The Ford Zephyr is a car, manufactured by Ford of Britain from 1950 to 1972. The four cylinder version was named Ford Consul but from 1962 both four- and six-cylinder versions were named Zephyr, the Consul name having been discontinued on this line of cars; the Zephyr, its luxury variants, the Ford Zodiac and Ford Executive, were the largest passenger cars in the British Ford range from 1950 until their replacement by the Consul and Granada models in 1972. The Mark I Ford Consul and Zephyr models were first displayed at the Earls Court Motor Show in 1950, they were the first British cars to use in mass production the MacPherson Strut independent front suspension, used today. Production began with the Consul on 1 January 1951; the Mark I model ran until 1956. From April 1956 the Mark II Consul and Zodiac went on sale and were known as the Three Graces; the Mark II range was popular and finished its run in 1962, when from April that year the Mark III Zephyr 4, Zephyr 6 and Zodiac went on sale. The Consul name was dropped, the car's place in the Ford UK line-up being filled by the first four-cylinder Ford Zephyr.
While the Mark II Zephyr and Zodiacs had shared the same body, the new Zodiac and Zephyrs launched in 1962 shared few body panels. With the Mark III, Ford sorted out problems that had beset previous models and the Mark III proved to be popular and the most durable of the range; the model sold at a rate equal to or better than the Mark II both in the UK and overseas, but was in production for a shorter time. During the last months of production, an up-market Executive version was added to the Mark III range; the Mk III range was discontinued in January 1966 and the new Zephyr / Zodiac Mark IV range was released in April 1966. This car's design anticipated the Consul/Granada range with V-engines and independent rear suspension, but the development of the model was rushed and this was reflected in its durability, it was one of the first medium priced cars to feature rear disc brakes. Although the Ford Zephyr never saw American production, a limited number were imported into the U. S. and the name itself has appeared on other American Ford-related cars.
The first use of the Zephyr name was in 1936 with the Lincoln-Zephyr a smaller companion to the full sized Lincoln sedan sold at the time, followed in the late 1970s with the Mercury Zephyr, an upscale version of the Ford Fairmont. The Lincoln Zephyr name was resurrected for a new model in 2006 but was changed to Lincoln MKZ the following year. Model number EOTTAThe first of the Zephyr range was a lengthened version of the four-cylinder 1,508 cc Consul, with a 2,262 cc six-cylinder engine producing 68 bhp. Like the Consul, the Zephyr came with a three-speed gear box, controlled by a column-mounted lever; the front suspension design employed what would come to be known as MacPherson struts while a more conventional configuration for the rear suspension used a live axle with half-elliptic springs. The car could reach just over 23 mpg; the Ford Zephyr Six was available with 4-door saloon and two-door convertible bodies. The convertible version had a power-operated hood. In addition to the main British Ford factory in Dagenham, the Consul and Zephyr were assembled at Ford New Zealand's Seaview factory in Lower Hutt from CKD kits.
The large Fords competed with the locally built Vauxhall Wyvern and Velox and the Australian Holden. When the newly crowned Queen Elizabeth II visited New Zealand as part of a Commonwealth tour in the early 1950s, she was pictured watching Zephyrs being built at the local Ford plant. In 1953, a Ford Zephyr Six driven by Maurice Gatsonides won the Monte Carlo rally, pushing a Jaguar Mark VII into second place in the process. Two years a Ford Zephyr Six driven by Vic Preston and D P Marwaha won the East African Safari Rally. A saloon tested by The Motor magazine in 1951 had a top speed of 79.8 mph and could accelerate from 0–60 mph in 20.2 seconds. A fuel consumption of 23.7 miles per imperial gallon was recorded. The test car cost £842 including taxes but was fitted with optional leather trim and radio. Model number EOTTAThe Zephyr Zodiac was an upmarket version of the Zephyr launched at the London Motor Show in autumn 1953, it had two-tone paintwork, leather trim, a heater, windscreen washers, whitewall tyres, spot lights.
The engine had a higher compression ratio – 7.5:1 instead of 6.8:1 – increasing the maximum power to 71 bhp. A car tested by The Motor magazine in 1955 had a top speed of 80 mph and could accelerate from 0-60 mph in 20.2 seconds. A fuel consumption of 22.2 miles per imperial gallon was recorded. The test car cost £851 including taxes. There are no official records of Zephyr Zodiac convertibles being produced, but there were a few estate cars. Model number 206EIn 1956 the Consul and Zodiac were all restyled; the 6-cylinder cars' engines were enlarged to 2,553 cc, with power output correspondingly raised to 86 bhp. The wheelbase was increased by 3 inches to the width increased to 69 inches; the weight distribution and turning circle were improved. Top speed increased to 88 mph and the fuel consumption was improved at 28 mpg‑imp; the Zodiac and Zephyr were offered in two body styles these being the "Highline" and "Lowline", depending on the year of manufacture — the dif
BBC One is the first and principal television channel of the British Broadcasting Corporation in the United Kingdom, Isle of Man and Channel Islands. It was launched on 2 November 1936 as the BBC Television Service, was the world's first regular television service with a high level of image resolution, it was renamed BBC TV in 1960, using this name until the launch of the second BBC channel BBC2 in 1964, whereupon the BBC TV channel became known as BBC1, with the current spelling adopted in 1997. The channel's annual budget for 2012–13 was £1.14 billion. The channel is funded by the television licence fee together with the BBC's other domestic television stations, shows uninterrupted programming without commercial advertising, it is the most watched television channel in the United Kingdom, ahead of its traditional rival for ratings leadership, ITV. As of June 2013 the channel controller for BBC One was Charlotte Moore, who succeeded Danny Cohen as an Acting Controller from May 2013; the BBC began its own regular television programming from the basement of Broadcasting House, London, on 22 August 1932.
The BBC Television Service began regular broadcasts on 2 November 1936 from a converted wing of the Alexandra Palace in London. On 1 September 1939, two days before Britain declared war on Germany, the station was taken off air with little warning, with one of the last programmes to be shown before the suspension of the service being a Mickey Mouse cartoon. BBC Television returned on 7 June 1946 at 15:00. Jasmine Bligh, one of the original announcers, made the first announcement, saying, "Good afternoon everybody. How are you? Do you remember me, Jasmine Bligh?". The Mickey Mouse cartoon of 1939 was repeated twenty minutes later; the BBC held a statutory monopoly on television broadcasting in the United Kingdom until the first Independent Television station began to broadcast on 22 September 1955, when ITV started broadcasting. The competition forced the channel to change its identity and priorities following a large reduction in its audience; the 1962 Pilkington Report on the future of broadcasting noticed this, that ITV lacked any serious programming.
It therefore decided that Britain's third television station should be awarded to the BBC. The station, renamed BBC TV in 1960, became BBC1 when BBC2 was launched on 20 April 1964 transmitting an incompatible 625-line image on UHF; the only way to receive all channels was to use a complex "dual-standard" 405- and 625-line, VHF and UHF, with both a VHF and a UHF aerial. Old 405-line-only sets became obsolete in 1985, when transmission in the standard ended, although standards converters have become available for enthusiasts who collect and restore such TVs. BBC1 was based at the purpose-built BBC Television Centre at White City, London between 1960 and 2013. Television News continued to use Alexandra Palace as its base—by early 1968 it had converted one of its studios to colour—before moving to new purpose-built facilities at Television Centre on 20 September 1969. In the weeks leading up to 15 November 1969, BBC1 unofficially transmitted the occasional programme in its new colour system, to test it.
At midnight on 15 November with ITV and two years after BBC2, BBC1 began 625-line PAL colour programming on UHF with a broadcast of a concert by Petula Clark. Colour transmissions could be received on monochrome 625-line sets until the end of analogue broadcasting. In terms of audience share, the most successful period for BBC1 was under Bryan Cowgill between 1973 and 1977, when the channel achieved an average audience share of 45%; this period is still regarded by many as a golden age of the BBC's output, with the BBC achieving a high standard across its entire range of series, plays, light entertainment and documentaries. On 30 December 1980, the BBC announced their intention to introduce a new breakfast television service to compete with TV-am; the BBC stated it would start broadcasting before TV-am, but made clear their hands were tied until November 1981 when the new licence fee income became available, to help finance extending broadcast hours, with the hope of starting in 1982. On 17 January 1983, the first edition of Breakfast Time was shown on BBC1, becoming the first UK wide breakfast television service and continued to lead in the ratings until 1984.
In 1984, Bill Cotton become managing director of Television at the BBC, set about overhauling BBC1, slated for poor home grown shows, its heavy reliance on US imports, with Dallas and The Thorn Birds being BBC1's highest rated programmes and ratings being over 20% behind ITV. Cotton recruited Michael Grade to become Controller of BBC1, the first time the Corporation had recruited someone outside of the BBC, replacing Alan Hart, criticised for his lack of knowledge in general entertainment, as he was head of BBC Sport prior to 1981; the first major overhaul was to axe the unpopular Sixty Minutes current affairs programme: this was a replacement for the news and magazine show Nationwide. Its replacement was the BBC Six O'Clock News, a straight new programme in a bid to shore up its failing early evening slot, it was believed the BBC were planning to cut short the evening news and move more light entertainment programming in from the 18:20 slot, but this was dismissed. The Miss Great Britain contest was dropped, being described as verging on the too offensive after the January 1985 contest, with Worlds Strongest Man and International Superstar being axed.
BBC1 was relaunched on 18 February 1985 with a new look, new programming including Wogan, EastEnders and a revised schedule to help streamline and maintain viewers thr
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 within the Liverpool City Council local authority in 2017. Its metropolitan area is the fifth-largest in the UK, with a population of 2.24 million in 2011. The local authority is Liverpool City Council, the most populous local government district in the metropolitan county of Merseyside and the largest in the Liverpool City Region. Liverpool is on the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary, lay within the ancient hundred of West Derby in the south west of the county of Lancashire, it became a borough in 1207 and a city in 1880. In 1889, it became a county borough independent of Lancashire, its growth as a major port was paralleled by the expansion of the city throughout the Industrial Revolution. Along with handling general cargo, raw materials such as coal and cotton, the city merchants were involved in the Atlantic slave trade. In the 19th century, it was a major port of departure for Irish and English emigrants to North America.
Liverpool was home to both the Cunard and White Star Line, was the port of registry of the ocean liner RMS Titanic, the RMS Lusitania, RMS Queen Mary and RMS Olympic. The popularity of the Beatles and other music groups from the Merseybeat era contributes to Liverpool's status as a tourist destination. Liverpool is the home of two Premier League football clubs and Everton, matches between the two being known as the Merseyside derby; the Grand National horse race takes place annually at Aintree Racecourse on the outskirts of the city. The city celebrated its 800th anniversary in 2007. In 2008, it was nominated as the annual European Capital of Culture together with Norway. Several areas of the city centre were granted World Heritage Site status by UNESCO in 2004; the Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City includes the Pier Head, Albert Dock, William Brown Street. Liverpool's status as a port city has attracted a diverse population, drawn from a wide range of peoples and religions from Ireland and Wales.
The city is home to the oldest Black African community in the country and the oldest Chinese community in Europe. Natives and residents of the city of Liverpool are referred to as Liverpudlians, colloquially as "Scousers", a reference to "scouse", a form of stew; the word "Scouse" has become synonymous with the Liverpool accent and dialect. The name comes from the Old English lifer, meaning thick or muddy water, pōl, meaning a pool or creek, is first recorded around 1190 as Liuerpul. According to the Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names, "The original reference was to a pool or tidal creek now filled up into which two streams drained"; the adjective Liverpudlian is first recorded in 1833. Other origins of the name have been suggested, including "elverpool", a reference to the large number of eels in the Mersey; the name appeared in 1190 as "Liuerpul", the place appearing as Leyrpole, in a legal record of 1418, may refer to Liverpool. Another such suggestion is derivation from Welsh llyvr pwl meaning "expanse or confluence at the pool".
King John's letters patent of 1207 announced the foundation of the borough of Liverpool. By the middle of the 16th century, the population was still around 500; the original street plan of Liverpool is said to have been designed by King John near the same time it was granted a royal charter, making it a borough. The original seven streets were laid out in an H shape: Bank Street, Castle Street, Chapel Street, Dale Street, Juggler Street, Moor Street and Whiteacre Street. In the 17th century there was slow progress in population growth. Battles for control of the town were waged during the English Civil War, including an eighteen-day siege in 1644. In 1699 Liverpool was made a parish by Act of Parliament, that same year its first slave ship, Liverpool Merchant, set sail for Africa. Since Roman times, the nearby city of Chester on the River Dee had been the region's principal port on the Irish Sea. However, as the Dee began to silt up, maritime trade from Chester became difficult and shifted towards Liverpool on the neighbouring River Mersey.
As trade from the West Indies, including sugar, surpassed that of Ireland and Europe, as the River Dee continued to silt up, Liverpool began to grow with increasing rapidity. The first commercial wet dock was built in Liverpool in 1715. Substantial profits from the slave trade and tobacco helped the town to prosper and grow, although several prominent local men, including William Rathbone, William Roscoe and Edward Rushton, were at the forefront of the abolitionist movement. By the start of the 19th century, a large volume of trade was passing through Liverpool, the construction of major buildings reflected this wealth. In 1830, Liverpool and Manchester became the first cities to have an intercity rail link, through the Liverpool and Manchester Railway; the population continued to rise especially during the 1840s when Irish migrants began arriving by the hundreds of thousands as a result of the Great Famine. In her poem "Liverpool", which celebrates the city's worldwide commerce, Letitia Elizabeth Landon refers to the Macgregor Laird expedition to the Niger River, at that time in progress.
Great Britain was a major market for cotton imported from the Deep South of the United States, which fed the textile industry in the country. Given the crucial place of both cotton and slavery in the city's economy, during the American Civil War Liverpool was, in the words of historian Sven Beckert, "the most pro-Confederate place in the world outside the Confederacy itself." For periods during the 19th century, the wealth of Liverpool
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment
Dixon of Dock Green
Dixon of Dock Green was a BBC television series about daily life at a London police station, with the emphasis on petty crime controlled through common sense and human understanding. The central character was a mature and sympathetic police constable, George Dixon, played by Jack Warner in all of the 432 episodes, from 1955 to 1976. Dixon was the embodiment of a typical "bobby" who would be familiar with the area and its residents in which he patrolled and lived there himself; the series contrasted with programmes such as Z-Cars, which reflected a more aggressive policing culture. It retained a faithful following throughout its run and was voted second most popular programme on British TV in 1961; the actor Jack Warner was well known to the public. Born Horace John Waters in London in 1895, he had been a comedian in radio and in his early film career. Starting in the early 1940s, he broadened his range to include dramatic roles, becoming a warmly human character actor in the process, but as well as playing in films with dramatic themes, Warner—by now hugely popular—continued to play in comedies such as the successful Huggett family programmes on BBC Radio and films made between 1948 and 1953.
Warner's success as Dixon was popular amongst various police forces. He was made an honorary member of both the Ramsgate Police Forces in the 1950s. Warner said of Dixon of Dock Green: "It has been a good meal ticket for twenty-one years—although the taxman has never been far behind." In his autobiography, Jack of All Trades, Warner tells of a visit by the Queen to the studios where the series was made, where she commented "that she thought Dixon of Dock Green had become part of the British way of life". The regard in which Warner's portrayal of a fictional policeman was held was seen at the actor's funeral at Margate Crematorium on 1 June 1981. Six Margate constables stood as guards-of-honour outside the chapel, where hundreds of fans gathered to pay their respects. Among the mourners were officers from the Kensington District, where Warner had lived in London, Paddington Green, where the Dixon series was based. Delegations of policemen attended, including a sixteen-man representation from the Metropolitan Police, led by Deputy Assistant Commissioner George Rushbrook and Commander John Atkins.
The character of Police Constable George Dixon was based on an old-style British "bobby"—a slang term for policeman. He first appeared in the iconic British film The Blue Lamp as a typical bobby on the beat, an experienced constable working out of the Paddington Green police station; the film was produced by Michael Balcon, educated at George Dixon School in Birmingham, named after a local politician: this inspired the character name. In The Blue Lamp Dixon has a wife named Em, it is mentioned that their only son, was killed in the Second World War—hence Dixon adopts a paternal aspect towards PC Andy Mitchell, a young policeman on his first day. Dixon is shot; the rest of the film focuses on catching the perpetrator, a thug named Tom Riley. This gears up hugely once Dixon, said to be rallying in hospital and dies, Mitchell embarks on a perilous quest to find and bring Tom Riley to justice. In 1955, the BBC Television Service was preparing to face competition from the forthcoming launch of the ITV independent television network.
The BBC therefore resurrected George Dixon for a new series featuring "everyday stories of a London policeman". The series came with an familiar hero, played by a much-loved entertainer; the image of Jack Warner in police uniform with helmet made for an effective symbol of policing in Britain. The series was the creation of writer Ted Willis, who not only wrote the series over its 20 years on television but had a controlling hand in production; this helped ensure. The designer was Laurence Broadhouse. Long-time producer was Douglas Moodie, whose other television credits include The Inch Man and The Airbase. Despite being a drama, the series was produced in its early years by the BBC's light entertainment department, it was produced at the BBC's Riverside and Lime Grove studios. Episodes in series 1 to 7 ran to 30 minutes. From series 3 to 7 each final series' episode was extended to 45 minutes. From series 8 onwards all episodes were 45 50 minutes in duration. There were some changes made before the first series aired.
Paddington Green police station became the fictitious Dock Green police station in the East End of London. The character of PC Andy Mitchell became raw new constable PC Andy Crawford. According to the first series episode "Needle in a Haystack" Dixon is a widower, his wife having died in an air raid during the Second World War, though they had an only daughter, Mary, they lived in a small mid-terrace house on a busy road. Dixon would remain the same character as in the film; the actor's age meant Dixon was always an older bobby and the viewer was left to wonder why promotion hadn't come his way earlier. Dixon's mentoring of Crawford was seen from Dixon of Dock Green's first series opener, "PC Crawford's first Pinch", broadcast on Saturday 9 July 1955. Dixon was portrayed as having a paternal and steadying influence on his colleagues and episodes highlighted the family-l
John Edward Thaw, was an English actor who appeared in a range of television and cinema roles, his most popular being television series such as Inspector Morse, The Sweeney, Home to Roost and Kavanagh QC. Thaw was born in Longsight, Manchester, to working class parents Dorothy and John, a long-distance lorry driver. Thaw had a difficult childhood, his younger brother, Raymond Stuart "Ray" emigrated to Australia in the mid-1960s. Thaw grew up in Burnage, attending the Ducie Technical High School for Boys, he entered the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art at the age of 16. Soon after leaving RADA, Thaw made his formal stage début in A Shred of Evidence at the Liverpool Playhouse and was awarded a contract with the theatre, his first film role was a bit part in the adaptation of The Loneliness of the Long Distance Runner starring Tom Courtenay and he acted on-stage opposite Sir Laurence Olivier in Semi-Detached by David Turner. He appeared in several episodes of the BBC police series Z-Cars in 1963–64 as a detective constable.
Between 1964 and 1966, he starred in two series of the ABC Weekend Television/ITV production Redcap, playing the hard-nosed military policeman Sergeant John Mann. He was a guest star in an early episode of The Avengers. In 1967 he appeared in Bat Out of Hell. In 1967 he appeared in the Granada TV/ITV series, alongside James Bolam and Michael Goodliffe, as well as appearing in TV plays such as The Talking Head and episodes of series such as Budgie, where he played against type as an effeminate failed playwright with a full beard and a Welsh accent. Thaw will be best remembered for two roles: the hard-bitten, tough talking Flying Squad detective Jack Regan in the Thames Television/ITV series The Sweeney, which established him as a major star in the United Kingdom; the series had two film spin-offs. Thaw was only 32; the second role was the spoken, well-educated and bitter detective Inspector Morse. Alongside his put-upon Detective Sergeant Lewis, Morse became a high-profile character—"a cognitive curmudgeon with his love of classical music, his drinking, his classic Jaguar and spates of melancholy".
Thaw was the definitive Morse, crossword-fixated, drunk anti-feminist, pedantic about grammar. Inspector Morse became one of the UK's most loved TV series, he won "Most Popular Actor" at the 1999 National Television Awards and won two BAFTA awards for his role as Morse. He subsequently played liberal working-class Lancastrian barrister James Kavanagh in Kavanagh QC. Thaw appeared in two sitcoms—Thick as Thieves with Bob Hoskins and Home to Roost. Thaw is known in America for the Morse series, as well as the BBC series A Year in Provence with Lindsay Duncan, he appeared in a number of films for director Richard Attenborough, including Cry Freedom, where he portrayed the conservative South African justice minister Jimmy Kruger, Chaplin alongside Robert Downey Jr.. Thaw appeared in the TV adaptation of the Michelle Magorian book Goodnight Mister Tom, it won "Most Popular Drama" at the National Television Awards, 1999. During the 1970s and'80s, Thaw appeared in productions with the Royal Shakespeare Company and National Theatre.
He was the subject of This Is Your Life in 1981 when he was surprised by Eamonn Andrews in the foyer of the National Theatre in London. In the summer of 1964, Thaw married Sally Alexander, a feminist activist and theatre stage manager, now professor of history at Goldsmiths, University of London, they divorced four years later. He met actress Sheila Hancock in 1969 on the set of a London comedy So What About Love? She was married to fellow actor Alexander "Alec" Ross, after Thaw professed his love to Hancock, she told him that she would not have an affair. After the death of her husband in 1971, Thaw and Hancock married on 24 December 1973 in Cirencester, he remained with her until his death in 2002, he had three daughters: Abigail from his first marriage to Sally Alexander, Joanna from his second marriage to Sheila Hancock, he adopted Sheila Hancock's daughter Melanie Jane, from Hancock's first marriage to Alec Ross. Melanie Jane changed her surname from Ross to Thaw. Thaw was a committed socialist and lifelong supporter of the Labour Party.
He was appointed a Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire in March 1993 by Queen Elizabeth II. In September 2006, Thaw was voted by the general public as number 3, after David Jason and Morecambe and Wise, in a poll of TV's 50 Greatest Stars for the past 50 years. A heavy drinker until going teetotal in 1995, a heavy smoker from the age of 12, Thaw was diagnosed with cancer of the oesophagus in June 2001, he underwent chemotherapy in hope of overcoming the illness, at first had appeared to respond well to the treatment but just before Christmas 2001 he was told that the cancer had spread. He died on 21 February 2002, seven weeks after his 60th birthday, the day after he signed a new contract with ITV, the day before his wife's birthday. At the time of his death he was living at his country home, near the villages of Luckington and Sherston in Wiltshire, was cremated in Weste
Lancaster is the county town of Lancashire, England. It is on the River Lune and has a population of 52,234. Long a commercial and educational centre, Lancaster gives Lancashire its name; the House of Lancaster was a branch of the English royal family, whilst the Duchy of Lancaster holds large estates on behalf of Elizabeth II, the Duke of Lancaster. Lancaster is an ancient settlement, dominated by Lancaster Castle, Lancaster Priory Church and the Ashton Memorial, it is home to Lancaster University and a campus of the University of Cumbria. The city's name, first recorded in the Domesday Book in 1086 as Loncastre, where "Lon" refers to the River Lune, "castre", from the Old English cæster and Latin castrum for "fort", refers to the Roman fort which stood at the site. A Roman fort was built by the end of the 1st century AD on the hill where Lancaster Castle now stands, as early as the 60s, based on Roman coin evidence; the coin evidence suggests that the fort was not continuously inhabited in those early years.
It was rebuilt in stone around AD 102. The fort's name is known only in an abbreviated form. Roman baths were discovered in 1812 and can be seen near the junction of Bridge Lane and Church Street. There was a bath-house belonging to the 4th-century fort; the Roman baths incorporated a reused inscription of the Gallic Emperor Postumus, dating from AD 262–266. The 3rd-century fort was garrisoned by the numerus Barcariorum Tigrisiensium; the ancient Wery Wall was identified in 1950 as the north wall of the 4th-century fort, which constituted a drastic remodelling of the 3rd-century one, while retaining the same orientation. Exceptionally the fort is the only example in north-west Britain of a 4th-century type, with massive curtain-wall and projecting bastions typical of the Saxon Shore or in Wales; the extension of this technique as far north as Lancaster shows that the coast between Cumberland and North Wales was not left defenceless after the attacks on the west coast and the disaster in the Carausian Revolt of AD 296, following on from those under Albinus in AD 197.
The fort underwent a few more extensions, at its largest area it was 9–10 acres. The evidence suggests that the fort remained active up to the end of Roman occupation of Britain in the early 5th century. Little is known about Lancaster between the end of Roman rule in Britain in the early 5th century and the Norman Conquest in the late 11th century. Despite a lack of documentation from the period, it is that Lancaster was still inhabited. Lancaster was on the fringes of the kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria, over time, control may have changed from one to the other. Archaeological evidence suggests there was a monastery on or near the site of today's Lancaster Priory by the 700s or 800s. For example, an Anglo-Saxon runic cross found at the Priory in 1807, known as "Cynibald's cross", is thought to have been made in the late 9th century. Lancaster was one of the numerous monasteries founded under Wilfrid. Following the Norman conquest of England in 1066, Lancaster fell under the control of William I, as stated in the Domesday Book of 1086, the earliest known mention of Lancaster in any document.
The founding charter of the Priory, dated 1094, is the first known document, specific to Lancaster. By this time William had given its surrounding region to Roger de Poitou; this document suggests that the monastery had been refounded as a parish church at some point before 1066. Lancaster became a borough in 1193 under King Richard I, its first charter, dated 12 June 1193, was from John, Count of Mortain, who became King of England. Lancaster Castle built in the 13th century and enlarged by Elizabeth I, stands on the site of a Roman garrison. Lancaster Castle is well known as the site of the Pendle witch trials in 1612, it was said that the court based in the castle sentenced more people to be hanged than any other in the country outside London, earning Lancaster the nickname, "the Hanging Town". Lancaster figured prominently in the suppression of Catholicism during the reformation with the execution of at least eleven Catholic priests. A memorial to the Lancaster Martyrs is located close to the city centre.
The traditional emblem for the House of Lancaster is a red rose, the red rose of Lancaster, similar to that of the House of York, a white rose. These names derive from the emblems of the Royal Duchies of York in the 15th century; this erupted into a civil war over rival claims to the throne during the Wars of the Roses. In more recent times, the term "Wars of the Roses" has been applied to rivalry in sports between teams representing Lancashire and Yorkshire, not just the cities of Lancaster and York, it is applied to the Roses Tournament in which Lancaster and York universities compete every year. Lancaster gained its first charter in 1193 as a market town and borough, but was not given city status until 1937. Many buildings in the city centre and along St. George's Quay date from the 19th century, built during a period when the port became one of the busiest in the UK. One prominent Lancaster slave-trader was Dodshon Foster. However, Lancaster's role as a major port was short-lived. Morecambe, Glasson Dock and Sunderland Point served as Lancaster's port for brief periods.
Heysham now serves as the district's main port. Lancaster is a service-oriented city. Products of Lancaster include anima