BMW 5 Series (E34)
The BMW E34 is the third generation of the BMW5 Series, which was sold from 1988 to 1996. It was launched in the body style, with the range expanded in 1990 to include the Touring wagon body style. The E34 was replaced by the E39 in 1995, although E34 Touring models remained in production until 1996 and it saw the introduction of stability control, traction control a 6-speed manual transmission and adjustable damping to the 5 Series range. There was a large range of engines fitted over its lifetime. These consisted of 4-cylinder, straight-six and V8 engines, the E34 M5 is powered by the S38 straight-six engine and was produced in sedan and wagon body styles. Development ran from July 1981 to late 1987, with design specifications being chosen in 1982, the E34 was launched in February 1988 and 1,333,412 units were built. Base model, available only in Europe and it uses a 4-cylinder engine, initially the M40, which was replaced by the M43 in 1994. The 518i was available in sedan or wagon body styles, however the only transmission available was a 5-speed manual, a model which could run on natural gas and was only sold in Germany.
The 518g was based on the 518i wagon and the only transmission available was a 5-speed manual, when running on natural gas, the engine produced 73 kW, compared with 84 kW when running on petrol. It was only produced in 1995 and just 298 units were built, to make it possible despite the lead-based batteries, the 518iev, had a modified 4 cylinder drive-line fitted with CVT, battery packs and ground-breaking rotating-field AC electric drive. This configuration was the predecessor of present-day EV Hybrids, BMW built at least one fully functional e34 prototype, very little was recorded about it that exists online. The lowest 6-cylinder model and the base model E34 in some countries, initial production of the 520i started in late 1987, using the single-cam M20 engine. In 1990, the M20 was replaced by the twin-cam M50 engine, a further revision of the 520i engine took place in September 1992, when the updated M50 engine introduced VANOS. The M50 version of the 520i was the most popular variant sold in Europe, a mid-range model which used a 6-cylinder engine.
Like the 520i, the 525i was initially powered by the M20 engine, the 525i was the most popular E34 model globally, with 566,573 units produced. The 525iX was the first all-wheel drive 5 Series, and the only all-wheel drive model in the E34 range and it was powered by the M50 engine and available in both sedan and wagon body styles. There are two versions of the 530i, a 6-cylinder model which was produced from 1988 to 1990, the earlier 6-cylinder model was powered by the M30 and not sold in North America. The V8 version, which replaced the 6-cylinder 535i in the line-up, was powered by the new M60 engine and was available in sedan
BMW 7 Series
The BMW7 Series is a full-size luxury sedan produced by the German automaker BMW since 1977. It is the successor to the BMW E3 New Six sedan and is currently in its sixth generation, the 7 Series is BMWs flagship car and is only available as a sedan or extended-length limousine. It traditionally introduces technologies and exterior design themes before they trickle down to smaller sedans in BMWs lineup, the first generation 7 Series was powered by straight-6 petrol engines, and following generations have been powered by straight-6, V8 and V12 engines with both natural aspiration and turbocharging. Since 1995, diesel engines have been included in the 7 Series range and its main rivals include the Mercedes Benz S Class, Audi A8, Jaguar XJ, Maserati Quattroporte, and the Lexus LS. The E23 is the first generation of the 7 Series, replacing the BMW E3 large sedan, the E23 was produced for ten years from 1977 to 1987 and was replaced by the BMW E327 Series in 1986. In July 1986, BMW introduced the second generation 7 Series, the top-line E32 750iL was the first car in the world to offer High-Intensity Discharge headlamps.
Initially the engine choices were all six-cylinder petrol, as per the previous generation, in 1987 a V12 engine was introduced. In 1992, V8 engines were added to the lineup, the E32 was the first car adhering to BMWs self-imposed speed limit of 250 km/h. The E32 introduced the extended version with extra rear leg room compared to the standard 7-series. The third generation E38 was produced between 1994–2001 and it was the first 7-series to be available with a diesel engine and the first to have the option of a five-speed automatic transmission. BMW was the first European car manufacturer to offer an integrated satellite navigation screen which featured on the E387 Series, in the U. S. two engine options were available, a 4. 0l V8 and a V12 option. BMWs flagship sedan was the E38 750il Armored and it was featured in the 1997 film Tomorrow Never Dies as the car driven by James Bond. BMWs E38 735i was featured in the 2002 film The Transporter driven by Jason Statham, the fourth generation E657 Series was produced from 2001 to 2008.
The Hydrogen 7 is the first production BMW to be powered by hydrogen, although previous generations of the 7 Series had long-wheelbase and protection variants, the E65 was the first iteration to use specific chassis codes for each version. E65 was the designation of the version, E66 was the long-wheelbase version, E67 of the high-security version. The BMW 745i/Li models featured a 4. 4L V8 engine outputting 325 hp, on, the BMW 750i/Li models featured a slightly more powerful 4. 8L V8 engine outputting 360 hp. Moreover, the BMW 760i/Li and 760Li features a more powerful. The E65 generated more controversy, due to its radical styling, the E65 broke records to become the best-selling 7 Series iteration ever, especially after its 2006 facelift
Manufacturing is the value added to production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools and biological processing, or formulation. Manufacturing engineering or manufacturing process are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into a final product, the manufacturing process begins with the product design, and materials specification from which the product is made. These materials are modified through manufacturing processes to become the required part. Manufacturing takes turns under all types of economic systems, in a free market economy, manufacturing is usually directed toward the mass production of products for sale to consumers at a profit. In a collectivist economy, manufacturing is more directed by the state to supply a centrally planned economy. In mixed market economies, manufacturing occurs under some degree of government regulation, modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required the production and integration of a products components.
Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers use the term fabrication instead, the manufacturing sector is closely connected with engineering and industrial design. Examples of major manufacturers in North America include General Motors Corporation, General Electric, Procter & Gamble, General Dynamics, Pfizer, examples in Europe include Volkswagen Group and Michelin. Examples in Asia include Sony, Lenovo, Samsung, in its earliest form, manufacturing was usually carried out by a single skilled artisan with assistants. In much of the world, the guild system protected the privileges. Before the Industrial Revolution, most manufacturing occurred in rural areas, entrepreneurs organized a number of manufacturing households into a single enterprise through the putting-out system. Toll manufacturing is an arrangement whereby a first firm with specialized equipment processes raw materials or semi-finished goods for a second firm, manufacturing provides important material support for national infrastructure and for national defense.
On the other hand, most manufacturing may involve significant social and environmental costs, the clean-up costs of hazardous waste, for example, may outweigh the benefits of a product that creates it. Hazardous materials may expose workers to health risks and these costs are now well known and there is effort to address them by improving efficiency, reducing waste, using industrial symbiosis, and eliminating harmful chemicals. The negative costs of manufacturing can be addressed legally, developed countries regulate manufacturing activity with labor laws and environmental laws. Across the globe, manufacturers can be subject to regulations and pollution taxes to offset the costs of manufacturing activities. Labor unions and craft guilds have played a role in the negotiation of worker rights. Environment laws and labor protections that are available in developed nations may not be available in the third world, tort law and product liability impose additional costs on manufacturing
Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy. The major source of revenue of a group or company is the indicator of its relevant industry, when a large group has multiple sources of revenue generation, it is considered to be working in different industries. Manufacturing industry became a key sector of production and labour in European and North American countries during the Industrial Revolution, upsetting previous mercantile and this came through many successive rapid advances in technology, such as the production of steel and coal. Following the Industrial Revolution, possibly a third of the economic output are derived that is from manufacturing industries. Many developed countries and many developing/semi-developed countries depend significantly on manufacturing industry, the countries they reside in, and the economies of those countries are interlinked in a complex web of interdependence. Industries can be classified in a variety of ways, at the top level, industry is often classified according to the three-sector theory into sectors, primary and tertiary.
Some authors add quaternary or even quinary sectors, over time, the fraction of a societys industry within each sector changes. Below the economic sectors there are other more detailed industry classifications. These classification systems commonly divide industries according to functions and markets. Market-based classification systems such as the Global Industry Classification Standard and the Industry Classification Benchmark are used in finance, the International Standard Industrial Classification of all economic activities is the most complete and systematic industrial classification made by the United Nations Statistics Division. ISIC is a classification of economic activities arranged so that entities can be classified according to the activity they carry out. The Industrial Revolution led to the development of factories for large-scale production, originally the factories were steam-powered, but transitioned to electricity once an electrical grid was developed. The mechanized assembly line was introduced to parts in a repeatable fashion.
This led to significant increases in efficiency, lowering the cost of the end process, automation was increasingly used to replace human operators. This process has accelerated with the development of the computer and the robot, historically certain manufacturing industries have gone into a decline due to various economic factors, including the development of replacement technology or the loss of competitive advantage. An example of the former is the decline in manufacturing when the automobile was mass-produced. A recent trend has been the migration of prosperous, industrialized nations towards a post-industrial society and this is manifested by an increase in the service sector at the expense of manufacturing, and the development of an information-based economy, the so-called informational revolution. In a post-industrial society, manufacturing is relocated to more favourable locations through a process of off-shoring
A tank is an armoured fighting vehicle designed for front-line combat, with heavy firepower, strong armour, and tracks providing good battlefield maneuverability. The first tanks were designed to overcome the deadlock of trench warfare, now they are a mainstay of ground forces. Modern tanks are versatile mobile land weapon platforms, mounting a large-calibre cannon in a rotating gun turret. In both offensive and defensive roles, they are units that are capable of performing tasks which are required of armoured units on the battlefield. As a result of advances, tanks underwent tremendous shifts in capability in the years since their first appearance. Tanks in World War I were developed separately and simultaneously by Great Britain and this was a prototype of a new design that would become the British Armys Mark I tank, the first tank used in combat in September 1916 during the Battle of the Somme. The name tank was adopted by the British during the stages of their development. While the British and French built thousands of tanks in World War I, Germany was unconvinced of the tanks potential, Tanks of the interwar period evolved into the much larger and more powerful designs of World War II.
Tanks in the Cold War were designed with these weapons in mind, improved engines and suspensions allowed tanks of this period to grow larger. Aspects of gun technology changed significantly as well, with advances in shell design, during the Cold War, the main battle tank concept arose and became a key component of modern armies. Modern tanks seldom operate alone, as they are organized into combined arms units which involve the support of infantry and they are usually supported by reconnaissance or ground-attack aircraft. The tank is the 20th century realization of an ancient concept, the internal combustion engine, armour plate, and continuous track were key innovations leading to the invention of the modern tank. Many sources imply that Leonardo da Vinci and H. G. Wells in some way foresaw or invented the tank, leonardos late 15th century drawings of what some describe as a tank show a man-powered, wheeled vehicle with cannons all around it. However the human crew would not have power to move it over larger distance.
In the 15th century, Jan Žižka built armoured wagons containing cannons, the caterpillar track arose from attempts to improve the mobility of wheeled vehicles by spreading their weight, reducing ground pressure, and increasing their traction. Experiments can be traced back as far as the 17th century and it is frequently claimed that Richard Lovell Edgeworth created a caterpillar track. It is true that in 1770 he patented a machine, that should carry and lay down its own road and his own account in his autobiography is of a horse-drawn wooden carriage on eight retractable legs, capable of lifting itself over high walls. The description bears no similarity to a caterpillar track, armoured trains appeared in the mid-19th century, and various armoured steam and petrol-engined vehicles were proposed
BMW 7 Series (E65)
The BMW E65 is the chassis designation for the fourth generation 7 Series full-size luxury sedan produced by BMW. Introduced at the Frankfurt Auto Show in 2001 alongside the BMW E53 X54. 6is, in order to produce the E657 Series and other future models the BMW plant at Dingolfing was retooled at a cost of approximately €500,000,000. Upon release the new 7 Series was met with criticism for its controversial looks as well as the steep learning curve presented by the new iDrive system. So unimpressed was the market with the new car sales of remaining E38 stock increased markedly after the launch. Despite the initial quality problems and customer gripes the E657 Series became the generation of this full-size luxury sedan. After a 7-year production run the BMW E65 was replaced by the BMW7 Series in late 2008, development for the BMW E657 Series began in early 1996, and production specifications were frozen in January 1999. The design of the BMW E657 Series was patented 16 November 2000, the car was first launched in Europe 17 November 2001 and appeared in US and other markets in the spring of 2002.
Early BMW E657 Series models had many problems due to the functionality of the iDrive system. However, UK models were still protected by their original 3-Year/Unlimited-Miles warranty, under the direction of Chris Bangle, BMWs Design Chief at the time, the arrival of the BMW E657 Series heralded a new styling era for BMW. The design of the new car contrasted dramatically with the styling on the BMW E387 Series, the BMW E657 Series two-level rear end styling with separate rear fenders for a bustle-back boot lid was derisively known as the Bangle Butt by critics. In fact, van Hooydonks original sketch in 1998 for the BMW E65 was much more of a sleek fastback. Bangle was widely criticised for the departure of the styling from the BMW E387 Series. He was however supported by the BMW board of directors, who wanted to move BMWs image into the future. Dan Neil of The Los Angeles Times named the new 7-series one of the 50 Worst Cars of All Time, dimensionally the E657 Series is 45mm longer, 38mm wider and 60mm taller than the E38.
The wheelbase was increased by 60mm over the outgoing model, despite these increased dimensions the E657 Series is only 15 kg heavier than the E38. BMW removed the traditional console mounted gear selector replacing it with a steering-column mounted stalk, peeling paint and textured materials are a well documented problem, so BMW addressed this issue by using still higher quality paint in the LCI model. Compared to the outgoing E38 model, the E657 Series has more room in the front. The BMW E657 Series was the most technically advanced production vehicle BMW had ever produced at the time, as the flagship model, it introduced a large number of new technologies that were eventually carried over to the next generation of BMWs
Hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic
Hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic was a three-year period of hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic of Germany between June 1921 and January 1924. It caused considerable internal political instability in the country, the occupation of the Ruhr by foreign troops as well as misery for the general populace, to pay for the large costs of the ongoing First World War, Germany suspended the gold standard when the war broke out. The government believed that it would be able to pay off the debt by winning the war, also, it would be able to impose massive reparations on the defeated Allies. The exchange rate of the mark against the US dollar thus steadily devalued from 4.2 to 7.9 marks per dollar, the strategy backfired when Germany lost the war. The new Weimar Republic was now saddled with a war debt that it could not afford. That was made worse by the fact that it was printing money without the economic resources to back it up. The Treaty of Versailles further accelerated the decline in the value of the mark so 48 paper marks were required to buy a US dollar by late 1919, German currency was relatively stable at about 90 marks per dollar during the first half of 1921.
Because the Western Front was mostly in France and Belgium, Germany came out of the war with most of its industrial infrastructure intact and it was, in fact, in a better position to become the dominant economic force on the European continent. The first payment was made, when it came due in June 1921 and it marked the beginning of an increasingly rapid devaluation of the mark, which fell in value to approximately 330 marks per dollar. The total reparations demanded were 132 billion gold marks, but Germany had to pay only 50 billion marks and that greatly exacerbated the inflation of the paper mark. From August 1921, Germany began to buy foreign currency with marks at any price, as the mark sank in international markets and more marks were required to buy the foreign currency that was demanded by the Reparations Commission. In the first half of 1922, the mark stabilized at about 320 marks per dollar, international reparations conferences were being held. One, in June 1922, was organized by US investment banker J. P.
Morgan, the meetings produced no workable solution and so inflation changed to hyperinflation, and the mark fell to 7,400 marks per US dollar by December 1922. The cost-of-living index was 41 in June 1922 and 685 in December, by fall 1922, Germany found itself unable to make reparations payments since the price of gold was now well beyond what it could afford. Also, the mark was by now practically worthless, making it impossible for Germany to buy foreign exchange or gold using paper marks, reparations were to be paid in goods such as coal. In January 1923, French and Belgian troops occupied the Ruhr, inflation was exacerbated when workers in the Ruhr went on a general strike and the German government printed more money to continue paying for their passive resistance. By November 1923, the US dollar was worth 4,210,500,000,000 German marks, the hyperinflation crisis led prominent economists and politicians to seek a means to stabilize German currency. In August 1923, an economist, Karl Helfferich, proposed a plan to issue a new currency, the plan was rejected because of the greatly fluctuating price of rye in paper marks
DKW is a German car and motorcycle marque. The company and brand is one of the companies of the modern day Audi company as one of the four companies that formed Auto-Union. In 1916, Danish engineer Jørgen Skafte Rasmussen founded a factory in Zschopau, Saxony and that year he attempted to produce a steam-driven car, called the DKW. Although unsuccessful, he made a two-stroke toy engine in 1919, in 1932, DKW merged with Audi and Wanderer to form Auto Union. After World War II, DKW moved to West Germany, with the factory becoming MZ. Auto Union came under Daimler-Benz ownership in 1957 and was purchased by the Volkswagen Group in 1964, the last German-built DKW car was the F102, which ceased production in 1966. Its successor, the four-stroke F103, was marketed under the Audi brand, dKW-badged cars continued to be built under license in Brazil and Argentina until 1967 and 1969 respectively. DKW cars were made from 1928 until 1966, apart from an interruption caused by the Second World War, dKWs always used two-stroke engines, reflecting the companys position by the end of the 1920s as the worlds largest producer of motorcycles.
More significant was a series of cars built 300 km to the south in Zwickau in the plant acquired by the companys owner in 1928 when he had become the majority owner in Audi Werke AG. Models F1 to F8 were built between 1931 and 1942, with successor models reappearing after the end of the war in 1945 and they were the first volume production cars in Europe with front wheel drive, and were powered by transversely mounted two-cylinder two-stroke engines. Displacement was 584 or 692 cc, claimed power was initially 15 PS. These models had a generator that doubled as a starter, mounted directly on the crankshaft, dKWs from Zwickau notched up approximately 218,000 units between 1931 and 1942. Between 1929 and 1940, DKW produced a well remembered. Engine displacement was 1,000 cc, 1,100 cc, the engines had two extra cylinders for forced induction, so they appeared like V6 engines but without spark plugs on the front cylinder pair. In 1939, DKW made a prototype with the first three-cylinder engine, with a displacement of 900 cc, with a streamlined body, the car could run at 115 km/h.
It was put into production after World War II, first as an Industrieverband Fahrzeugbau F9 in Zwickau, East Germany, DKW engines were used by Saab as a model for the Saab two-stroke in its Saab 92 car manufacturing venture, in 1947. As Auto Union was based in Saxony in what became the German Democratic Republic and their first line of production took place in Düsseldorf. This van used the engine as the last F8 made before the war
BMW 3 Series (E36)
The BMW E36 series is the third generation of the BMW3 Series range of entry-level luxury cars, and was produced from 1990 to 2000. The body styles of the range are, 4-door sedan/saloon, sold from 1990 to 1998 2-door coupé, sold from 1991 to 1999 2-door convertible, a Baur Top Cabriolet conversion was available. 5-door estate/wagon, sold from 1994 to 1999 3-door hatchback, sold from 1993 to 2000, the E36 was the first 3 Series to be offered in a hatchback body style. These models, called the BMW3 Series Compact, were popular in Europe and it was the first 3 Series to be available with a 6-speed manual transmission, a 5-speed automatic transmission and a four-cylinder diesel engine. The multi-link rear suspension was a significant upgrade compared with previous generations of 3 Series, the E36 was named in Car and Driver Magazines 10Best list for every year it was on sale. The E36 M3 is powered by the S50 straight-six engine, except for the 1996-1999 North American M3s, the E36 M3 was released in 1992 and was available in coupe and convertible body styles.
It was named Car and Drivers best handling car for over $30k in 1997, development began in July 1981, with the final design being frozen in 1988. All E36 saloons and estates employed the Z-axle multilink suspension in the rear which had proven in the Z1. The hatchback body style used a rear semi-trailing arm suspension based on the older E30 and this was done in order to save space due to its truncated rear end. Initially, the 4-cylinder petrol engines from the E30 were carried over, in 1993, the M40 was replaced by the M43 SOHC engine. In 1996, the M42 was replaced by the M44 DOHC engine, the M50 petrol engines were used. In 1993 the M50TU added single VANOS, which increased torque, in 1994, the M52 engine replaced the M50TU, resulting in the 328i model replacing the 325i and the addition of a new mid-range 323i model. The 1992 M3 introduced the 3.0 L S50 engine, in 1995, its capacity was increased to 3.2 L and VANOS was added to the intake camshaft. * Electronic speed limiter Initially, the turbocharged straight-6 M51 was used in the E36 325td sedan, in 1993, the 325tds sedan was released, which added an intercooler to the M51.
In 1994, the 318tds model was introduced, powered by the 4-cylinder M41 turbocharged and intercooled engine, diesel models were not sold in the USA. The E36 M3 is powered by the S50 and S52 straight-six engines, BMW made an entry level version of the E36 called the 3 Series Compact, a three-door hatchback. This platform is referred to as the E36/5. In the United States/Canada market the car was sold as the 318ti and was equipped with a 1. 8L I4,139 bhp M42B18 engine and was priced at USD23,000 in 1995
15th Expeditionary Mobility Task Force
The Fifteenth Expeditionary Mobility Task Force was one of two EMTFs assigned to the United States Air Force Air Mobility Command and was headquartered at Travis Air Force Base, California. The 15 EMTF was inactivated on 20 March 2012 and its functions,15 EMTF provided strategic and theater airlift for all United States Department of Defense agencies as well as air refueling for the Air Force in both peace and wartime. Primary aircraft assigned to its units were the C-5 Galaxy, C-9 Nightingale, C-17 Globemaster III, C-21, C-130 Hercules, KC-10 Extender,15 EMTF was a redesignation of Fifteenth Air Force, effective 1 October 2003. During the Cold War,15 AF was one of three Numbered Air Forces of the United States Air Force Strategic Air Command, commanding USAF strategic bombers and missiles on a global scale. Elements of 15th Air Force engaged in operations during the Korean War, Vietnam War. The first commander was General Jimmy Doolittle, 15th AF resulted from a reorganization of Doolittles Twelfth Air Force into the 15th with Doolittle in command, and the Ninth Air Force with Lewis H.
Brereton in command. The new air force was activated with a strength of ninety B-24 Liberators and 210 B-17 Flying Fortresses, inherited from the Twelfth Air Force, in December, new groups, most of which were equipped with B-24s soon started arriving from the United States. It was hoped that the 15th AF stationed in the Mediterranean would be able to operate when the Eighth Air Force in England was socked in by bad English weather. The 9th AF would move to England to serve as a unit to take part in the invasion of Europe. Assigned to the 15th Special Group in January 1945, on 1 December 1943, the Headquarters was moved to Bari Airfield, Italy. On 4 January 1944, along with Twelfth Air Force were organized into Mediterranean Allied Air Forces, MAAF was the southern component of U. S. Strategic Air Forces, the overall USAAF command and control organization in Europe. The first major operation carried out by Fifteenth Air Force was bombing missions in support of the Anzio Landings in Italy, strikes on German and fascist Italian targets were carried out and caused widespread damage to Axis forces.
Big Week was the name of an intense Eighth and Fifteenth Air Forces series of attacks on Germany in a series of co-ordinated raids on the German aircraft industry, on 22 February 1944, Fifteenth Air Force made its first attack on Germany, with an attack on Regensburg. The Fifteenth dispatched a force of 183 bombers to the Oberstraubing Messerschmidt assembly plant, some 118 bombed with good results but fourteen were shot down. The next day the 15th sent 102 bombers to the Steyr ball-bearing works in Austria where they destroyed twenty percent of the plant, on 24 February, over 180 Liberators inflicted considerable damage to the Messerschmitt Bf 110 assembly plant at Gotha, losing 28 aircraft. On 25 February 114 B-17s and B-24s were dispatched to Steyr again, but the force became separated, despite these losses, it was believed that the USSTAF had dealt the German aircraft industry a severe blow. In April, General Eisenhower ordered the USSTAF to attack German fuel production centers by striking both the oil refineries and the factories producing synthetic fuels.
The 15th started the offensive on 5 April when it dispatched 235 B-17s, the refineries were attacked again on 15 and 24 April, inflicting additional damage
Naval architecture known as naval engineering, is an engineering discipline dealing with the engineering design process, shipbuilding and operation of marine vessels and structures. Naval architecture involves basic and applied research, development, design evaluation, preliminary design of the vessel, its detailed design, trials and maintenance, launching and dry-docking are the main activities involved. Ship design calculations are required for ships being modified. Naval architecture involves formulation of safety regulations and damage control rules, the word vessel includes every description of watercraft, including non-displacement craft, WIG craft and seaplanes, used or capable of being used as a means of transportation on water. The principal elements of architecture are, Hydrostatics concerns the conditions to which the vessel is subjected to while at rest in water. This involves computing buoyancy, and other properties, such as trim. Hydrodynamics concerns the flow of water around the hull and stern.
Resistance – resistance towards motion in water primarily caused due to flow of water around the hull, powering calculation is done based on this. Propulsion – to move the vessel through water using propellers, water jets, engine types are mainly internal combustion. Some vessels are powered using nuclear or solar energy. Ship motions – involves motions of the vessel in seaway and its responses in waves, controllability – involves controlling and maintaining position and direction of the vessel. Arrangements involves concept design and access, fire protection, allocation of spaces, construction depends on the material used. Other joining techniques are used for materials like fibre reinforced plastic. Traditionally, naval architecture has been more craft than science, the suitability of a vessels shape was judged by looking at a half-model of a vessel or a prototype. Ungainly shapes or abrupt transitions were frowned on as being flawed and this included rigging, deck arrangements, and even fixtures.
Subjective descriptors such as ungainly and fine were used as a substitute for the precise terms used today. A vessel was, and still is described as having a ‘fair’ shape and these tools are used for static stability, dynamic stability, powering, hull development, structural analysis, green water modelling, and slamming analysis. Data is regularly shared in international conferences sponsored by RINA, Society of Naval Architects, computational Fluid Dynamics is being applied to predict the response of a floating body in a random sea
Bayerische Motoren Werke AG, usually known under its abbreviation BMW, is a German luxury vehicle and engine manufacturing company founded in 1916. It is one of the luxury automakers in the world. The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index, headquartered in Munich, Bavaria, BMW owns Mini cars and is the parent company of Rolls-Royce Motor Cars. BMW was established as a business entity following a restructuring of the Rapp Motorenwerke aircraft manufacturing firm in 1912 named Aerowerke Gustav Otto, after the end of World War I in 1918, BMW was forced to cease aircraft-engine production by the terms of the Versailles Armistice Treaty. The company consequently shifted to production as the restrictions of the treaty started to be lifted in 1923. BMWs first significant aircraft engine, and commercial product of any sort, was the BMW IIIa inline-six liquid-cooled engine of 1918, known for good fuel economy, with German rearmament in the 1930s, the company again began producing aircraft engines for the Luftwaffe.
The factory in Munich made ample use of forced labour, foreign civilians, prisoners of war, the few Me 262 A-1b test examples built used the more developed version of the 003 jet, recording an official top speed of 800 km/h. The first-ever four-engine jet aircraft flown were the sixth and eighth prototypes of the Arado Ar 234 jet reconnaissance-bomber. Through 1944 the 003s reliability improved, making it a power plant for air frame designs competing for the Jägernotprogramms light fighter production contract. Which was won by the Heinkel He 162 Spatz design, the BMW003 aviation turbojet was under consideration as the basic starting point for a pioneering turboshaft powerplant for German armored fighting vehicles in 1944–45, as the GT101. Towards the end of the Third Reich, BMW developed some military aircraft projects for the Luftwaffe, the BMW Strahlbomber, the BMW Schnellbomber and the BMW Strahljäger, but none of them were built. By the year 1958, the division of BMW was in financial difficulties.
It was decided to carry on by trying to cash in on the current economy car boom exploited so successfully by German ex-aircraft manufacturers such as Messerschmitt, BMW bought the rights to manufacture the Italian Iso Isetta. BMWs version of the cars were to be powered by a modified form of BMWs motorcycle engine. This was moderately successful and helped the company get back on its feet, since 1959, the controlling majority shareholder of the BMW Aktiengesellschaft has been the Quandt family, which owns about 46% of the stock. The rest is in public float, BMW acquired the Hans Glas company based in Dingolfing, Germany, in 1966. Glas vehicles were badged as BMW until the company was fully absorbed. However, this factory was outmoded and BMWs biggest immediate gain was, according to themselves, the Glas factories continued to build a limited number of their existing models, while adding the manufacture of BMW front and rear axles until they could be closer incorporated into BMW