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Zaire

Zaire the Republic of Zaire, was the name of a sovereign state between 1971 and 1997 in Central Africa, now known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The country was a one-party totalitarian dictatorship, run by Mobutu Sese Seko and his ruling Popular Movement of the Revolution party. Zaire was established following Mobutu's seizure of power in a military coup in 1965, following five years of political upheaval following independence known as the Congo Crisis. Zaire had a centralist constitution, foreign assets were nationalized; the period is sometimes referred to as the Second Congolese Republic. A wider campaign of Authenticité, ridding the country of the influences from the colonial era of the Belgian Congo, was launched under Mobutu's direction. Weakened by the termination of American support after the end of the Cold War, Mobutu was forced to declare a new republic in 1990 to cope with demands for change. By the time of its downfall, Zaire was characterised by widespread cronyism and economic mismanagement.

Zaire collapsed in the 1990s, amid the destabilization of the eastern parts of the country in the aftermath of the Rwandan genocide and growing ethnic violence. In 1996, Laurent-Désiré Kabila, the head of the Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo militia, led a popular rebellion against Mobutu. With rebel forces making gains beyond the east, Mobutu fled the country, leaving Kabila's forces in charge as the country restored its name to the Democratic Republic of the Congo the following year. Mobutu died within four months; the country's name, was derived from the name of the Congo River, sometimes called Zaire in Portuguese, which in turn was derived from the Kikongo word nzere or nzadi. The use of Congo seems to have replaced Zaire in English usage during the 18th century and Congo was the preferred English name in 19th-century literature, although references to Zahir or Zaire as the name used by the local population remained common. In 1965, as in 1960, the division of power in Congo-Léopoldville between President and Parliament led to a stalemate and threatened the country's stability.

Joseph-Désiré Mobutu again seized power. Unlike the first time, Mobutu assumed the presidency, rather than remaining behind the scenes. From 1965, Mobutu dominated the political life of the country, restructuring the state on more than one occasion, claiming the title of "Father of the Nation". When, under the authenticity policy of the early 1970s, Zairians were obliged to adopt "authentic" names, Mobutu dropped Joseph-Désiré and changed his name to Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu Wa Za Banga, or, more Mobutu Sésé Seko meaning "the all-conquering warrior, who goes from triumph to triumph". In retrospective justification of his 1965 seizure of power, Mobutu summed up the record of the First Republic as one of "chaos, disorder and incompetence". Rejection of the legacy of the First Republic went far beyond rhetoric. In the first two years of its existence, the new regime turned to the urgent tasks of political reconstruction and consolidation. Creating a new basis of legitimacy for the state, in the form of a single party, came next in Mobutu's order of priority.

A third imperative was to expand the reach of the state in the social and political realms, a process that began in 1970 and culminated in the adoption of a new constitution in 1977. By 1976, this effort had begun to generate its own inner contradictions, thus paving the way for the resurrection of a Bula Matari system. By 1967, Mobutu had consolidated his rule and proceeded to give the country a new constitution and a single party; the new constitution was submitted to popular referendum in June 1967 and approved by 98 percent of those voting. It provided that executive powers be centralised in the president, to be head of state, head of government, commander in chief of the armed forces and the police, in charge of foreign policy; the president was to appoint and dismiss cabinet members and determine their areas of responsibility. The ministers, as heads of their respective departments, were to execute the programs and decisions of the president; the president was to have the power to appoint and dismiss the governors of the provinces and the judges of all courts, including those of the Supreme Court of Justice.

The bicameral parliament was replaced by a unicameral legislative body called the National Assembly. Governors of provinces were no longer elected by provincial assemblies but appointed by the central government; the president had the power to issue autonomous regulations on matters other than those pertaining to the domain of law, without prejudice to other provisions of the constitution. Under certain conditions, the president was empowered to govern by executive order, which carried the force of law, but the most far-reaching change was the creation of the Popular Movement of the Revolution on 17 April 1967, marking the emergence of "the nation politically organised". Rather than government institutions being the emanation of the state, the state was henceforth defined as the emanation of the party. Thus, in October 1967 party and administrative responsibilities were merged into a single framework, thereby automatically extending the role of the party to all administrative organs at the central and provincial levels, as well as to the trade unions, youth movements, student organisations.

Every seven years, the MPR elected a president who began a seven-year term as president of

College Academy @ BC

The College Academy @ BC Central is a joint venture between The School Board of Broward County and Broward College. The College Academy @ BC Central Campus offers high school juniors and seniors enrolled as full-time students in the program the opportunity to receive a high school diploma from The School Board of Broward County, Florida and an Associate of Arts degree from Broward College; the rigorous nature of the program helps students qualify for the State of Florida Bright Futures Scholarship Program. The College Academy is designed for students who have the maturity required for college campus life and the academic ability to handle the rigor of college work. Both high school and dual enrollment courses are taught on the BC Central campus. An extension to North Campus has been opened in the fall of 2015. Students take between 12-18 college credits Fall and Winter Terms and 6 college credits Session I of the Summer Term. Students must maintain a 2.5 unweighted grade point average in order to remain at The College Academy.

Must be in 10th grade when applying Must be a Broward County resident, but exceptions can be made under certain circumstances. Applicants must have a 3.25 unweighted average. Completion of Geometry, World History, HOPE before the start of their junior year. Good behavior/attendance record Two years of one foreign language are recommended. Must earn ACT before acceptance. College Academy students and faculty follow the Broward College calendar. Both Broward College and College Academy classes will begin the fourth week in August; as of 2015, the total student enrollment was 349. The ethnic makeup of the school was 34.4% White, 30.7% Hispanic, 20.6% Black, 10.3% Asian or Pacific Islander, 3.7% Multiracial, 0.03% Native American or Native Alaskan. Gender make-up is 40 % male; the school's official webpage Broward Schools webpage Niche webpage

Sacajawea Patera

Sacajawea Patera is a large, elongate caldera located in Western Ishtar Terra on the smooth plateau of Lakshmi Planum, on the planet Venus. The image is centred at 337 degrees East longitude, it is 420 km wide at the base. Sacajawea is a depression 1–2 kilometres deep and 120 x 215 kilometres in diameter; the depression is bounded by a zone of circumferential curvilinear structures interpreted to be graben and fault scarps. These structures are spaced 0.5–4 kilometers apart, are 0.6–4.0 kilometers in width and up to 100 km in length. Extending up to 140 km in length from the southeast of the patera is a system of linear structures thought to represent a flanking rift zone along which the lateral injection and eruption of magma may have occurred. A shield edifice 12 km in diameter with a prominent central pit lies along the trend of one of these features; the impact crater Zlata 6 km in diameter is located within the zone of graben to the northwest of the patera. Few flow features are observed in association with Sacajawea due to age and state of degradation of the flows.

Mottled bright deposits 4–20 kilometers in width are located near the periphery and in the center of the patera floor within local topographic lows. Diffuse patches of dark material 40 kilometers in width are observed southwest of the patera, superposed on portions of the surrounding graben; the formation of Sacajawea is thought to be related to the drainage and collapse of a large magma chamber. Gravitational relaxation may have caused the resultant caldera to sag, producing the numerous faults and graben that circumscribe the patera. Regions of complex deformed tessera-like terrain are located north and east of the patera and are seen in the upper portion of the image. "Venus—A Large Elongated Caldera'Sacajawea Patera". NASA/JPL. Retrieved 24 November 2010