Yuma, Arizona

Yuma is a city in and the county seat of Yuma County, United States. The city's population was 93,064 at the 2010 census, up from the 2000 census population of 77,515. Yuma is the principal city of the Yuma, Metropolitan Statistical Area, which consists of Yuma County. According to the United States Census Bureau, the 2014 estimated population of the Yuma MSA is 203,247. More than 85,000 retirees make Yuma their winter residence. Yuma is in the Sonoran Desert, Yuma Desert sub-region; the area's first settlers for thousands of years were historic tribes. Their descendants now occupy the Quechan reservations. In 1540, Spanish colonial expeditions under Hernando de Alarcon and Melchior Diaz visited the area and recognized the natural crossing of the Colorado River as an ideal spot for a city; the Colorado River narrows to under 1,000 feet wide in one area. Military expeditions that crossed the Colorado River at the Yuma Crossing include Juan Bautista de Anza, the Mormon Battalion and the California Column.

During and after the California Gold Rush to the late 1870s, the Yuma Crossing was known for its ferry crossings for the Southern Emigrant Trail. This was considered the gateway to California, as it was one of the few natural spots where travelers could cross the otherwise wide Colorado River. Following the United States establishing Fort Yuma, two towns developed one mile downriver; the one on the California side was called Jaeger City, named after the owner of Jaeger's Ferry, which crossed the river there. It was for a time the larger of the two, with the Butterfield Overland Mail office and station, two blacksmiths, a hotel, two stores, other dwellings; the other was called Colorado City. Developed on the south side of the river in what is now Arizona by speculator Charles Poston, it was the site of the custom house; when started, it was just north of the border between Mexican-ruled Sonora and California. After the Gadsden Purchase by the United States, the town bordered on the Territory of New Mexico.

This area was designated as the Territory of Arizona in 1863. The Colorado City site at the time was duly registered in San Diego; the county of San Diego collected taxes from there for many years. From 1853 a smaller settlement, Arizona City, grew up on the high ground across from the fort and was organized under the name of its post office in 1858, it had two stores and two saloons. Colorado City and Jaeger City were completely destroyed by the Great Flood of 1862 and had to be rebuilt on higher ground. At that time Colorado City became part of Arizona City, it took the name Yuma in 1873. From 1854, Colorado City was the major steamboat stop for traffic down the Colorado River. After the 1862 flood, it became part of Arizona City; the steamboats transported passengers and equipment for the various mines and military outposts along the Colorado. They offloaded the cargo from ships at the mouth of the Colorado River at Robinson's Landing and from 1864 at Port Isabel. From 1864, the Yuma Quartermaster Depot, today a state historic park, supplied all forts in present-day Arizona, as well as large parts of Colorado and New Mexico.

After Arizona became a separate territory, Yuma became the county seat for Yuma County in 1871, replacing La Paz, the first seat. The Southern Pacific Railroad bridged the river in 1877, acquired George Alonzo Johnson's Colorado Steam Navigation Company, the only steamboat company on the river. Yuma became the new base of navigation on the river, ending the need for Port Isabel, abandoned in 1879; the warehouses and shipyard there were moved to Yuma. The city of Yuma operates as a charter city under the Charter of the City of Yuma; the elected government of the city is the City Council which follows the mayor–council government system and whose members include: The Mayor of the City of Yuma acts as the chief executive officer of the city, is elected for a period of four years. The mayor is elected from the city at large; the mayor has the following powers and responsibilities: act as an ex officio chairman of the city council and preside over meetings, administer oaths and issue proclamations.

The mayor is recognized as the official head of the city by the courts and has the power to take command of the police and govern the city by proclamation during times of great danger. The City of Yuma City Council is the governing body of the City of Yuma and is vested with all powers of legislation in municipal affairs; the council is composed of six council members elected from the city at large for four-year terms, as well as the Mayor of Yuma. A deputy mayor is elected by the Council who shall act as Mayor during the temporary absence of the mayor; the current council members are Gary Knight, Leslie McClendon, Jacob Miller, Edward Thomas, Mike Shelton, Karen Watts. The next election is the August 2019 Primary for the three city council seats that are held by Miller and Shelton; the City Council appoints a city administrator who acts as the chief administrative officer of the city. The city administrator is directly responsible to the City Council for the administration of all city affairs placed in his charge by the City Charter, or by ordinances passed by the Council.

Some of the administrator's duties include: see that all laws and provisions of the City Charter are faithfully executed and submit the annual budget and capital p

The Biggest Loser (season 16)

The Biggest Loser: Glory Days is the sixteenth season of The Biggest Loser which premiered on September 11, 2014 on NBC. Bob Harper and Dolvett Quince returned as trainers, while Jillian Michaels decided to leave the show. There are two new trainers this season: Jennifer Widerstrom; this season, the contestants are all former athletes including former National Football League players and Olympic Gold medalists. The contestants competed to win a $250,000 prize, awarded to Toma Dobrosavljevic, the contestant with the highest percentage of weight loss; this season was the last to be hosted by Alison Sweeney, who left to focus on other projects. Dolvett and the two new trainers are with the main contestants at the Biggest Loser Ranch. A new twist this season is that eliminated contestants leave the ranch and meet Bob Harper at "Comeback Canyon", a secret training ground; every week he trains two people there, with the one with the lowest percentage of weight loss leaving the show for good. There are no challenges to win bonus pounds.

The winning contestant is joined by the next eliminated contestant from the main ranch for the next week. The person winning the last Comeback Canyon weigh-in will be sent back to the Ranch for the semi-finals and will still have the chance to become the next Biggest Loser. Jackie in week nine was the first person to win a second weigh-in at Comeback Canyon. Damien in week eleven was the second person to win a second weigh-in at Comeback Canyon. Scott in week thirteen was the third person to win a second weigh-in at Comeback Canyon and in week fourteen was the first person to win a third weigh-in at Comeback Canyon. Woody in week 15 returned to the ranch. Contestants are listed in reverse chronological order of elimination. In Week 6, Sonya was The Biggest Loser on the ranch, but Matt had the highest percentage of weight loss overall at Comeback Canyon. In Week 11, Jordan was The Biggest Loser on the ranch, but Damien had the highest percentage of weight loss overall at Comeback Canyon. In Week 14, Toma was The Biggest Loser on the ranch, but Scott had the highest percentage of weight loss overall at Comeback Canyon.

In Week 15, Sonya was The Biggest Loser on the ranch, but Woody had the highest percentage of weight loss overall at Comeback Canyon. Woody wore an aqua colored shirt during Singles until he was eliminated in Week 14; when he returned as the Comeback contestant, he was wearing black. Teams Jessie's Team Jen's Team Dolvett's Team Bob's Original playersStandings Week's Biggest Loser Week's Biggest Loser and Immunity Week's Biggest Loser and at Comeback Canyon Week's Biggest Loser on Ranch in the event that the biggest loser is at Comeback Canyon Immunity Results from At-Home or Comeback Canyon Players Contestant Withdraws before Weigh-InBMI Underweight Normal Overweight Obese Class I Obese Class II Obese Class III Winners $250,000 Winner $100,000 Winner Toma's 12 pound weight loss in week 12 was displayed as -11 due to the weight he gained last week. Lori's 3 pound weight loss in week 14 was displayed as -4 due to her 1-pound advantage from the challenge. Toma's 14 pound weight loss in week 16 was displayed as -15 due to his 1-pound advantage from the challenge.

Toma's 3 pound weight loss in week 17 was displayed as -4 due to his 1-pound advantage from the challenge. Toma's 4.86 % in week 12 was displayed as 4.47 % due to the weight. Lori's 1.30% in week 14 was displayed as 1.74% due to her 1-pound advantage from the challenge. Toma's 6.48% in week 16 was displayed as 6.94% due to his 1-pound advantage from the challenge. Toma's 1.49% in week 17 was displayed as 1.98% due to his 1-pound advantage from the challenge. First aired September 11, 2014 Twenty former athletes come to the ranch looking for a second chance to regain their "glory days"; the cast includes Scott Mitchell, a former NFL quarterback, Damien Woody, a two-time Super Bowl champion, Lori Harrigan-Mack, a three-time Olympic gold medalist, Zina Garrison, a tennis legend, Rob Guiry, a college rugby player who once weighed 501 pounds before coming to the Biggest loser, Mike Murburg, who his son died fighting in the Marine Corps, Matthew Miller, who once had six-pack abs, Woody Carter, whose wife died of cancer and promises to lose the weight for her.

The contestants arrive at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, where they are shocked to find they will be working with two new trainers, Jessie Pavelka and Jennifer Widerstrom, as well as veteran trainer Dolvett Quince. The first weigh-in is emotional for a number of the contestants, but it reminds them of why they have embarked upon this journey - to get healthy for themselves and their families; this week's theme is Opening Day, not only do the trainers have the opportunity to assess the contestants, but the contestants get to see what the new trainers are all about. At the first workout, the trainers work out the contestants at different stations, tapping into their inner athletes and seeing what they're made of. It's a humbling experience for the contestants, as for many of them, the last time they hit the gym, they were at the top of their game. JJ, a former college football star, seems to struggle the most, collapses on the treadmill, unable to continue his workout. At the first challenge, both the contestants and the trainers are put to the test.

The contestants must compete in a volleyball-inspired obstacle course while pushing a giant ball up a steep san

Bhir Mound

The Bhir Mound is an archaeological site in Taxila in the Punjab province of Pakistan. It contains some of the oldest ruins of Ancient Taxila, dated to sometime around the period 800-525 BCE as its earliest layers bear "grooved" Red Burnished Ware, Bhir Mound, along with several other nearby excavations, form part of the Ruins of Taxila – inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980; the Bhir Mound archaeological remains represent one stage of the historic city of Taxila. The first town in Taxila was situated in the Hathial mound in the southwest corner of the Sirkap site, it lasted from the late second millennium BCE until the Achaemenid period, with the Achaemenid period remains located in its Mound B. The Bhir Mound site represents the second city of Taxila, beginning in the pre-Achaemenid period and lasting till the early Hellenistic period; the earliest occupation on the Bhir mound begins around 800-525 BC, what now appears to be the second phase might date to the late 6th and 5th centuries BC, as suggested by Marshall.

The ruins of Bhir Mound were excavated from 1913-1925 by Sir John Marshall. The work was continued by Sir Mortimer Wheeler in 1944-1945 and by Dr. Mohammad Sharif in 1966-1967. Further excavations were performed in 1998-2000 by Bahadur Khan and in 2002 by Dr. Ashraf and Mahmud-al-Hassan. Marshall came to the Bhir Mound project from earlier work in Athens, expecting much to find a Greek city in Taxila. Klaus Karttunen says that he became more objective on, but scholars mention various problems with his results. In his report, Marshall proposed that the Bhir Mound city of Taxila was founded by Darius I as the capital of the Achaemenid province of Hindush. Scholar David Fleming says that the identification was based on'classical sources and a frankly pro-western bias'; the excavations were conducted without much regard to stratigraphic recording, the pottery finds were published in such a manner as to preclude a detailed analysis. The results of Mortimer Wheeler's excavations were never published.

Excavations by Mohammad Sharif were done more with regard to chronological considerations, they form the basis for the modern assessments. The ruins of the town form an irregular shape measuring around 1 km from north to south and about 600 meters from east to west; the streets of the city show that they were narrow and the house plans were irregular. There is little evidence of planning - most of the streets are haphazard; the houses had no windows to the outside. They opened towards inner courtyards; the courtyard was open and 15 to 20 rooms were arranged around it. John Marshall stated, based on his excavations during 1913–1934, that heavy masonry of the Achaemenid buildings formed the earliest stratum of the Bhir Mound site, he believed that Taxila formed part of the 20th satrapy of Darius I. This claim was considered dubious by several scholars, and it is invalidated by the current dating of the Bhir Mound site as beginning before 525 BCE as Cameron Petrie suggests. Other scholars doubt if Taxila belonged to the Achaemenid Empire.

In 326 BCE, Alexander the Great conquered the area. Raja Ambhi entertained the Greek king here. In 316 BCE, Chandragupta of Magadha, the founder of the Mauryan dynasty, conquered Panjab. Taxila became a mere provincial capital. Still, the city remained important as centre of administration and trade. During the reign of Chandragupta's grandson Ashoka, Buddhism became important and the first monks settled in Taxila. Ashoka is said to have resided here as the vice-king of his father. In 184 BCE, the Greeks, who had maintained a kingdom in Bactria, invaded Panjab again. From now on, a Greek king resided in Demetrius; the Bhir Mound coin hoard has revealed numerous Achaemenid coins as well as several Greek coins from the 5th and 4th centuries BCE which circulated in the area, at least as far as the Indus during the reign of the Achaemenids, who were in control of the areas as far as Gandhara. Many of these coins are similar to the local coins struck in Kabul, found in the Chaman Hazouri hoard; this is the case in particular for the Achaeminid siglos type of coins of the 5th century, as well as the Gandharan bent-bar punch-marked coins, found in large quantities at Bhir Mound.

Modern numismatists tend to consider that these Gandharan bent-bar punch-marked coins are the precursors of the Indian punch-marked coins. Coins of Philip III and Alexander the Great were found in Bhir Mound. Many Indian punch-marked coins were found. There are important ancient Buddhist sites in this area, such as Dharmarajika, Mohra Muradu, Jaulian. There are the remains of other ancient cities that were founded after Bhir Mound, such as Sirkap and Sirsukh. Achaemenid invasion of the Indus Valley Allchin, F. Raymond, "The Urban Position of Taxila and Its Place in Northwest India-Pakistan", Studies in the History of Art, 31: 69–81, JSTOR 42620473 Bopearachchi, Osmund, "Coin Production and Circulation in Central Asia and North-West India", Indologica Taurinensia, International Association of Sanskrit Studies, 25 Bopearachchi, Osmund, "Achaemenids and Mauryans: Emergence of Coins and Plastic Arts in India", in Alka Patel.