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Zagreb

Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of Croatia. It is located in the northwest of the country, along the Sava river, at the southern slopes of the Medvednica mountain. Zagreb lies at an elevation of 122 m above sea level; the estimated population of the city in 2018 was 820,678. The population of the Zagreb urban agglomeration is 1,086,528 a quarter of the total population of Croatia. Zagreb is a city with a rich history dating from the Roman times to the present day; the oldest settlement located in the vicinity of the city was the Roman Andautonia, in today's Ščitarjevo. The name "Zagreb" is recorded in 1134, in reference to the foundation of the settlement at Kaptol in 1094. Zagreb became a free royal town in 1242. In 1851 Zagreb had Janko Kamauf. Zagreb has special status as a Croatian administrative division and is a consolidated city-county, is administratively subdivided into 17 city districts. Most of them are at a low elevation along the river Sava valley, whereas northern and northeastern city districts, such as Podsljeme and Sesvete districts are situated in the foothills of the Medvednica mountain, making the city's geographical image rather diverse.

The city extends over 30 kilometres east-west and around 20 kilometres north-south. The transport connections, concentration of industry and research institutions and industrial tradition underlie its leading economic position in Croatia. Zagreb is the seat of the central government, administrative bodies, all government ministries. All of the largest Croatian companies and scientific institutions have their headquarters in the city. Zagreb is the most important transport hub in Croatia where Central Europe, the Mediterranean and Southeast Europe meet, making the Zagreb area the centre of the road and air networks of Croatia, it is a city known for its diverse economy, high quality of living, museums and entertainment events. Its main branches of economy are the service sector; the etymology of the name Zagreb is unclear. It was used for the united city only from 1852, but it had been in use as the name of the Zagreb Diocese since the 12th century, was used for the city in the 17th century; the name is first recorded in a charter by Ostrogon archbishop Felician, dated 1134, mentioned as Zagrabiensem episcopatum.

The older form of the name is Zagrab. The modern Croatian form Zagreb is first recorded in a 1689 map by Nicolas Sanson. An older form is reflected in Hungarian Zabrag. For this, Hungarian linguist Gyula Décsy proposes the etymology of Chabrag, a well-attested hypocorism of the name Cyprian; the same form is reflected in a number such as Csepreg. The name might be derived from Proto-Slavic word * grębъ which means uplift. An Old Croatian reconstructed name *Zagrębъ is manifested through the German name of the city Agram; the name Agram was used in German in the Habsburg period. In Middle Latin and Modern Latin, Zagreb is known as Zagrabia or Mons Graecensis. In Croatian folk etymology, the name of the city has been derived from either the verb za-grab-, meaning "to scoop" or "to dig". One folk legend illustrating this derivation ties the name to a drought of the early 14th century, during which Augustin Kažotić is said to have dug a well which miraculously produced water. In another legend, a city governor is thirsty and orders a girl named Manda to "scoop" water from Manduševac well, using the imperative: zagrabi, Mando!.

The oldest settlement located near today's Zagreb was a Roman town of Andautonia, now Šćitarjevo, which existed between the 1st and the 5th century AD. The first recorded appearance of the name Zagreb is dated to 1094, at which time the city existed as two different city centres: the smaller, eastern Kaptol, inhabited by clergy and housing Zagreb Cathedral, the larger, western Gradec, inhabited by craftsmen and merchants. Gradec and Kaptol were united in 1851 by ban Josip Jelačić, credited for this, with the naming the main city square, Ban Jelačić Square in his honour. During the period of former Yugoslavia, Zagreb remained an important economic centre of the country, was the second largest city. After Croatia declared independence from Yugoslavia, Zagreb was proclaimed its capital; the history of Zagreb dates as far back as 1094 A. D. when the Hungarian King Ladislaus, returning from his campaign against Croatia, founded a diocese. Alongside the bishop's see, the canonical settlement Kaptol developed north of Zagreb Cathedral, as did the fortified settlement Gradec on the neighbouring hill.

Today the latter is one of the best preserved urban nuclei in Croatia. Both settlements came under Tatar attack in 1242; as a sign of gratitude for offering him a safe haven from the Tatars the Croatian and Hungarian King Bela IV bestowed Gradec with a Golden Bull, which offered its citizens exemption from county rule and autonomy, as wel

Mullingstorp

Mullingstorp is an institute for psychotherapy situated in Sweden and started by Bengt Stern in 1985. In 1985 Bengt Stern started the institute Mullingstorp Education and Health, in Sweden south of Stockholm on the Baltic coast, it was he who documented in detail the Meet Yourself process. Bengt was a qualified medical doctor. In the seventies he ran a general practice in Skärholmen outside Stockholm, he was a writer, society debater, course leader and course trainer. In addition to traditional medicine, Bengt Stern studied psychosomatic medicine, body therapy and humanitarian and trans-personal psychology in Europe and the US. Bengt trained a large staff, he turned more and more to writing and research. By the year 2011 about 5500 people had taken part in the Meet Yourself process. Many of those come from the top level of business life; the Meet Yourself Courses at Mullingstorp are based on an existential view of mankind and the world and that every event in one's life has a purpose and is therefore meaningful and as a consequence, every obstacle or cause of suffering such as relationship problems is a signal that one needs to increase one's degree of personal maturity or level of consciousness.

The first step lasts for seven days and participants meet at 07:00 in the morning and finish around 22:00 at night. There is one therapist for every three or four participants as well as a course leader and doctor; the courses are intended to help people take stock of their lives and learn from misfortune in the belief that once this is achieved they will stop fighting against themselves and see life from a larger perspective. Furthermore, the program delineates the concept of "negative stress", which it claims is a result of emotional needs not being satisfied. In particular negative stress is caused when a person denies himself: his need for intimacy and love his ability to say "No!" His need for rest healthy food meditation sufficient exercise further education meaningful workBy denying one's own needs, it is claimed, one avoids having to show "vulnerability" or "moral courage", to say standing up for what is "true" and "meaningful". Bengt maintains that these capabilities will remain beyond a person's reach until they dare to meet and explore their fear and mental pain.

In the book "Feeling Bad Is a Good Start", Bengt describes the ways in which childhood experiences shape a person's adult life in detail. Bengt believed that in order to make lasting changes in one's life one must search within oneself and without any reservation, keep in touch with one's inner and outer reality, he claimed. At the same time one activates the courage needed to change one's life; the theory is that when one chooses to explore one's inner and outer conflicts instead of avoiding them, not only does one's negative stress decrease but symptoms of mental or physical disease. Bengt theorises that a person who identifies with his intellect is controlled and has no possibility to reach beyond it and gain perspective on his life. Therefore, he cannot identify his emotional and/or physical needs, nor can he satisfy them; the controlled person identifies with his patterns of behaviour. There are hundreds of different things that he can identify with, for example, his talents, routines, lack of self-confidence, rebellious side, religion, nationality, his ideas, work, family, circle of friends, home, etc.

Friends and family can, in Bengt's view, nearly always reveal things that a person identifies with better than he himself. The psychologist Carl Jung used the term "shadow" to summarise the behavioural traits and patterns of a person that he cannot see in himself. A person who does not understand his own emotional needs will not know who he is or what he wants from his life, he is forced to continue to live alone or to remain in a malfunctioning love relationship, he may not be enjoying his work and he accepts that people treat him badly. Too many children have psychological problems, which can be attributed to parental influence. During the foetal period and early childhood, children are affected by the frame of mind of their parents. Our futures are shaped by experiences during this period. There is a great difference between Mullingstorp's views. Mullingstorp contrasts what they see as the treatments offered by established healthcare systems for example: Sobril for anxiety Cipramil to treat depression Losec to treat ulcers Voltaren to treat joint pain.

Radiation, chemotherapy and, in some cases, surgery, as the dominant forms of cancer treatmentwith their view that disease symptoms are existential signals that need to be interpreted and not reduced by external measures. Despite the fact that Mullingstorp courses do not focus on treating symptoms, but rather on deepening self-awareness they claim that participants "always experience a substantial reduction in their mental and physical symptoms during the courses". Mullingstorp holds the belief that with symptomatic treatment the patient's problems nearly always return in one or another form and that not until one has made a conscious effort to get rid of negative stress will the symptoms disappear more permanently. In 2009 a study was conducted by Lotta Fernros of the Karolinska Institute into the methods used by Mullingstorp; the study measured the Health Related Quality of Life in the participants at the beginning of the course. On arrival, before the course, the participants completed three questionnaires.

The first was SWEDQUAL, with 61 item

Judiciary of Trinidad and Tobago

The judiciary of Trinidad and Tobago is a branch of the Government of Trinidad and Tobago that interprets and applies the laws of Trinidad and Tobago, to ensure equal justice under law, to provide a mechanism for dispute resolution. The judiciary is a hierarchical system comprising a Supreme Court of Judicature, a Magistracy and a Family Court; the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is the head of the judiciary and is appointed by the President, on the advice of the Prime Minister and the Leader of the Opposition. The Supreme Court consists of a High Court and a Court of Appeal, whilst the Magistracy consists of separate criminal and civil courts with original jurisdiction, is led by a Chief Magistrate. Final appeal on some matters is decided by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London, but in recent years there have been attempts to transfer this function to the Caribbean Court of Justice, based in Port of Spain, Trinidad. In April 2012, the Prime Minister Kamla Persad-Bissessar announced that criminal appeals to the Privy Council would be abolished in favour of the CCJ, after a commitment made at the Caricom Heads of Government conference in Suriname in July 2011.

However, the Opposition suggested that such a "halfway" move might be against treaty obligations, although they supported any moves to the CCJ. Precedent for the partial abolition of appeals to the Privy Council was set by Canada ending criminal appeals to the court in 1933 and civil appeals in 1949