Yuma County, Arizona
Yuma County is a county in the southwestern corner of the U. S. state of Arizona. As of the 2010 census, its population was 195,751; the county seat is Yuma. Yuma County includes Arizona Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county borders three states: Sonora, Mexico, to the south, two other states to the west, across the Colorado River: California of the United States and the Mexican state of Baja California. Long settled by Native Americans of indigenous cultures for thousands of years, this area was controlled by the Spanish Empire in the colonial era. In the 19th century, it was part of independent Mexico before the Mexican–American War and Gadsden Purchase. Yuma County was one of four original Arizona counties created by the 1st Arizona Territorial Legislature; the county territory was defined as being west of longitude 113° 20' and south of the Bill Williams River. Its original boundaries remained the same until 1982, when La Paz County was created from its northern half; the original county seat was the city of La Paz.
Because of Yuma County's location along the U. S.-Mexico border, large numbers of immigrants entering the United States illegally pass through Yuma County. From October 2004 to July 2005, some 124,400 illegal foreign nationals were apprehended in the area, a 46% increase over the previous year. In 2015, only 6,000 people were apprehended, as the border was fortified and augmented; the number of illegal immigrants declined with slumps in the US economy. Agriculture is a $3 billion business annually, employing tens of thousands of workers but at minimum wages. During the agricultural season from November to March, some 40,000 Mexican workers cross the border daily to work in United States fields. Leaders in the county are aware their economy is tied to that of Mexican states on the other side of the border. "There are automotive plants in Ciudad Juárez, across from El Paso. On the American side, there is a mix of retail stores and trucking companies..." The Board of Supervisors is the governing body of a number of special districts.
The board has members from five districts. The Board adopts ordinances, establishes programs, levies taxes, appropriates funds, appoints certain officials, zones property and regulates development in the unincorporated area. In addition, members of the Board represent the County on numerous intergovernmental agencies. In 2016 county voters elected more Democrats to the Board than Republicans, for the first time since 2004. In Arizona's first 52 years as a state, Yuma County was a Democratic county, only voting for Republicans three times in presidential elections prior to 1968. From 1968 on, it has voted for Republican presidential candidates. However, their margins of victory have been reduced in recent years as the county has grown in population & become majority-Hispanic. Donald Trump only won the county by 560 votes over Hillary Clinton in the most recent presidential election of 2016. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 5,519 square miles, of which 5,514 square miles is land and 5.1 square miles is water.
The lowest point in the state of Arizona is on the Colorado River in San Luis in Yuma County, where it flows out of Arizona and into Sonora in Mexico. Yuma County is in the west, northwestern regions of the north-south Sonoran Desert that extends through Sonora state Mexico to the border of northern Sinaloa state. West of the county across the Colorado River in southeast California is the Colorado Desert. North of the county, with La Paz County the regions merge into the southeastern Mojave Desert. Southwest of Yuma County, is the entirety of Northwest Mexico, at the north shoreline of the Gulf of California, the outlet of the Colorado River into the Colorado River Delta region, now altered with lack of freshwater inputs. Notable mountains in Yuma County include the Tule Mountains. Interstate 8 U. S. Route 95 Arizona State Route 195 State Route 280 Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge Imperial National Wildlife Refuge Kofa National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2000 census, there were 160,026 people, 53,848 households, 41,678 families residing in the county.
The population density was 29 people per square mile. There were 74,140 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile; the county's racial makeup was 68.3% White, 2.2% Black or African American, 1.6% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 23.6% from other races, 3.2% from two or more races. 50.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 43.7% reported speaking Spanish at home. There were 53,848 households, out of which 36.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.3% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.6% were non-families. 18.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.86 and the average family size was 3.27. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.9% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 18.9% from 45 to 64, 16.5% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 102.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,182, the median income for a family was $34,659. Males had a median income of $27,390 ve
Imperial County, California
Imperial County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 174,528; the county seat is El Centro. Established in 1907 from a division of San Diego County, it was last county to be formed in California. Imperial County includes California Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is part of the Southern California border region, the smallest but most economically diverse region in the state. It is located in the Imperial Valley, in the far southeast of California, bordering both Arizona and the Mexican state of Baja California. Although this region is a desert, with high temperatures and low average rainfall of three inches per year, the economy is based on agriculture due to irrigation, supplied wholly from the Colorado River via the All-American Canal; the Imperial Valley is divided between the United States and Mexico, Imperial County is influenced by Mexican culture. 80% of the county's population is Hispanic, with the vast majority being of Mexican origin.
The remainder of the population is predominantly non-Hispanic white as well as smaller African American, Native American and Asian minorities. In 2016, Imperial County had the highest percentage of unemployed people of any county in the United States, at 23.5%. Spanish explorer Melchor Díaz was one of the first Europeans to visit the area around Imperial Valley in 1540; the explorer Juan Bautista de Anza explored the area in 1776. Years after the Mexican–American War, the northern half of the valley was annexed by the U. S. while the southern half remained under Mexican rule. Small scale settlement in natural aquifer areas occurred in the early 19th century, but most permanent settlement was after 1900. In 1905, torrential rainfall in the American Southwest caused the Colorado River to flood, including canals, built to irrigate the Imperial Valley. Since the valley is below sea level, the waters never receded, but collected in the Salton Sink in what is now called the Salton Sea. Imperial County was formed in 1907 from the eastern portion of San Diego County.
The county took its name from Imperial Valley, itself named for the Imperial Land Company, a subsidiary of the California Development Company, which at the turn of the 20th century had claimed the southern portion of the Colorado Desert for agriculture. Much of the Imperial Land Company's land existed in Mexico; the objective of the company was commercial crop farming development. By 1910, the land company had managed to settle and develop thousands of farms on both sides of the border; the Mexican Revolution soon after disrupted the company's plans. Nearly 10,000 farmers and their families in Mexico were ethnically cleansed by the rival Mexican armies. Not until the 1920s was the other side of California in America sufficiently peaceful and prosperous for the company to earn a return for a large percentage of Mexicans, but some chose to stay and lay down roots in newly sprouted communities in the valley; the county experienced a period of migration of "Okies" from drought-trodden dust bowl farms by the need of migrant labor, prosperous job-seekers alike from across the U.
S. arrived in the 1930s and 1940s in World War II and after the completion of the All American Canal from its source, the Colorado River, from 1948 to 1951. By the 1950 census, over 50,000 residents lived in Imperial County alone, about 40 times that of 1910. Most of the population was year-round but would increase every winter by migrant laborers from Mexico; until the 1960s, the farms in Imperial County provided substantial economic returns to the company and the valley. El Centro has one of the highest unemployment rates in the U. S. and ranks one of California's poorest counties or have a lower than state and national average annual household income. Fort Yuma is located on the banks of the Colorado River in California. First established after the end of the Mexican–American War in 1848, it was located in the bottoms near the Colorado River, less than 1 mile below the mouth of the Gila River, it was to defend the newly settled community of Yuma, Arizona on the other side of the Colorado River and the nearby Mexican border.
In March 1851 the post was moved to a small elevation on the Colorado's west bank, opposite the present city of Yuma, Arizona, on the site of the former Mission Puerto de Purísima Concepción. This site had been occupied by Camp Calhoun, named for John C. Calhoun, established in 1849. Fort Yuma was established to protect the southern emigrant travel route to California and to attempt control of the Yuma Indians in the surrounding 100-mile area. NAF El Centro is the winter home of the U. S. Navy Flight Demonstration Squadron, The Blue Angels. NAF El Centro kicks off the Blue Angels' season with their first air show, traditionally held in March. Imperial, CA is home to the California Mid-Winter Fair and Fiesta, the local county fair, held in late February to early March, it is home to the Imperial Valley Speedway, a race track of 3⁄8 mile. The name Algodones Dunes refers to the entire geographic feature, while the administrative designation for that portion managed by the Bureau of Land Management is the "Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area".
The Algodones Sand Dunes are the largest mass of sand dunes in California. This dune system extends for more than 40 miles along the eastern edge of the Imperial Valley agricultural region in a band averaging 5 miles in width. A major east-west route of the Union Pacific railroad skirts the e
Demand responsive transport
Demand-responsive transport known as demand-responsive transit, demand-responsive service, Dial-a-Ride transit or flexible transport services is a form of transport where vehicles alter their routes based on particular transport demand rather than using a fixed route or timetable. These vehicles pick-up and drop-off passengers in locations according to passengers needs and can include taxis, buses or other vehicles. One of the most widespread types of demand-responsive transport is to provide a public transport service in areas of low passenger demand where a regular bus service is not considered to be financially viable, such as rural and peri-urban areas. Services may be provided for particular types of passengers. One example is the paratransit programs for people with a disability; the provision of public transport in this manner emphasises one of its functions as a social service rather than creating a viable movement network. DRT can be used to refer to many different types of transport.
When taxicabs were first introduced to many cities, they were hailed as an innovative form of DRT. They are still referred to as DRT in some jurisdictions around the world as their nature is to take people from point-to-point based on their needs. More DRT refers to a type of public transport, they are disinct from fixed-route services as they do not always operate to a specific timetable or route. While specific operations vary generally a particular area is designated for service by DRT. Once a certain number of people have requested a trip, the most efficient route will be calculated depending on the origins and destinations of passengers. Share taxis are another form of DRT, they are operated on an ad-hoc basis but do not have fixed routes or times and change their route and frequency depending on demand. Some DRT systems operate as a service; these operate along a fixed alignment or path at specific times but may deviate to collect or drop off passengers who have requested the deviation. A DRT service will be restricted to a defined operating zone, within which journeys must start and finish.
Journeys may be free form, or accommodated onto skeleton routes and schedules, varied as required. As such, users will be given a time window for collection; some DRT systems may have defined termini, at one or both ends of a route, such as an urban centre, airport or transport interchange, for onward connections. DRT systems require passengers to request a journey by booking with a central dispatcher who determines the journey options available given the users' location and destination. DRT systems take advantage of fleet telematics technology in the form of vehicle location systems and dispatching software and hand-held/in vehicle computing. Vehicles used for DRT services will be small minibuses, reflecting the low ridership, but allowing the service to provide as near a door to door service as practical, by being able to use residential streets. In some cases Taxicabs are hired by the DRT provider to serve their routes on request. DRT schemes may be or funded by the local transit authority.
As such, operators of DRT schemes may be selected by public tendering. Other schemes may be or self-funded as community centred not for profit social enterprises, they may be provided by private companies for commercial reasons. For a model of a hypothetical large-scale demand-responsive public transport system for the Helsinki metropolitan area, simulation results published in 2005 demonstrated that “in an urban area with one million inhabitants, trip aggregation could reduce the health and other detrimental impacts of car traffic by 50–70%, if implemented could attract about half of the car passengers, within a broad operational range would require no public subsidies”. DRT schemes may require new or amended legislation, or special dispensation, to operate, as they do not meet the traditional licensing model of authorised bus transport providers or licensed taxicab operators; the status has caused controversy between bus and taxi operators when the DRT service picks up passengers without pre-booking, due to the licensing issues.
Issues may arise surrounding tax and fuel subsidy for DRT services. Ridership on DRT services is quite low, but DRT can provide coverage effectively. Kan-go, Demand Responsive Transport service in Hervey Bay and Toowoomba, Queensland SmartLink, Demand Responsive Transport service in Blue Mountains. Skybus hotel transfer service in Melbourne, Victoria. Telebus in Melbourne, Victoria providing demand-responsive bus services to some outer suburbs of the metropolitan area since the 1970s. RufbusLinie 326 Leopoldschlag - Summerau - Freistadt Belleville, Ontario - BT Let's Go, operated by Belleville Transit, replaces fixed route night bus services with an on-demand transit service; this provides stop-to-stop scheduled pick-ups and drop-offs requested by riders through a web-based application. Buses are dynamically routed to riders in real-time by an autonomous algorithm. Winnipeg, Manitoba - Dial-a-Ride Transit, operated by Winnipeg Transit, replaces regular fixed transit route service in three neighbourhoods during low-use hours and provides door-to-door transit service in one inner-city neighbourhood during daytime hours.
Red minibuses which serve non-franchised routes across the country, depending on routes, allow passengers to reserve their seats by phone such that operators a
Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and injection of fuel. Diesel engines have found broad use as a result of higher thermodynamic efficiency and thus fuel efficiency; this is noted where diesel engines are run at part-load. The most common type of diesel fuel is a specific fractional distillate of petroleum fuel oil, but alternatives that are not derived from petroleum, such as biodiesel, biomass to liquid or gas to liquid diesel, are being developed and adopted. To distinguish these types, petroleum-derived diesel is called petrodiesel. Ultra-low-sulfur diesel is a standard for defining diesel fuel with lowered sulfur contents; as of 2016 all of the petroleum-based diesel fuel available in the UK, mainland Europe, North America is of a ULSD type. In the UK, diesel fuel for on-road use is abbreviated DERV, standing for diesel-engined road vehicle, which carries a tax premium over equivalent fuel for non-road use.
In Australia, diesel fuel is known as distillate, in Indonesia, it is known as Solar, a trademarked name by the local oil company Pertamina. Diesel fuel originated from experiments conducted by German scientist and inventor Rudolf Diesel for his compression-ignition engine he invented in 1892. Diesel designed his engine to use coal dust as fuel, experimented with other fuels including vegetable oils, such as peanut oil, used to power the engines which he exhibited at the 1900 Paris Exposition and the 1911 World's Fair in Paris. Diesel fuel is produced from the most common being petroleum. Other sources include biomass, animal fat, natural gas, coal liquefaction. Petroleum diesel called petrodiesel, or fossil diesel is the most common type of diesel fuel, it is produced from the fractional distillation of crude oil between 200 °C and 350 °C at atmospheric pressure, resulting in a mixture of carbon chains that contain between 9 and 25 carbon atoms per molecule. Synthetic diesel can be produced from any carbonaceous material, including biomass, natural gas and many others.
The raw material is gasified into synthesis gas, which after purification is converted by the Fischer–Tropsch process to a synthetic diesel. The process is referred to as biomass-to-liquid, gas-to-liquid or coal-to-liquid, depending on the raw material used. Paraffinic synthetic diesel has a near-zero content of sulfur and low aromatics content, reducing unregulated emissions of toxic hydrocarbons, nitrous oxides and particulate matter. Fatty-acid methyl ester, more known as biodiesel, is obtained from vegetable oil or animal fats which have been transesterified with methanol, it can be produced from many types of oils, the most common being rapeseed oil in Europe and soybean oil in the US. Methanol can be replaced with ethanol for the transesterification process, which results in the production of ethyl esters; the transesterification processes use catalysts, such as sodium or potassium hydroxide, to convert vegetable oil and methanol into FAME and the undesirable byproducts glycerine and water, which will need to be removed from the fuel along with methanol traces.
FAME can be used pure in engines where the manufacturer approves such use, but it is more used as a mix with diesel, BXX where XX is the biodiesel content in percent. FAME as a fuel is specified in DIN EN 14214 and ASTM D6751. Fuel equipment manufacturers have raised several concerns regarding FAME fuels, identifying FAME as being the cause of the following problems: corrosion of fuel injection components, low-pressure fuel system blockage, increased dilution and polymerization of engine sump oil, pump seizures due to high fuel viscosity at low temperature, increased injection pressure, elastomeric seal failures and fuel injector spray blockage. Pure biodiesel has an energy content about 5–10% lower than petroleum diesel; the loss in power when using pure biodiesel is 5–7%. Unsaturated fatty acids are the source for the lower oxidation stability; as FAME contains low levels of sulfur, the emissions of sulfur oxides and sulfates, major components of acid rain, are low. Use of biodiesel results in reductions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, particulate matter.
CO emissions using biodiesel are reduced, on the order of 50% compared to most petrodiesel fuels. The exhaust emissions of particulate matter from biodiesel have been found to be 30% lower than overall particulate matter emissions from petrodiesel; the exhaust emissions of total hydrocarbons are up to 93% lower for biodiesel than diesel fuel. Biodiesel may reduce health risks associated with petroleum diesel. Biodiesel emissions showed decreased levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and nitrited PAH compounds, which have been identified as potential cancer-causing compounds. In recent testing, PAH compounds were reduced by 75–85%, except for benzanthracene, reduced by 50%. Targeted nPAH compounds were reduced with biodiesel fuel, with 2-nitrofluorene and 1-nitropyrene reduced by 90%, the rest
Yuma is a city in and the county seat of Yuma County, United States. The city's population was 93,064 at the 2010 census, up from the 2000 census population of 77,515. Yuma is the principal city of the Yuma, Metropolitan Statistical Area, which consists of Yuma County. According to the United States Census Bureau, the 2014 estimated population of the Yuma MSA is 203,247. More than 85,000 retirees make Yuma their winter residence. Yuma is in the Sonoran Desert, Yuma Desert sub-region; the area's first settlers for thousands of years were historic tribes. Their descendants now occupy the Quechan reservations. In 1540, Spanish colonial expeditions under Hernando de Alarcon and Melchior Diaz visited the area and recognized the natural crossing of the Colorado River as an ideal spot for a city; the Colorado River narrows to under 1,000 feet wide in one area. Military expeditions that crossed the Colorado River at the Yuma Crossing include Juan Bautista de Anza, the Mormon Battalion and the California Column.
During and after the California Gold Rush to the late 1870s, the Yuma Crossing was known for its ferry crossings for the Southern Emigrant Trail. This was considered the gateway to California, as it was one of the few natural spots where travelers could cross the otherwise wide Colorado River. Following the United States establishing Fort Yuma, two towns developed one mile downriver; the one on the California side was called Jaeger City, named after the owner of Jaeger's Ferry, which crossed the river there. It was for a time the larger of the two, with the Butterfield Overland Mail office and station, two blacksmiths, a hotel, two stores, other dwellings; the other was called Colorado City. Developed on the south side of the river in what is now Arizona by speculator Charles Poston, it was the site of the custom house; when started, it was just north of the border between Mexican-ruled Sonora and California. After the Gadsden Purchase by the United States, the town bordered on the Territory of New Mexico.
This area was designated as the Territory of Arizona in 1863. The Colorado City site at the time was duly registered in San Diego; the county of San Diego collected taxes from there for many years. From 1853 a smaller settlement, Arizona City, grew up on the high ground across from the fort and was organized under the name of its post office in 1858, it had two stores and two saloons. Colorado City and Jaeger City were completely destroyed by the Great Flood of 1862 and had to be rebuilt on higher ground. At that time Colorado City became part of Arizona City, it took the name Yuma in 1873. From 1854, Colorado City was the major steamboat stop for traffic down the Colorado River. After the 1862 flood, it became part of Arizona City; the steamboats transported passengers and equipment for the various mines and military outposts along the Colorado. They offloaded the cargo from ships at the mouth of the Colorado River at Robinson's Landing and from 1864 at Port Isabel. From 1864, the Yuma Quartermaster Depot, today a state historic park, supplied all forts in present-day Arizona, as well as large parts of Colorado and New Mexico.
After Arizona became a separate territory, Yuma became the county seat for Yuma County in 1871, replacing La Paz, the first seat. The Southern Pacific Railroad bridged the river in 1877, acquired George Alonzo Johnson's Colorado Steam Navigation Company, the only steamboat company on the river. Yuma became the new base of navigation on the river, ending the need for Port Isabel, abandoned in 1879; the warehouses and shipyard there were moved to Yuma. The city of Yuma operates as a charter city under the Charter of the City of Yuma; the elected government of the city is the City Council which follows the mayor–council government system and whose members include: The Mayor of the City of Yuma acts as the chief executive officer of the city, is elected for a period of four years. The mayor is elected from the city at large; the mayor has the following powers and responsibilities: act as an ex officio chairman of the city council and preside over meetings, administer oaths and issue proclamations.
The mayor is recognized as the official head of the city by the courts and has the power to take command of the police and govern the city by proclamation during times of great danger. The City of Yuma City Council is the governing body of the City of Yuma and is vested with all powers of legislation in municipal affairs; the council is composed of six council members elected from the city at large for four-year terms, as well as the Mayor of Yuma. A deputy mayor is elected by the Council who shall act as Mayor during the temporary absence of the mayor; the current council members are Gary Knight, Leslie McClendon, Jacob Miller, Edward Thomas, Mike Shelton, Karen Watts. The next election is the August 2019 Primary for the three city council seats that are held by Miller and Shelton; the City Council appoints a city administrator who acts as the chief administrative officer of the city. The city administrator is directly responsible to the City Council for the administration of all city affairs placed in his charge by the City Charter, or by ordinances passed by the Council.
Some of the administrator's duties include: see that all laws and provisions of the City Charter are faithfully executed and submit the annual budget and capital
The RATP Group known as the Régie Autonome des Transports Parisiens, is a state-owned public transport operator and maintainer headquartered in Paris, France. Formed in 1949, it has its origins as the city's public transport operator, its logo represents, in a stylized version, the Seine's meandering through the Paris area as the face of a person looking up. Today, RATP is still responsible for most of the public transport in Paris, the rest of the Île-de-France region, including the Paris Métro and bus services and part of the Réseau Express Régional network. In the Île-de-France region, RATP carries about 3 billion passengers per year; the RATP's Paris operations are still a major part of the business, but its operations have now extended to include businesses around the globe. They include involvement in the operation of bus, rapid transit and inter-city rail services in Europe, Asia and the Americas. RATP Group is the world's fifth largest operator in the public transport sector; the RATP was created on 1 January 1949 by combining the assets of the Compagnie du chemin de fer métropolitain de Paris, which operated the Paris Métro, the Société des transports en commun de la région parisienne, which operated the city's bus system.
Earlier, the CMP had absorbed the Société du Chemin de Fer Électrique Nord-Sud de Paris in 1930 and the Ligne de Sceaux in 1937, which extended commuter rail to the suburbs. The STCRP had been created on 1 January 1921 by the merger of about half a dozen independent bus and streetcar operators in the Paris area. By the time the STCRP was merged into the RATP, all of its streetcars had been replaced by bus routes. In the early years of the 21st century, a partnership with the Transdev group resulted in RATP acquiring a minority shareholding in that group, with its many worldwide transport operations. However, in 2009, the Caisse des dépôts et consignations, the majority owner of the Transdev group, started negotiations with Veolia Environnement to merge Transdev with Veolia Transport; as part of the resulting agreement, made in May 2010, it was agreed that the RATP Group would take over ownership of some of Transdev's operations in lieu of cash payment for its holdings in Transdev. This had a considerable impact on RATP's international profile.
In 2009, RATP entered the United States by purchasing transit contractor McDonald Transit Associates. McDonald operated FWTA in Texas, Votran in Florida, Waco Transit System in Texas, among others. On 1 August 2011 the RATP Group purchased Stagecoach Metrolink's contract to operate the Metrolink light rail system in Greater Manchester, England until July 2017. Two years in 2013 RATP purchased the nearby long-established coach company, Selwyns Travel, a National Express operator; the last CEOs of the RATP were Pierre Mongin and Élisabeth Borne. The actual president of the RATP, Catherine Guillouard, was nominated on 2 August 2017. In Paris, RATP operates, under its own name, on behalf of the Île-de-France Mobilités, the Paris region transit authority. RATP's services constitute, in their own right, a multi-mode public transportation infrastructure, but contribute to a larger multi-mode system extending out into the surrounding Île-de-France communities. RATP's services in the Greater Paris area include: The Paris Métro system of underground rapid transit lines, which run throughout the city, with some lines extending somewhat beyond the city boundaries.
The Métro has 16 lines with 219 km of 302 stations. Two metro lines are automated and driverless: line 1 and line 14. Orlyval, the automated metro shuttle connecting Antony station and Orly Airport. Parts of the RER, the Paris regional express rail network that runs underground in the centre of Paris and overground in the rest of the region. RATP owns and operates line A and line B, both together representing 115 km and 66 stations; the rest of the RER network is operated by SNCF. Eight out of ten lines of the Paris tram system totalizing 101.9 km and 183 stops. The extensive Paris city bus system, including the night buses of the Noctilien network. Two BRT lines: the Trans-Val-de-Marne and line 393; the Montmartre funicular. Paris bus route 341 was RATP's first line equipped with 100% electric full-size buses. RATP Dev, a 100% subsidiary of the RATP Group created in 2002, provides operations and maintenance of passenger transport services outside of the "historical" RATP network in the Greater Paris area although it operates some specialised services within Paris.
RATP Dev is present in 14 countries, namely Algeria, France, Italy, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, the United Kingdom, the United States. Wholly and owned operations include the following: Agglobus, the urban bus network of Bourges in the Cher department Aléo, the urban bus network of Moulins in the Allier department Cars Jacquemard, a coach operator in the Eure department Cars Perrier, one of the operators of the Sqybus network serving the Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines suburb near Paris The CTRL network of Lorient Agglomération in the Morbihan department Com'Bus and Val-d'Oise departments The Impulsyon urban bus netw
Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is part of the Western and the Mountain states, it is the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah and New Mexico. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912, coinciding with Valentine's Day. Part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848; the southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase. Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, spruce trees. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff and Tucson. In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, national monuments.
About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Although federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in 1924, Arizona excluded those living on reservations in the state from voting until the state Supreme Court ruled in favor of Native American plaintiffs in Trujillo v. Garley; the state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, derived from the O'odham name alĭ ṣonak, meaning "small spring", which applied only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora. To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like "Arissona"; the area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language. Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona, as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area. A native Mexican of Basque heritage established the ranchería of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora, which became notable after a significant discovery of silver there, c.
1737. There is a misconception. For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to numerous Native American tribes. Hohokam and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among the many that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived, attracting thousands of tourists each year; the first European contact by native peoples was with Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, in 1539. He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants the Sobaipuri; the expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola. Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona. One of the first settlers in Arizona was José Romo de Vivar. Father Kino was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus, he led the development of a chain of missions in the region, he converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta in the 1690s and early 18th century.
Spain founded presidios at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California known as Alta California. Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of European-American migrants from the United States. During the Mexican–American War, the U. S. Army occupied the national capital of Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what became Arizona Territory in 1863 and the State of Arizona in 1912; the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of US$15 million dollars in compensation be paid to the Republic of Mexico. In 1853, the U. S. acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway.
What is now known as the state of Arizona was administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona. This newly established territory was formally organized by the Confederate States government on Saturday, January 18, 1862, when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona, marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona"; the Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men and equipment. Formed in 1862, Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army duri