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Z/OS is a 64-bit operating system for IBM mainframes, produced by IBM. It is the successor to OS/390, which in turn followed a string of MVS versions. Like OS/390, z/OS combines a number of separate, related products, some of which are still optional. Z/OS offers the attributes of modern operating systems but retains much of the functionality originating in the 1960s and each subsequent decade, still found in daily use. Z/OS was first introduced in October 2000. Z/OS supports stable mainframe systems and standards such as CICS, COBOL, IMS, DB2, RACF, SNA, IBM MQ, record-oriented data access methods, REXX, CLIST, SMP/E, JCL, TSO/E, ISPF, among others. However, z/OS supports 64-bit Java, C, C++, UNIX APIs and applications through UNIX System ServicesThe Open Group certifies z/OS as a compliant UNIX operating system – with UNIX/Linux-style hierarchical HFS and zFS file systems; as a result, z/OS hosts a broad range of open source software. Z/OS can communicate directly via TCP/IP, including IPv6, includes standard HTTP servers along with other common services such as FTP, NFS, CIFS/SMB.

Another central design philosophy is support for high quality of service within a single operating system instance, although z/OS has built-in support for Parallel Sysplex clustering. Z/OS has a Workload Manager and dispatcher which automatically manages numerous concurrently hosted units of work running in separate key-protected address spaces according to dynamically adjustable goals; this capability inherently supports multi-tenancy within a single operating system image. However, modern IBM mainframes offer two additional levels of virtualization: LPARs and z/VM; these new functions within the hardware, z/OS, z/VM — and Linux and OpenSolaris support — have encouraged development of new applications for mainframes. Many of them utilize the WebSphere Application Server for z/OS middleware. From its inception z/OS has supported tri-modal addressing. Up through Version 1.5, z/OS itself could start in either 31-bit ESA/390 or 64-bit z/Architecture mode, so it could function on older hardware albeit without 64-bit application support on those machines.

IBM support for z/OS 1.5 ended on March 31, 2007. Now z/OS only runs in 64-bit mode. Application programmers can still use any addressing mode: all applications, regardless of their addressing mode, can coexist without modification, IBM maintains commitment to tri-modal backward compatibility. However, increasing numbers of middleware products and applications, such as DB2 Version 8 and above, now require and exploit 64-bit addressing. IBM markets z/OS as its flagship operating system, suited for continuous, high-volume operation with high security and stability. Z/OS is available under standard license pricing as well as via IBM Z New Application License Charges and "IBM Z Solution Edition," two lower priced offerings aimed at supporting newer applications. U. S. standard commercial z/OS pricing starts at about $125 per month, including support, for the smallest zNALC installation running the base z/OS product plus a typical set of optional z/OS features. Z/OS introduced Variable Workload License Charges and Entry Workload License Charges which are sub-capacity billing options.

VWLC and EWLC customers only pay for peak monthly z/OS usage, not for full machine capacity as with the previous OS/390 operating system. VWLC and EWLC are available for most IBM software products running on z/OS, their peaks are separately calculated but can never exceed the z/OS peak. To be eligible for sub-capacity licensing, a z/OS customer must be running in 64-bit mode, must have eliminated OS/390 from the system, must e-mail IBM monthly sub-capacity reports. Sub-capacity billing reduces software charges for most IBM mainframe customers. Advanced Workload License Charges is the successor to VWLC on mainframe models starting with the zEnterprise 196, EAWLC is an option on zEnterprise 114 models. AWLC and EAWLC offer further sub-capacity discounts. Within each address space, z/OS permits the placement of only data, not code, above the 2 GB "bar". Z/OS enforces this distinction for performance reasons. There are no architectural impediments to allowing more than 2 GB of application code per address space.

IBM has started to allow Java code running on z/OS to execute above the 2 GB bar, again for performance reasons. Starting with z/OS version 2 release 3, code may be placed and executed above the 2 GB "bar"; however few z/OS services may be invoked from above the "bar". Memory is obtained as "Large Memory Objects" in multiples of 1 MB. There are three types of large memory objects: Unshared – where only the creating address space can access the memory. Shared – where the creating address space can give access to specific other address spaces. Common – where all address spaces can access the memory. Generation Data Group is a special type of file used by IBM's mainframe operating system z/OS; the actual GDG is a description of how many generations of a file are to be kept and how old the oldest generation must be at least before it is deleted. Whenever a new generation is created, the system checks whether one or more obso

Štefan pri Trebnjem

Štefan pri Trebnjem is a small village in the Municipality of Trebnje in eastern Slovenia. It lies on the left bank of the Temenica River just west of Trebnje; the area is part of the historical region of Lower Carniola. The municipality is now included in the Southeast Slovenia Statistical Region; the name of the settlement was changed from Sveti Štefan to Štefan pri Trebnjem in 1955. The name was changed on the basis of the 1948 Law on Names of Settlements and Designations of Squares and Buildings as part of efforts by Slovenia's postwar communist government to remove religious elements from toponyms; the local church, from which the settlement gets its name, is dedicated to Saint Stephen and belongs to the Parish of Trebnje. It was first mentioned in written documents dating to 1526, it was expanded in the 17th century. The belfry dates to the 18th century. Media related to Štefan pri Trebnjem at Wikimedia Commons Štefan pri Trebnjem at Geopedia

Frank Vargas Pazzos

Frank Vargas Pazzos was a commander of the Ecuadorian Air Force and Chief of the Joint Armed Forces Command of Ecuador. He was born into a singular family of landowners of the province of Manabí where he attended primary school and took part in the family's routine rural economic activities, he Joined the Army College in 1955 and received his commission and pilot wings in 1957. His initial posting was to Guayaquil as a second Lieutenant, he served in Salinas and Taura, he qualified as a fighter pilot in the following aircraft: T-6 Texan, T-28 Trojan, Gloster-Meteor, MK-89. He was appointed as Air attaché in London, Commander of the Taura Air Base, Commander of the II Air Zone and Commander of the Ecuadorian Air Force. In 1983 he was appointed by president León Febres Cordero Chief of the Joint Staff of the Ecuadorian armed forces. In 1986 general Vargas aired in public grievances and denounced actions of the president inner circle of power in the procurement of a Fokker F-28 aircraft for flag carrier TAME.

An overprice of six million dollars had been paid by an Ecuadorian company where the president brother was a stockholder and his private secretary a former executive. When the president ordered his arrest, Vargas flew to the Air base of Manta using one of the Air force aircraft. A video of the actions of the morning at Manta was shown to the officer corps in Taura that showed general Vargas in a state of inebriation and out of his normal self. In the morning of the following day general Vargas flew to the Air Base in Quito in an attempt to initiate a dialogue with officers of the Army and Navy; that night the army surrounded the air base and most of the air force troops walked out of the base abandoning Vargas, apprehended during the night in the attic of the PX building. After a legislative resolution of amnesty for Vargas that president Febres Cordero refused to publish in the Official Registry tensions in the political landscape were high. During a routine visit of the president to Taura a group of commandos kidnapped the president, minister of defense, commander of the air force and several other high officials in order to negotiate for the release of general Vargas and an amnesty for the events of that day.

As a result of the actions two of the president close protection detail were killed and several wounded. Many of the arrested officers were assaulted both verbally and physically; the country and the region were placed in a general alert and throughout the day many notable personalities attempted to negotiate a peaceful resolution. As the hours passed on many other technical and support elements of the base pleaded their support for the group of commandos who placed all the detainees inside an area under construction in the Base clinic and the president and his close lieutenants in the office of the base command. In the last hours of the evening the president had ordered by telephone the release of general Vargas and through his personal secretary in the capital Quito had authorized public statements of the events. With the last hours of light the detained officers were released and transported by bus to Guayaquil. Upon his release, general Vargas joined a center left political party called APRE out of the fact that the party lacked candidates to the presidency.

He was a candidate to the presidency in 1988, 1992 y 1996 for Partido Acción Popular Revolucionaria Ecuatoriana During the presidency of Abdalá Bucaram he was a deputy and was appointed Minister for Government. In the 2002 presidential elections he was candidate to the Vice-presidency for Partido Roldosista Ecuatoriano. Ecuadorian Air Force

Epilogue For W. H. Auden

"Epilogue For W. H. Auden" is a 76-line poem by Louis MacNeice, it was written in late 1936 and was first published in book form in Letters from Iceland, a travel book in prose and verse by W. H. Auden and Louis MacNeice. MacNeice subsequently included it as the last poem in his poetry collection The Earth Compels. "Epilogue For W. H. Auden" reviews the Iceland trip MacNeice and Auden had taken together in the summer of 1936. W. H. Auden and Louis MacNeice made a trip to Iceland in the summer of 1936. Auden travelled first, in early June. MacNeice spent his first week in Reykjavik, after which the two poets took part in an expedition to circumnavigate the Langjökull on horseback. Auden found MacNeice'the ideal travelling companion, observant and good-tempered', many years would say:'I have rarely in my life enjoyed myself so much as I did during those weeks when we were together.' Jon Stallworthy comments that something of the flavour of the conversations between Auden and MacNeice on the Iceland trip is captured in Epilogue for W. H. Auden'.

The result of the Iceland trip was Letters from Iceland, a travel book in verse. Auden and MacNeice spent much of November and December 1936 together working on the book, it was in this period that MacNeice wrote Epilogue for W. H. Auden. At this time both Auden and MacNeice were living in London; the picture MacNeice gives in "Epilogue for W. H. Auden" of "loneliness / And uncommunicableness" is somewhat contradicted by letters written at the same time describing his new life in Hampstead: "Wystan is nice indeed & we had a marvellous time in Iceland... I enjoyed Spain too, & now London. Hampstead is the best part to live, I think. Stephen Spender is back in London & I am going to a party he is having this Thursday... Not that I'm lonely because I'm so busy - or else so idle in that I waste a lot of time seeing people & talking.". "Epilogue for W. H. Auden" is a poem of each of four lines; the rhyme scheme is aabb. The poem is written in tetrameters. W. H. Auden would use the same rhyme scheme and metre in the last section of In Memory of W. B.

Yeats. In "Epilogue For W. H. Auden", MacNeice reviews the Iceland trip he and Auden had taken together in the summer of 1936, contrasting the'lonely comfort' of his flat in Hampstead with the companionable discomfort of their weeks in Iceland; the poem mentions events that had occurred "down in Europe" while MacNeice and Auden were in Iceland, such as the fall of Seville and the Olympic Games in Berlin. The outbreak of the Spanish Civil War left MacNeice convinced both that a wider European war was inevitable, that individual freedom would be threatened; this conviction is expressed both in the final stanza of Epilogue For W. H. Auden, in another poem MacNeice wrote in late 1936, The Sunlight on the Garden. Auden wrote in a similar way in his Foreword to a new edition of Letters from Iceland, published in 1967: "Though writing in a'holiday' spirit, its authors were all the time conscious of a threatening horizon to their picnic - world-wide unemployment, Hitler growing every day more powerful and a world-war more inevitable.

Indeed, the prologue to that war, the Spanish Civil War, broke out while we were there." Edna Longley, in her study of Louis MacNeice, comments that "Epilogue For W. H. Auden" is "MacNeice's most integrated use of Iceland as an imaginative focus because retrospect has clarified the tension defined in'a fancy turn, you know / Sandwiched in a graver show'."Michael O'Neill and Gareth Reeves devote five pages of their book Auden, MacNeice, Spender: The Thirties Poetry to a discussion of "Epilogue: For W. H. Auden". O'Neill and Reeves write that this poem "does all the things expected of a thirties poem so comprehensively as to teeter on the verge of self-caricature -, itself characteristic of the poetry of the period, but by the end it has transcended itself with great authority. At its core is private suffering and yet painfully exposed, it uses all the tonal stops and tricks of diction at MacNeice's command." O'Neill and Reeves conclude that this poem "addresses an issue of paramount importance to MacNeice and his contemporaries: how to write poetry in an age that demands so much, while remaining true to the self and to poetry, to the poetic self."

Richard Danson Brown includes a discussion of this poem in his book Louis MacNeice and the Poetry of the 1930s. Richard Danson Brown writes that in this poem "MacNeice rehearses the tension between escapism and political reality as he reviews'our Iceland trip' from his Hampstead home; the poem oscillates between celebration of the trip as a holiday from responsibility and the insistent sense of calamity, sometimes in the space of the same couplet:'Time for the soul to stretch and spit / Before the world comes back on it'." W. H. Auden and Louis MacNeice, Letters from Iceland. Faber and Faber, 1937. W. H. Auden and L

Zach Wiegert

Zachary Allen Wiegert is a former American college and professional football player, an offensive tackle in the National Football League for twelve seasons. He played college football for the University of Nebraska, earned All-American honors, was a member of a national championship team. A second-round pick in the 1995 NFL Draft, he played professionally for the St. Louis Rams, Jacksonville Jaguars and Houston Texans of the NFL. Wiegert was born in Nebraska, he attended Archbishop Bergan High School in Fremont, played high school football for the Bergan Knights. Wiegert attended the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, where he played for the Nebraska Cornhuskers football team from 1991 to 1994. From his sophomore through senior seasons, he started 37 consecutive games at right tackle. In his 46-game Cornhuskers career, Wiegert gave up just one quarterback sack while earning first-team All-Big Eight Conference honors in 1992, 1993 and 1994, he earned second-team All-America honors in 1993, helping lead Nebraska to an undefeated regular season and an Orange Bowl appearance.

As a senior in 1994, he was the winner of the Outland Trophy, awarded to the nation's top interior lineman, was recognized as a consensus first-team All-American. Wiegert blocked for a Cornhuskers offense that led the NCAA in rushing yards for the eleventh time, averaging 340 yards per game on the ground, Nebraska won its first national football championship since 1971, he was the UPI Lineman of the Year, the Touchdown Club of Columbus Offensive Lineman of the Year, a finalist for the Lombardi Award, finished 10th in the Heisman voting. The university retired his No. 72 jersey before the 1995 season. The St. Louis Rams selected Wiegert in the second round of the 1995 NFL Draft, he played with the Rams from 1995 to 1998; as a rookie in 1995, he started two. In 1996, he started; the following year, under new coach Dick Vermiel, Wiegert moved to right guard and started 15 of 16 regular season games. He caught a one-yard pass to give the Rams a first down on game-winning drive that resulted in Jeff Wilkins' 25-yard field goal with four seconds remaining at Washington.

He scored first-career TD after recovering Jerald Moore's fumble in the end zone at Carolina. He was granted free agency on February 13, 1998, re-signed with Rams on June 17, 1998. In 1998, he started 13 games at right guard for St. Louis, he missed three games with a knee injury. He was designated by Rams as transition player on February 12, 1999, was re-signed by the Rams on March 24, 1999, he was released by Rams on April 28, 1999, after had become expendable since Rams had signed Adam Timmerman to play right guard. Wiegert played four seasons with the Jacksonville Jaguars from 1999 to 2002, he signed as a free agent May 5, 1999, with the Jaguars in 1999. That season, he played in 16 games with 12 starts at right guard for 14-2 Jaguars. In 2000, he started eight games at right tackle before suffering a torn anterior cruciate ligament in left knee, he had allowed only four sacks in eight games. He was placed on injured reserve on October 14, 2000. In 2001, he came back from injury to start all 16 games at right guard, the first time he had been able to do so since 1996.

Wiegert played and started in seven games in 2002 before being placed on injured reserve on 11/6/2002. He made his first NFL start at left tackle versus Indianapolis and started four more games at left tackle before starting two games at right tackle, he was granted unconditional free agency on February 28, 2003. He played for the Houston Texans from 2003 to 2006, he signed by Texans on March 1, 2003. In 2003, he played in 15 games. In 2005, he started 12 games; the following season, 2006, he started nine games at right tackle. On February 28, 2007, the Texans released Wiegert

Hristo Yanev

Hristo Yanev is a Bulgarian football manager and former player. Yanev played as a midfielder. Born in Kazanluk, Yanev was picked as a youth to play for local side Rozova Dolina, making his professional debut for Olimpik Teteven during the 1997–98 season. In 1999, he joined. After playing one season at Beroe, Yanev signed for CSKA Sofia in 2000, when he was only 20 years old and since he has always played an important role in the team. Yanev plays either as second striker, he made his competitive debut for CSKA on 4 August 2000 in a 0–0 home draw against Litex Lovech. On 25 August, Yanev scored his CSKA's first and first-ever UEFA Cup goal in an 8–0 drubbing of Moldovan Constructorul. Two days he scored his first league goal for CSKA in a 3–0 home win over Botev Plovdiv; as a player of CSKA Yanev has been twice champion of Bulgaria and has once won the Bulgarian national cup 2006. He spent six seasons of his career at the club, playing in 146 games of the A PFG and scoring 54 goals. In summer of 2006, Grenoble Foot 38 signed Yanev to a three-year deal.

For three years he scored six goals for Grenoble. With the club he played two seasons in Ligue 2 and one in Ligue 1. On 25 June 2009, Yanev returned to Bulgaria, he established himself as a key figure for the team from Lovech, helping them win the 2010 and 2011 A PFG titles. On 7 June 2012, Yanev signed a contract with former club CSKA Sofia. Yanev's second stay at CSKA turned out to be short-lived, as he was released from the club in the summer of 2012 following the team's elimination from the UEFA Europa League by Slovenian club Murа 05. On 12 September 2012, Yanev signed with Greek club Panetolikos F. C.. On 8 April 2013, he was released from the team. In the summer of 2013, he joined Slavia Sofia after having trained with the team for a number of weeks. Yanev received his first call-up to the senior team in Hristo Stoichkov's first game in charge of Bulgaria in 2004. On 18 August he made his debut, replacing Marian Hristov as a second-half substitute in a 1–1 friendly draw against Ireland at Lansdowne Road Stadium.

Two weeks on 4 September, Yanev scored his first international goal in a 3–1 win over Iceland in a 2006 World Cup qualifier. On 13 October, he scored the second goal in Bulgaria's 4–1 win over Malta in Sofia. Two years on 9 May 2006, Yanev netted his third goal for the senior team as he scored the winning strike in a 2–1 victory over Japan in a game of the Kirin Cup. During the winter break of the 2014-15 season, Yanev was appointed head coach of Minyor Pernik, whom at that time were participating in the South-West V Group, he debuted his coaching career on 1 March 2015 at Minyor's thrashing 4-1 over Germanea Sapareva Banya. In the summer of 2015, he was approached by the financially troubled CSKA Sofia, who were sent off to the V Group after the club's failure to obtain a license for the upcoming season in the first division. On 17 September 2016, Yanev was appointed as manager of Neftochimic Burgas, he couldn't save the team from relegation and left the team in June 2017 after the final relegation play-off against Vitosha Bistritsa.

Neftochimic's sporting director questioned his lack of responsibility. As of 20 May 2018 Litex LovechBulgarian A PFG: 2009–10, 2010–11 Bulgarian Supercup: 2010CSKA SofiaBulgarian A PFG: 2002–03, 2004–05 Bulgarian Cup: 2005-06 CSKA SofiaBulgarian Cup: 2015-16 V AFG: 2015-16 Hristo Yanev at