A double-track railway usually involves running one track in each direction, compared to a single-track railway where trains in both directions share the same track. In the earliest days of railways in the United Kingdom, most lines were built as double-track because of the difficulty of co-ordinating operations before the invention of the telegraph, the lines tended to be busy enough to be beyond the capacity of a single track. In the early days the Board of Trade did not consider any single-track railway line to be complete and this improved with the development of the telegraph and the train order system. In any given country, rail traffic generally runs to one side of a double-track line, thus in Belgium, France, Sweden and Italy for example, the railways use left-hand running, while the roads use right-hand running. In countries such as Indonesia, it is the reverse, on the French-German border, for example, flyovers were provided so that train moving on the left in France end up on the right in Germany and vice versa.
Handedness of traffic can affect locomotive design, for the driver, visibility is good from both sides of the driving cab so the choice on which side to site the driver less important. For example, the French SNCF Class BB7200 is designed for using the left-hand track, the left/right principle in a country is followed mostly on double track. On single track, when trains meet, the train that shall not stop uses the straight path in the turnout. Double-track railways, especially older ones, may use each track exclusively in one direction and this arrangement simplifies the signalling systems, especially where the signalling is mechanical. Where the signals and points or rail switches are power-operated, it can be worthwhile to signal each line in both directions, so that the line becomes a pair of single lines. This allows trains to use one track where the track is out of service due to track maintenance work, or a train failure. Most crossing loops are not regarded as even though they consist of multiple tracks.
If the crossing loop is long enough to several trains. A more modern British term for such a layout is an extended loop, the distance between the track centres makes a difference in cost and performance of a double-track line. The track centres can be as narrow and as cheap as possible, signals for bi-directional working cannot be mounted between the tracks so must be mounted on the wrong side of the line or on expensive signal bridges. Track centres are usually wider on high speed lines, as pressure waves knock each other as high-speed trains pass, narrow track centres might be 4 metres or less. Narrow track centres may have to be widened on sharp curves to allow for rail vehicles following the arc of the curve. Widening a track centre to 5 metres or so suits high-speed trains passing each other, increasing width of track centres of 6 metres or more makes it much easier to mount signals and overhead wiring structures
Šljivovica, Schlivowitz, or Slivovitsa is a fruit brandy made from damson plums, often referred to as plum brandy. Slivovitz is produced in Central and South-East Europe both commercially and privately, primary producers are in Bosnia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Poland, Serbia and Slovenia. In the Balkans, Slivovitz is considered a kind of Rakia, in Hungaria Pálinka and in the Czech Republic and Slovakia Pálenka, for example, Czech meruňka apricot → meruňkovice apricot brandy, broskev peach → broskvovice peach brandy. The primary producers are Bosnia, Czech Republic, Poland, during the production process, the plums and their ground kernels are crushed and pressed, yeast and sugar may be added to the juice. The mixture is allowed to ferment. There may be one or more stages, depending on the desired final product or region of production. Some producers have obtained a Hechsher certifying that it is kosher for Passover, imitation slivovitz is made by flavouring spirits with prune juice and artificial oil of bitter almonds.
In Bulgaria, the Troyan plum brandy has been distilled in the Troyan Monastery by the monks since the founding of the monastery in the 14th century, the original recipe included 40 herbs, and was passed through the centuries from abbot to abbot. In 1894 the Monasterys brandy was presented at a competition in Antwerp, Belgium. It is considered best distilled to a level between 39 and 41 degrees. Some celebrities who have tasted Troyan plum brandy are Pope John Paul II, patriarch Maxim of Bulgaria celebrated his 95th birthday in 2009 in the Sofia Metropolitanate with Troyan plum brandy. In cooperation with the Bulgarian government, the Czech distillery Rudolf Jelinek protected the brands Troyanska slivova, the Czechs reduced the alcohol content to pay less duty. The production of Vinprom-Troyan is mainly for export, for the past 18 years, Troyan has a special holiday, The Festival of Plum. This holiday is celebrated at the end of September in Troyan, the plum has always been an essential produce in this region.
Since the beginning of the 20th century plums have been made into marmalades, dried prunes and it is primarily produced in the southern and eastern provinces of Moravia and in Vysočina, where the country retains its rural character. The production was introduced by immigrants from the Balkans since the 16th century. Although illegal, traditional home distilleries still exist, the majority of production moved to certified local community-owned distilleries to prevent errors during the distillation process. It allows state authorities to collect their respective taxes based on the proof of the product, however there are tax-reliefs for private, the usual proof of private-produced slivovice is over 50% of alcohol in the final product, commercially available mass-produced drinks are mostly lower proof
From 1939 to 1945, following its forced division and partial incorporation into Nazi Germany, the state did not de facto exist but its government-in-exile continued to operate. From 1948 to 1990, Czechoslovakia was part of the Soviet bloc with a command economy and its economic status was formalized in membership of Comecon from 1949, and its defense status in the Warsaw Pact of May 1955. A period of liberalization in 1968, known as the Prague Spring, was forcibly ended when the Soviet Union, assisted by several other Warsaw Pact countries. In 1993, Czechoslovakia split into the two states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Form of state 1918–1938, A democratic republic, 1938–1939, After annexation of Sudetenland by Nazi Germany in 1938, the region gradually turned into a state with loosened connections among the Czech and Ruthenian parts. A large strip of southern Slovakia and Carpatho-Ukraine was annexed by Hungary, 1939–1945, The region was split into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and the Slovak Republic.
A government-in-exile continued to exist in London, supported by the United Kingdom, United States and its Allies, after the German invasion of Russia, Czechoslovakia adhered to the Declaration by United Nations and was a founding member of the United Nations. 1946–1948, The country was governed by a government with communist ministers, including the prime minister. Carpathian Ruthenia was ceded to the Soviet Union, 1948–1989, The country became a socialist state under Soviet domination with a centrally planned economy. In 1960, the country became a socialist republic, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. It was a state of the Soviet Union. 1989–1990, The federal republic consisted of the Czech Socialist Republic, 1990–1992, Following the Velvet Revolution, the state was renamed the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, consisting of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic. Neighbours Austria 1918–1938, 1945–1992 Germany Hungary Poland Romania 1918–1938 Soviet Union 1945–1991 Ukraine 1991–1992 Topography The country was of irregular terrain.
The western area was part of the north-central European uplands, the eastern region was composed of the northern reaches of the Carpathian Mountains and lands of the Danube River basin. Climate The weather is mild winters and mild summers, influenced by the Atlantic Ocean from the west, Baltic Sea from the north, and Mediterranean Sea from the south. The area was long a part of the Austro Hungarian Empire until the Empire collapsed at the end of World War I, the new state was founded by Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, who served as its first president from 14 November 1918 to 14 December 1935. He was succeeded by his ally, Edvard Beneš. The roots of Czech nationalism go back to the 19th century, nationalism became a mass movement in the last half of the 19th century
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
Vienna is the capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austrias primary city, with a population of about 1.8 million, and its cultural, economic and it is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin, Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC. The city is located in the part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic, Slovakia. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region, along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site, apart from being regarded as the City of Music because of its musical legacy, Vienna is said to be The City of Dreams because it was home to the worlds first psycho-analyst – Sigmund Freud. The citys roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval and Baroque city and it is well known for having played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century.
The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, Vienna is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first for the worlds most liveable cities, between 2011 and 2015, Vienna was ranked second, behind Melbourne, Australia. Monocles 2015 Quality of Life Survey ranked Vienna second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world to make a base within, the UN-Habitat has classified Vienna as being the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013. Vienna regularly hosts urban planning conferences and is used as a case study by urban planners. Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna was the worlds number-one destination for international congresses and it attracts over 3.7 million tourists a year. The English name Vienna is borrowed from the homonymous Italian version of the name or the French Vienne. The etymology of the name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning forest stream, which produced the Old High German Uuenia.
A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the Czech and Slovak names of the city, the name of the city in Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian and Ottoman Turkish has a different, probably Slavonic origin, and originally referred to an Avar fort in the area. Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River, evidence has been found of continuous habitation since 500 BC, when the site of Vienna on the Danube River was settled by the Celts. In 15 BC, the Romans fortified the city they called Vindobona to guard the empire against Germanic tribes to the north
Gbely is a town in the Skalica District, Trnava Region in western Slovakia, close to the Czech border. The first written record about Gbely was in 1392 and it gained town rights in the 16th–17th centuries. Petroleum was discovered in 1912 and extraction started in 1914, Gbely lies at an altitude of 190 metres above sea level and covers an area of 59.945 square kilometres. It is located in the Záhorie region, in the Chvojnická pahorkatina hills, according to the 2001 census, the town had 5,223 inhabitants. 96. 09% of inhabitants were Slovaks,1. 26% Czechs 0. 96% Roma, the religious make-up was 83. 40% Roman Catholics,14. 57% people with no religious affiliation and 0. 69% Lutherans. Matej Kocak Slovak-American World War I Medal of Honor winner was born here
The Morava is a river in Central Europe, a left tributary of the Danube. It is the river of Moravia, which derives its name from it. The river originates on the Králický Sněžník mountain in the corner of Pardubice Region. The lower part of the rivers course forms the border between the Czech Republic and Slovakia and between Austria and Slovakia, the latter three are actually continuous parts of one large basin, forming the major part of the Vienna Basin. In the Czech Republic, there are some larger towns lying upon Morava, particularly Olomouc, Kroměříž, Uherské Hradiště and Hodonín. After 354 km of its course, Morava feeds the Danube by a discharge rate of 120 m3/s. The Morava river is unusual in that it is a European blackwater river, the rivers longest tributary is Thaya or Dyje, flowing in at the tripoint of Austria, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The biggest tributary from the left is Bečva, though the German name March may refer to Mark, frontier, the rivers name more probably is derived from Proto-Indo-European *mori, waters.
It was first documented as Maraha in an 892 deed, at the times of the Cold War, this section of the river was part of the Iron curtain, being the frontier between Austria and Czechoslovakia. In July 1997, the Morava basin was affected by heavy stratiform raining, in the Czech Republic,49 people lost their life, more than 250 villages had to be evacuated and the total damage cost 63 milliard crowns. March of Austria March of Moravia Geographic data related to Morava at OpenStreetMap
The Czech Republic, known as Czechia, is a nation state in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast. The Czech Republic covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres with mostly temperate continental climate and it is a unitary parliamentary republic, has 10.5 million inhabitants and the capital and largest city is Prague, with over 1.2 million residents. The Czech Republic includes the territories of Bohemia, Moravia. The Czech state was formed in the late 9th century as the Duchy of Bohemia under the Great Moravian Empire, after the fall of the Empire in 907, the centre of power transferred from Moravia to Bohemia under the Přemyslid dynasty. In 1002, the duchy was formally recognized as part of the Holy Roman Empire, becoming the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1198 and reaching its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the whole Crown of Bohemia was gradually integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy alongside the Archduchy of Austria, the Protestant Bohemian Revolt against the Catholic Habsburgs led to the Thirty Years War.
After the Battle of the White Mountain, the Habsburgs consolidated their rule, reimposed Roman Catholicism, the Czech part of Czechoslovakia was occupied by Germany in World War II, and was liberated in 1945 by the armies of the Soviet Union and the United States. The Czech country lost the majority of its German-speaking inhabitants after they were expelled following the war, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia won the 1946 elections. Following the 1948 coup détat, Czechoslovakia became a one-party communist state under Soviet influence, in 1968, increasing dissatisfaction with the regime culminated in a reform movement known as the Prague Spring, which ended in a Soviet-led invasion. Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, when the communist regime collapsed, on 6 March 1990, the Czech Socialistic Republic was renamed to the Czech Republic. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved, with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic.
The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004, it is a member of the United Nations, the OECD, the OSCE, and it is a developed country with an advanced, high income economy and high living standards. The UNDP ranks the country 14th in inequality-adjusted human development, the Czech Republic ranks as the 6th most peaceful country, while achieving strong performance in democratic governance. It has the lowest unemployment rate in the European Union, the traditional English name Bohemia derives from Latin Boiohaemum, which means home of the Boii. The current name comes from the endonym Čech, spelled Cžech until the reform in 1842. The name comes from the Slavic tribe and, according to legend, their leader Čech, the etymology of the word Čech can be traced back to the Proto-Slavic root *čel-, meaning member of the people, thus making it cognate to the Czech word člověk. The country has traditionally divided into three lands, namely Bohemia in the west, Moravia in the southeast, and Czech Silesia in the northeast.
Following the dissolution of Czechoslovakia at the end of 1992, the Czech part of the former nation found itself without a common single-word geographical name in English, the name Czechia /ˈtʃɛkiə/ was recommended by the Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Malacky is a town and municipality in western Slovakia around 35 kilometres north from capital Bratislava. From the second half of the 10th century until 1918, it was part of the Kingdom of Hungary, the town is located on the large Prague-Brno-Bratislava highway, and many residents commute daily to Bratislava. The Little Carpathians mountain range with its network of signposted trails provides excellent opportunities for mountain biking, the origin of the name is uncertain. According to the first theory, the name refers to the Hungarian word malacka which means piglet in Hungarian, a drawback of this theory is that the Hungarian malacka is only a borrowing from Slovenian and the name is older than the borrowing. Other theories derive the name from Slovak mláky, mlátiť or from the name of the Malina creek, the name of the city was first mentioned in writing in 1206. During World War II, Malacky was captured on 5 April 1945 by troops of the Soviet 2nd Ukrainian Front, the most prominent sites in Malacky include the Franciscan church of the Immaculate Conception of Mary, the so-called Palffy Palace and the renovated synagogue.
The church includes a precise from 1653 of the so-called Holy Stairs that Christ ascended to the Pretorium of Pilate, the Palffy Palace until recently was used as a hospital and is currently unoccupied. It has recently acquired by the local municipality. Located in the center of Malacky is a large renovated synagogue built in 1886 in Moorish Revival style which is now being used a cultural center. Adjacent to it there is sport arena MALINA containing two indoor swimming pools and a hall used for handball, basketball and indoor football. Swedspan, a subsidiary of IKEA, operates a large lumber plant just south of the city, additionally the Kuchyňa airbase, which is occasionally used by the US Air Force and other NATO air forces for training purposes, is located approximately 10 km east of the city. In September 2008, Slovak National Party President Ján Slota facilitated the erection of a large Slovak cross near Malacky as a demonstration of Slovak nationalism, according to the 2001 census, the town had 18,063 inhabitants. 96.
68% of inhabitants were Slovaks,1. 02% Czechs and 0. 51% Hungarians, the religious makeup was 70. 35% Roman Catholics,19. 48% people with no religious affiliation, and 1. 98% Lutherans. According to the 1910 census 75% were slovaks, istván Friedrich, prime minister of Hungary for three months in 1919, was born here. Arnošt Wiesner, modern architect who designed buildings in Brno, was born here, martin Benka, a Slovak painter and illustrator, was born near here and died here in 1971. Ádám Liszt, the father of composer and pianist Franz Liszt, was here in 1776. František Lukovský, small business owner, who committed a suicide in 2002 in front of the tax office using self-made guillotine, Malacky is twinned with, Veselí nad Moravou in Czech Republic Żnin in Poland Albertirsa in Hungary Municipal website Map of Malacky
Emperor Ferdinand Northern Railway
The Emperor Ferdinand Northern Railway was the name of a former railway company during the time of the Austrian Empire. Its main line was supposed to connect Vienna with salt mines in Bochnia near Kraków, the term is still used to describe certain railway lines which were formerly operated by that company. The Nordbahn, or Kaiser Ferdinands-Nordbahn, was Austrias first steam railway company, the first track was built between Floridsdorf and Deutsch Wagram in 1837. The extension to Vienna was built in 1838, and the track through Břeclav to Brünn in 1839, the first train from Vienna arrived to Břeclav on 6. In 1841 it reached Přerov and Olomouc and in 1842 Lipník nad Bečvou, extension to Ostrava and Bohumín was finished in 1847. Nordbahn never directly reached Kraków or Bochnia, the first way to Kraków on rails via Bogumin and Mysłowice was served by the Prussian lines of Williams Railway and Upper Silesian Railway. The line from Mysłowice to Kraków was built by the Krákow, the Northern Railway company was nationalized in 1907.
It owned coal mines and other industry enterprises in Ostrava region. After the nationalization of its network, it continued its coal. Nordbahnhof was destroyed in World War II and rebuilt in 1962 along with the bridge across the Danube, the express trains going from Vienna to Brno leave from Wien Meidling railway station. Praterstern Station is only used for suburban and regional train lines and it caused quite a sensation, so it was watched and cheered by crowds of Viennese along its route