John Andrew Boehner is an American politician who served as the 53rd speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 2011 to 2015. A member of the Republican Party, he was the U. S. Representative for Ohio's 8th congressional district from 1991 to 2015; the district included several suburban areas near Cincinnati and Dayton. Boehner served as the House Minority Leader from 2007 until 2011, House Majority Leader from 2006 until 2007. Boehner resigned from the House of Representatives in October 2015 due to opposition from within the Republican caucus. In September 2016, Squire Patton Boggs, the third largest lobbying firm in the U. S. announced. It was announced that Boehner would become a board member of Reynolds American, the second biggest tobacco firm in the U. S. for an estimated annual salary of $400,000. Boehner was born in Reading, the son of Mary Anne and Earl Henry Boehner, the second of twelve children, his father was of German descent and his mother had German and Irish ancestry.
He grew up in modest circumstances, having shared one bathroom with his eleven siblings in a two-bedroom house in Cincinnati. He started working at his family's bar at age 8, a business founded by their grandfather Andy Boehner in 1938, he has lived in Southwest Ohio his entire life. Boehner attended Cincinnati's Moeller High School and was a linebacker on the school's football team, where he was coached by future Notre Dame coach Gerry Faust. Graduating from Moeller in 1968, when United States involvement in the Vietnam War was at its peak, Boehner enlisted in the United States Navy but was honorably discharged after eight weeks because of a bad back, he earned his B. A. in business administration from Xavier University in 1977, becoming the first person in his family to attend college, taking seven years as he held several jobs to pay for his education. Shortly after his graduation in 1977, Boehner accepted a position with Nucite Sales, a small sales business in the plastics industry, he was promoted and became president of the firm, resigning in 1990 when he was elected to Congress.
From 1981 to 1984, Boehner served on the board of trustees of Butler County, Ohio. He served as an Ohio state representative from 1985 to 1990. In 1990, Boehner ran against incumbent Congressman Buz Lukens, under fire for having a sexual relationship with a minor. In a three-way Republican primary that included Boehner and former Congressman Tom Kindness, Boehner won with 49 percent of the vote, he handily beat his Democratic opponent, Greg Jolivette, in the November election. He was subsequently re-elected to Congress 12 times, each by a substantial margin. Boehner's closest races were those in: 2006, when he defeated the Democratic Party candidate, U. S. Air Force veteran Mort Meier, 64% to 36%. During his freshman year, Boehner was a member of the Gang of Seven, involved in bringing media attention to the House banking scandal; the group investigated the Congressional Post Office, leading to the indictment of Congressman Dan Rostenkowski. He, along with Newt Gingrich and several other Republican lawmakers, was one of the engineers of the Contract with America in 1994 that politically helped Republicans during the 1994 congressional elections during which they won the majority in Congress for the first time in four decades.
From 1995 to 1999, Boehner served as House Republican Conference Chairman, making him fourth-ranking House Republican behind Gingrich, Majority Leader Dick Armey and Majority Whip Tom DeLay. During his time as Conference Chairman, Boehner championed the Freedom to Farm Act that, among other provisions and simplified direct payment programs for crops and eliminated milk price supports through direct government purchases. In the summer of 1997 several House Republicans, who saw Speaker Newt Gingrich's public image as a liability, attempted to replace him as Speaker; the attempted "coup" began July 9 with a meeting between Republican conference chairman Boehner and Republican leadership chairman Bill Paxon of New York. According to their plan, House Majority Leader Dick Armey, House Majority Whip Tom DeLay and Paxon were to present Gingrich with an ultimatum: resign, or be voted out. However, Armey balked at the proposal to make Paxon the new Speaker, told his chief of staff to warn Gingrich about the coup.
On July 11, Gingrich met with senior Republican leadership to assess the situation. He explained. If he was voted out, there would be a new election for Speaker, which would allow for the possibility that Democrats—along with dissenting Republicans—would vote in Dick Gephardt as Speaker. On July 16, Paxon offered to resign his post, feeling that he had not handled the situation correctly. Paxon was the only unelected member of the leadership group, having been appointed to his position by Gingrich. After Republicans lost seats in the 1998 elections, the House Republican leadership underwent a reorganization. Armey and DeLay kept their positions, but Gingrich was replaced by Dennis Hastert, Boehner lost his position as conference chairman to J. C. Watts. Following the election of President George W. Bush, Boehner was elected as chairman of the House Education and the Workforce Committee, serving from 2001 until 2006. There he authored several reforms including the Pension Protection Act and a successful school choice voucher program for low-income children in Washing
Health care reforms proposed during the Obama administration
There were a number of different health care reforms proposed during the Obama administration. Key reforms address cost and coverage and include obesity and treatment of chronic conditions, defensive medicine or tort reform, incentives that reward more care instead of better care, redundant payment systems, tax policy, rationing, a shortage of doctors and nurses, intervention vs. hospice and use of imaging technology, among others. The first of these reform proposals to be passed by the United States Congress is the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, which originated in the Senate and was passed by the House of Representatives in amended form on March 21, 2010. President Obama signed the reforms into law on March 23, 2010. Reuters and CNN summarized the year in which they take effect. A variety of specific types of reform have been suggested to improve the United States health care system; these range from increased use of health care technology through changing the anti-trust rules governing health insurance companies and tort-reform to rationing of care.
Different overall strategies have been suggested as well. The Institute of Medicine reported in September 2012 that $750B per year in U. S. health care costs wasted. This included: unnecessary services. During a June 2009 speech, President Barack Obama outlined his strategy for reform, he mentioned electronic record-keeping, preventing expensive conditions, reducing obesity, refocusing doctor incentives from quantity of care to quality, bundling payments for treatment of conditions rather than specific services, better identifying and communicating the most cost-effective treatments, reducing defensive medicine. President Obama further described his plan in a September 2009 speech to a joint session of Congress, his plan mentions: deficit neutrality. In November 2009, then-OMB Director Peter Orszag described aspects of the Obama administration's strategy during an interview: "In order to help contain cost growth over the long term, we need a new health care system that has digitized information...in which that information is used to assess what’s working and what’s not more intelligently, in which we’re paying for quality rather than quantity while encouraging prevention and wellness."
He argued for bundling payments and accountable care organizations, which reward doctors for teamwork and patient outcomes. Mayo Clinic President and CEO Denis Cortese has advocated an overall strategy to guide reform efforts, he argued that the U. S. has an opportunity to redesign its healthcare system and that there is a wide consensus that reform is necessary. He articulated four "pillars" of such a strategy: Focus on value, which he defined as the ratio of quality of service provided relative to cost. Writing in The New Yorker, surgeon Atul Gawande further distinguished between the delivery system, which refers to how medical services are provided to patients, the payment system, which refers to how payments for services are processed, he argued that reform of the delivery system is critical to getting costs under control, but that payment system reform is less important yet gathers a disproportionate share of attention. Gawande argued that dramatic improvements and savings in the delivery system will take "at least a decade."
He recommended changes. He argued this would be an iterative, empirical process and should be administered by a "national institute for healthcare delivery" to analyze and communicate improvement opportunities. A report published by the Commonwealth Fund in December 2007 examined 15 federal policy options and concluded that, taken together, they had the potential to reduce future increases in health care spending by $1.5 trillion over the next 10 years. These options included increased use of health information technology and incentives to improve medical decision making, reduced tobacco use and obesity, reforming the payment of providers to encourage efficiency, limiting the tax federal exemption for health insurance premiums, reforming several market changes such as resetting the benchmark rates for Medicare Advantage plans and allowing the Department of Health and Human Services to negotiate drug prices; the authors based their modeling on the effect of combining these changes with the implementation of universal coverage.
The authors concluded that there are no magic bullets for controlling health care costs, that a multifaceted approach will be needed to achieve meaningful progress. During February 2010, President Obama updated his reform proposal, with modifications to the bills that had passed as of that time. Health spending accounted for 17.6% of GDP in the United States in 2010, down from 200
Ray H. LaHood is an American politician who served as United States Secretary of Transportation from 2009 until 2013. A Republican from Illinois, LaHood represented Illinois's 18th congressional district in the U. S. House of Representatives from 1995 to 2009. In 2015, LaHood's book, Seeking Bipartisanship: My Life in Politics, coauthored with Frank H. Mackaman of The Dirksen Congressional Center, was published by Cambria Press. LaHood was born in Peoria, the son of Edward M. LaHood, a Lebanese American who managed a restaurant, Mary A. LaHood, of German ancestry. In 2006, he was one of four Arab American members of Congress, he graduated from Spalding Institute, worked his way through Canton Junior College and Bradley University in Peoria, earning a Bachelor of Science in education and sociology in 1971. Following graduation, he taught middle school social studies at public and Catholic schools, has said that "teaching kids... about the constitution and government" stirred his interest in politics.
LaHood was director of the Rock Island County Youth Services Bureau and district administrative assistant for U. S. representative Tom Railsback, a Moline, Illinois Republican, from 1977 to 1982. He was appointed in 1982 to fill a vacant seat in the Illinois House of Representatives, serving for nine months, running for the seat in November 1982, but losing to Democratic candidate Bob DeJaegher. LaHood became administrative assistant and the chief of staff to U. S. House Minority Leader Robert Michel, serving from 1982 until 1994; when Michel announced his retirement in 1994, LaHood ran for and won his seat in the House, representing Illinois's 18th congressional district. LaHood was one of only three Republicans elected to the House that year who did not sign on to the Contract with America, Newt Gingrich's manifesto for a Republican majority, was a member of the moderate Republican Main Street Partnership. In 1997, in an effort to promote bipartisan cooperation, LaHood organized bipartisan retreats for members of Congress.
During his service in Congress, he became well known among C-SPAN viewers for serving as Speaker Pro Tempore of the House, presiding over more debates than any other member. Most notably, in 1998 he presided over the contentious debate over the impeachment of President Bill Clinton. LaHood was a strong advocate for preserving the legacy of Abraham Lincoln. LaHood authored a law that established the Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial Commission, which laid the groundwork for celebrating the 16th President's 200th birthday in 2009, he was a lead Capitol Hill supporter for the Lincoln Presidential Library in Springfield, Illinois. LaHood served on the House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee from 1995 until 2000, the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence beginning in 1998, the House Appropriations Committee beginning in 2000. In 2005 he voted against renewing the PATRIOT Act, saying he opposed extending its intrusive police powers. LaHood was said to be considering a challenge to Democratic Governor Rod Blagojevich's re-election bid in 2006, but chose to run for another term in Congress instead.
He won the 2006 race against Steve Waterworth by a margin of 147,108 to 71,106. On July 26, 2007, LaHood stated he would not seek re-election in 2008. In August 2007, LaHood received a 0% rating from the fiscally conservative 5014 organization Club for Growth 2007 RePORK Card, he received an 11% rating from the conservative lobbying group Citizens Against Government Waste in August 2007, holds a lifetime 49% rating from the group. In 2007 LaHood considered, but decided against, applying for the post of president of Bradley University. During the 2008 presidential election, LaHood supported John McCain, but criticized the rallies being held by McCain's vice presidential nominee, Sarah Palin, saying she should put a stop to the name calling, that the tactic could backfire. "This doesn't befit the office. And frankly, people don't like it," he said. On December 19, 2008, President-elect Barack Obama announced that he would nominate LaHood to be the next Transportation Secretary. LaHood served on the House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee from 1995 to 2000.
As a member of the House Appropriations Committee he won praise for his "skills as an arbiter" in being able to bridge sometimes bitter partisan divides in the Congress, something the position would require. Some critics alleged a reputation for pork barrel spending, including in support of campaign contributors; the Washington Post reported that of the $60 million in earmarks LaHood secured for his district in 2008, $9 million went to campaign donors. His nomination was confirmed by the Senate by voice vote on January 21, 2009, he was, with Robert Gates, one of two Republican members of the original Obama Cabinet. On February 3, 2010, LaHood was criticized for advice he was asked to give while testifying before a congressional committee regarding Toyota's recall of 2.3 million vehicles due to sudden acceleration, wherein he suggested Toyota owners stop driving their cars. LaHood qualified his statement within an hour and a half of his testimony, spelling out that he meant "owners of any recalled Toyota models contact their local dealer and get their vehicles fixed as soon as possible."LaHood is a supporter of airline passenger rights to facilities and water during lengthy on-aircraft delays.
He is a strong proponent of high-speed rail, saying "This is what the American people want. If you build it, they will come."On December 6, 2011, LaHood accepted the resignation of FAA Administrator Randy
Tennessee Republican Party
The Tennessee Republican Party is the affiliate of the United States Republican Party in Tennessee. It is called the Tennessee Grand Old Party or the TNGOP. Upon its entry into the Union in 1796 Tennessee was Democratic-Republican. Tennessee became a two-party system for more than 20 years during the Jacksonian era; the Democratic Party was formed by Jackson followers and this party was dominant against the rival Whig Party led by Henry Clay. But in 1835, there was a turn in power of party and a Whig governor was elected. Tennessee after the Civil War was part of the Democratic South for about a century. East Tennessee however remained Republican. Though the state was predominantly Democratic two different presidential elections won the state of Tennessee in 1920 and 1928. In the 1960s and 1970s Republicans made a push into the Democratic power when in 1966, Howard Baker was elected US senator. Again Republicans made another push, when Winfield Dunn was elected governor, the first Republican Governor in over 50 years.
The Tennessee Republican Party has had five chairmen since 2005. On December 11, 2004, the State Executive Committee unanimously elected Bob Davis as Chairman of the Tennessee Republican Party to serve for the calendar years 2005 and 2006, he was subsequently elected to a second two-year term, 2007 and 2008, but resigned from the chairmanship in August 2007 to become Senior Adviser to presidential candidate Fred Thompson. The party's State Executive Committee chose Robin Smith, former chairman of the Hamilton County Republican Party and vice chairman of the Tennessee GOP under Davis, to complete Davis's two-year term. Republicans won a historic victory in Tennessee's 2008 elections, when the party won majorities in both houses of the Tennessee General Assembly for the first time since the Reconstruction Era election of 1868. Smith was unanimously re-elected at the end of 2008 to a full two-year term as chairman for calendar years 2009 and 2010. In April 2009, Smith announced her resignation in order to run for Congress in Tennessee's 3rd congressional district in the August 2010 Republican primary.
The Chairman of the Republican Party of Tennessee is Scott Golden, elected on December 3, 2016. Michael Sullivan serves as Candice Dawkins as Opperations Director; the Tennessee Republican Party controls the governor's office and a majority in the Tennessee Senate and the Tennessee House of Representatives. Republicans hold both of the state's U. S. Senate seats and 7 of the state's 9 U. S. House seats. Marsha Blackburn Lamar Alexander Phil Roe, 1st District Tim Burchett, 2nd District Chuck Fleischmann, 3rd District Scott DesJarlais, 4th District John Rose, 6th District Mark Green, 7th District David Kustoff, 8th District Governor: Bill Lee Lieutenant Governor: Randy McNally Speaker of the Senate/Lt. Governor: Randy McNally Speaker of the House: Glen Casada Steve Southerland, District 1 Art Swann, District 2 Rusty Crowe, District 3 John Lundberg, District 4 Lt. Gov. Randy McNally, District 5 Becky Duncan Massey, District 6 Richard Briggs, District 7 Frank Niceley, District 8 Mike Bell, District 9 Todd Gardenhire, District 10 Bo Watson, District 11 Ken Yager, District 12 Bill Ketron, District 13 Jim Tracy, District 14 Janice Bowling, District 16 Mark Pody, District 17 Ferrell Haile, District 18 Steven Dickerson, District 20 Rosalind Kurita, District 22 Jack Johnson, District 23 John Stevens, District 24 Kerry Roberts, District 25 Dolores Gresham, District 26 Joey Hensley, District 28 Brian Kelsey, District 31 Jon Lundberg - District 1 Tony Shipley - District 2 Timothy Hill - District 3 David Hawk - District 5 James Van Huss - District 6 Matthew Hill - District 7 Art Swann - District 8 Michael Harrison - District 9 Tilman Goins - District 10 Jeremy Faison - District 11 Dale Carr - District 12 Eddie Smith - District 13 Ryan Haynes - District 14 Bill Dunn - District 16 Andrew Farmer - District 17 Steve Hall - District 18 Harry Brook - District 19 Bob Ramsey - District 20 Jimmy Matlock - District 21 Eric Watson - District 22 John Forgety - District 23 Kevin Brooks - District 24 Cameron Sexton - District 25 Gerald McCormick - District 26 Richard Floyd - District 27 Mike Carter, District 29 Vince Dean - District 30 Ron Travis - District 31 Kent Calfee - District 32 John Ragan - District 33 Rick Womick - District 34 Dennis E. Roach - District 35 Dennis Powers - District 36 Dawn White, District 37 Kelly Keisling - District 38 David Alexander - District 39 Terri Lynn Weaver - District 40 Ryan Williams - District 42 Paul Sherrell - District 43 William Lamberth, District 44 Courtney Rogers - District 45 Mark Pody - District 46 Judd Matheny - District 47 Bryan Terry - District 48 Mike Sparks - District 49 Speaker Beth Harwell - District 56 Susan Lynn - District 57 Charles Michael Sargent - District 61 Pat Marsh - District 62 Glen Casada - District 63 Sheila Butt - District 64 Sam Whitson, District 65 Joshua Evans - District 66 Curtis Johnson - District 68 Michael Curcio - District 69 Barry Doss - District 70 Vance Dennis - District 71 Steve McDaniel - District 72 Jimmy Eldridge - District 73 Jay Reedy - District 74 Tim Wirgau - District 75 Andy Holt - District 76 Bill Sanderson - District 77 Mary Littleton - District 78 Curtis Halford - District 79 Debra Moody, District 81 Mark White - District 83 Roger Kane, District 89 Billy Spivey, District 92 Barrett Rich - District 94 - District 95 Jim Coley - District 97 Ron Lollar - District 99 Here is the structure of the party as of December 2011 State Chairman Vice-Chairman Secretary Treasurer Vice-Treasurer National Committeewoman National Committeeman General Counsel The state executive committee operates as the governing body for the state party.
They establish rules and measures that best promote the success of the Republican Party and broadening of its base
Real estate is "property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water. Also: the business of real estate, it is a legal term used in jurisdictions whose legal system is derived from English common law, such as India, Wales, Northern Ireland, United States, Pakistan and New Zealand. Residential real estate may contain either a single family or multifamily structure, available for occupation or for non-business purposes. Residences can be classified by. Different types of housing tenure can be used for the same physical type. For example, connected residences might be owned by a single entity and leased out, or owned separately with an agreement covering the relationship between units and common areas and concerns. Major categoriesAttached / multi-unit dwellings Apartment or Flat – An individual unit in a multi-unit building; the boundaries of the apartment are defined by a perimeter of locked or lockable doors. Seen in multi-story apartment buildings.
Multi-family house – Often seen in multi-story detached buildings, where each floor is a separate apartment or unit. Terraced house – A number of single or multi-unit buildings in a continuous row with shared walls and no intervening space. Condominium – A building or complex, similar to apartments, owned by individuals. Common grounds and common areas within the complex are shared jointly. In North America, there are rowhouse style condominiums as well; the British equivalent is a block of flats. Cooperative – A type of multiple ownership in which the residents of a multi-unit housing complex own shares in the cooperative corporation that owns the property, giving each resident the right to occupy a specific apartment or unit. Semi-detached dwellings Duplex – Two units with one shared wall. Detached dwellings Detached house or single-family detached house Portable dwellings Mobile homes or residential caravans – A full-time residence that can be movable on wheels. Houseboats – A floating home Tents – Usually temporary, with roof and walls consisting only of fabric-like material.
The size of an apartment or house can be described in square meters. In the United States, this includes the area of "living space", excluding the garage and other non-living spaces; the "square meters" figure of a house in Europe may report the total area of the walls enclosing the home, thus including any attached garage and non-living spaces, which makes it important to inquire what kind of surface area definition has been used. It can be described more by the number of rooms. A studio apartment has a single bedroom with no living room. A one-bedroom apartment has a dining room separate from the bedroom. Two bedroom, three bedroom, larger units are common. Other categoriesChawls Villas HavelisThe size of these is measured in Gaz, Marla and acre. See List of house types for a complete listing of housing types and layouts, real estate trends for shifts in the market, house or home for more general information, it is common practice for an intermediary to provide real estate owners with dedicated sales and marketing support in exchange for commission.
In North America, this intermediary is referred to as a real estate broker, or a real estate agent in everyday conversation, whilst in the United Kingdom, the intermediary would be referred to as an estate agent. In Australia the intermediary is referred to as a real estate agent or real estate representative or the agent
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill known as UNC-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, or Carolina is a public research university in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. It is the flagship of the 17 campuses of the University of North Carolina system. After being chartered in 1789, the university first began enrolling students in 1795, which allows it to be one of three schools to claim the title of the oldest public university in the United States. Among the claimants, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is the only one to have held classes and graduated students as a public university in the eighteenth century; the first public institution of higher education in North Carolina, the school opened its doors to students on February 12, 1795. The university offers degrees in over 70 courses of study through fourteen colleges and the College of Arts and Sciences. All undergraduates receive a liberal arts education and have the option to pursue a major within the professional schools of the university or within the College of Arts and Sciences from the time they obtain junior status.
Under the leadership of President Kemp Plummer Battle, in 1877 North Carolina became coeducational and began the process of desegregation in 1951 when African-American graduate students were admitted under Chancellor Robert Burton House. In 1952, North Carolina opened its own hospital, UNC Health Care, for research and treatment, has since specialized in cancer care; the school's students and sports teams are known as "Tar Heels". UNC's faculty and alumni include 9 Nobel Prize laureates, 23 Pulitzer Prize winners, 49 Rhodes Scholars. Additional notable alumni include a U. S. President, a U. S. Vice President, 38 Governors of U. S. States, 98 members of the United States Congress, 9 Cabinet members, 39 Henry Luce Scholars, 9 World Cup winners and 3 astronauts as well as founders and CEOs of Fortune 500 companies; the campus covers 729 acres of Chapel Hill's downtown area, encompassing the Morehead Planetarium and the many stores and shops located on Franklin Street. Students can participate in over 550 recognized student organizations.
The student-run newspaper The Daily Tar Heel has won national awards for collegiate media, while the student radio station WXYC provided the world's first internet radio broadcast. In 2018, UNC was ranked amongst the top 30 universities in the United States according to the Academic Ranking of World Universities, Washington Monthly, U. S. News & World Report. Internationally, UNC is ranked 33rd and 34th in the world by Academic Ranking of World Universities and U. S. News and World Report, respectively. UNC is regarded as a Public Ivy, an institution which provides an Ivy League collegiate experience at a public school price. North Carolina is one of the charter members of the Atlantic Coast Conference, founded on June 14, 1953. Competing athletically as the Tar Heels, North Carolina has achieved great success in sports, most notably in men's basketball, women's soccer, women's field hockey. Chartered by the North Carolina General Assembly on December 11, 1789, the university's cornerstone was laid on October 12, 1793, near the ruins of a chapel, chosen because of its central location within the state.
The first public university chartered under the US Constitution, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is one of three universities that claims to be the oldest public university in the United States and the only such institution to confer degrees in the eighteenth century as a public institution. During the Civil War, North Carolina Governor David Lowry Swain persuaded Confederate President Jefferson Davis to exempt some students from the draft, so the university was one of the few in the Confederacy that managed to stay open. However, Chapel Hill suffered the loss of more of its population during the war than any village in the South, when student numbers did not recover, the university was forced to close during Reconstruction from December 1, 1870 until September 6, 1875. Despite initial skepticism from university President Frank Porter Graham, on March 27, 1931, legislation was passed to group the University of North Carolina with the State College of Agriculture and Engineering and Woman's College of the University of North Carolina to form the Consolidated University of North Carolina.
In 1963, the consolidated university was made coeducational, although most women still attended Woman's College for their first two years, transferring to Chapel Hill as juniors, since freshmen were required to live on campus and there was only one women's residence hall. As a result, Woman's College was renamed the "University of North Carolina at Greensboro", the University of North Carolina became the "University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill." In 1955, UNC Chapel Hill desegregated its undergraduate divisions. During World War II, UNC Chapel Hill was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. During the 1960s, the campus was the location of significant political protest. Prior to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, protests about local racial segregation which began in Franklin Street restaurants led to mass demonstrations and disturbance; the climate of civil unrest prompted the 1963 Speaker Ban Law prohibiting speeches by communists on state campuses in North Carolina.
The law was criticized by university Chancellor William Brantley Aycock and university President William Friday, but was not reviewed by the North Carolina General Assembly until 1965. Small amendments to allow "infrequent" visits failed to placate the student body when the university's board of trustees overruled new Chancellor Paul Frederick Sh
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader