ute Mountain Ute Indian Reservation in southwestern Colorado, northwestern New Mexico and small sections of Utah; the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe are descendants of the Weeminuche band lived west of the Great Divide along the Dolores River of western Colorado, in the Abajo Mountains, in the Valley of the San Juan River and its northern tributaries and in the San Juan Mountains including eastern Utah. They moved to the Southern Ute reservation in 1897. Two thousand years ago, the Utes lived and ranged in the mountains and desert over much of the Colorado Plateau: much of present-day eastern Utah, western Colorado, northern Arizona and northwestern New Mexico; the use of lands in the Four Corners area, where the Ute Mountain Ute tribe now live, came later.
Most anthropologists agree that Utes were established in the Four Corners area by 1500 C. E; the Ute people were hunters and gatherers who moved on foot to hunting grounds and gathering land based upon the season. The men hunted animals, including deer, buffalo and other small mammals and birds. Women gathered grasses, berries and greens in woven baskets. Ute in the western part of their territory lived in ramadas; as a result of American westward expansion, the Utes now possess only a small fraction of the land that they once traveled seasonally. The Ute people consist of three populations of people: Ute Indian Tribe of the Uintah and Ouray Reservation near Fort Duchesne in northeastern Utah; the Southern Ute live on a reservation in southwestern Colorado near Ignacio. The Ute Mountain Ute Tribe headquartered in Towaoc, the subjects of this article; the Mesa Verde Region, the present day area containing the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe reservation and the Mesa Verde National Park, was the northern most edge of the colonial territory of Spain.
Initial exploration of the American Southwest by the Spanish occurred in 1540, but Spaniards didn't settle into present day New Mexico until 1598. They established their first capital near the pueblo of Ohkay Owingeh, which they renamed San Juan de los Caballeros. In 1626 an account was taken of the Utes by a Spanish scribe in New Mexico. About 1640 the Utes began trading with the Spanish for horses. Spanish traders followed trails to Ute Utes traveled to New Mexican towns; the Utes brought buckskin, dried meats and slaves to exchange for horses and blankets. Spanish officials negotiate the first peace treaty with the Utes in 1670. In search of gold, Juan de Rivera made three expeditions between 1761 and 1765 from Taos through southwestern Colorado to the Gunnison River, he did not return with gold, but did establish trade with Utes and other Native Americans along the Gunnison River. On July 29, 1776 two Franciscan priests, Francisco Atanasio Domínguez and Silvestre Vélez de Escalante and eight men left Santa Fe to conduct an expedition through Ute territory to find a route to Spanish missions in California.
They traveled through western Colorado and Utah, documenting the "lush, mountainous land filled with game and timber, strange ruins of stone cities and villages, rivers showing signs of precious metals." Beset by hunger and illness, the men returned to Santa Fe. The maps and information provided from the expedition provided useful information for future travel and their route from Santa Fe to the Salt Lake Valley became known as the Old Spanish Trail; the Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819 established an official boundary line between Spanish and United States possessions in the southwest. Spanish territory included the southern plains, a large part of the western Rocky Mountains, the entire western plateau region of Colorado. With the boundary, the Spanish did little to maintain their northern borders; when Mexico gained its independence from Spain, the Spanish lands became Mexican land. American fur trappers encountered the Utes; the Santa Fe Trail was opened in 1821 by William Bucknell. William Bent and Ceran St. Vrain complete Bent's Fort in 1834 on the Arkansas River, a trading stop along the Santa Fe trail.
In 1848 the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends the Mexican–American War and New Mexico and southern Colorado are ceded to the United States. The next year, the first United States treaty is made with Utes made at New Mexico. Americans recruited Southern Utes to aid them in conflicts with the Navajos, which the Ute saw as an economic need. In 1868 both the Navajo and Ute tribes were removed to reservations; as more Americans moved into the western frontier, conflicts arose with the establishment of forts, reduction in land and access to ancient hunting and gathering grounds, significant reduction in the Ute population from disease and malnutrition. In 1868 Utes are confined to western third of Colorado Territory by treaty. In 1873 the gold and silver rush occurred in San Juan Mountains. In the 1870s, Utes were pushed to the western part of the state of Colorado and held just a small portion of their land in Utah. Between 1859 and 1879 the Ute population fell from 8,000 to 2,000 due
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund