Okhotny Ryad (Moscow Metro)
Okhotny Ryad is a station on the Sokolnicheskaya Line of the Moscow Metro. It is situated in the centre of Moscow in the Tverskoy District, near the Kremlin, Manezhnaya Square and State Duma, it is named after a nearby street, which name means "hunters' row". Okhotny Ryad station is located under what was the swamplands of the upper Neglinnaya River. Two ancient churches stood on the site, their graveyards were excavated during the construction of the station; the station opened as part of the original Metro line on 15 May 1935. Okhotny Ryad has been renamed more times than any other Metro station. Planned to be called Okhotnoryadskaya, it was opened as Okhotny Ryad instead; the station was renamed Imeni Kaganovicha in honour of Lazar Kaganovich during the brief period between 25 November 1955 and 1957, when its original name was restored. The station's name was changed once more on 30 November 1961, to Prospekt Marksa. On 5 June 1990, the original name was restored once more; the construction of Okhotny Ryad presented a number of engineering challenges.
The task of wedging a metro station into the narrow space between two major buildings, the Hotel Moskva, re-built, what is now the State Duma building, at a depth of only 8 metres without damaging their foundations was further complicated by the difficult soil conditions in the area, including numerous underground water channels. The station was built using a so-called "German" method in which the station walls were constructed above ground and lowered into the construction site; this helped to brace the foundations of the nearby buildings during the subsequent construction of the station vault and pylons. The station was planned to be a bi-vault design similar to many London Underground stations, but Lazar Kaganovich, in charge of the Moscow Metro project at the time, insisted that the station be changed to a tri-vault design after 20 metres of tunnel had been bored. A major setback occurred when accumulated rainwater broke through the vault before it had been sealed and flooded the station.
Though no one was injured in the disaster, construction had to be halted while the damage was repaired. The architects, Yuri Revkovsky, N. Borov, G. Zamskoy, employed a silvery marble from Italy for the finishing of the pylons, the only documented case where imported material was used in the Metro; the walls are faced with ceramic tile. The finishing of the station, which involved the installation of more than 3,000 square metres of marble, 20,000 square metres of plaster, thousands of square metres of tile as well as lighting and decorations, was completed in just two weeks. In 2004, Okhotny Ryad underwent a major renovation which included replacing the lighting elements inside the spheres and repainting the plaster from light beige to white. A further renovation took place in 2007/2008 when the old ceramic tiles were replaced by bright marble, though a small tiled section was retained. An average of 42,110 passengers per day enter the station through its vestibules with an additional 241,000 passengers entering via Teatralnaya.
The station has two subterranean vestibules, each linked with the platform via an escalator. During the construction of the vestibules, orders of the Moscow's party committee prohibited the obstruction of traffic, so American bridges had to be built over the pits of the future vestibules; the eastern vestibule, through a mezzanine level is situated on the ground floor of a building situated on the corner of Bolshaya Dmitrovka street, Teatralny Drive, Teatralnaya Square. The facade of this building was redesigned by Dmitry Chechulin and incorporated sculptures of athletes which were modeled after performers from the Moscow Circus; the original three N-type escalators were replaced by ET-5M units in 1997. The vestibule acts as a transfer point to the Teatralnaya station; the western vestibule's original N-type escalators were replaced in 1990 by the ET-5M series. The vestibule's original entrance was built into the ground floor of Hotel Moskva, on the corner of Manezhnaya Square and Okhotny Ryad street.
In 1959 the original structure was expanded with the first of many underground subway networks, opened on 21 November. Dual descent entrances appeared on both corners of the Tverskaya Street, in front of the original entrance; the tunnel the continued along the facade of the Hotel Moskva, to offer entrance on both sides of the driveway between Manezhnaya Square and Revolution Square. The final addition came in 1997 when a new underground mall was opened under the Manezhnaya Square, a direct access was made possible from the 1959 network; when the original Hotel Moskva was closed for demolition in 2004, the original entrance on its northwest corner was demolished. It is unknown. Okhotny Ryad station is connected to Teatralnaya station of the Zamoskvoretskaya Line; when opened in 1938, transfer was only possible via the eastern vestibule. A direct transfer was under construction, but did not open until 30 December 1944, it features a long inclined tunnel. As the system grew, the original arrangement proved inadequate to handle the large passenger load and on 7 November 1974 a second transfer tunnel was opened.
Access to both transfer routes is done via escalators in the centre of the platform. The original two tandem N-type escalator pairs were replaced in 2001 by ET-5M series. In the mezzanine under the platform the northwards direction carries passenge
Alma-Atinskaya (Moscow Metro)
Alma-Atinskaya is a southern terminus station of the Zamoskvoretskaya Line of the Moscow Metro. The station was opened on 24 December 2012. On 29 November 2011 Moscow government decided to rename the station from "Brateyevo" into "Alma-Atinskaya" after the Russian name of the city of Almaty, former capital of Kazakhstan; the change reflects the rename of "Molodyozhnaya" station of Almaty Metro, still under construction in 2012, to Moskva station as a sign of friendship between Russia and Kazakhstan. The station located in the Brateyevo District. Entrances are near Brateyevskaya and Klyuchevaya streets. Media related to Alma-Atinskaya at Wikimedia Commons
Tverskaya Street, known between 1935 and 1990 as Gorky Street, is the main radial street in Moscow. The street runs Northwest from the central Manege Square in the direction of Saint Petersburg and terminates at the Garden Ring, giving the name to Tverskoy District; the route continues further as First Tverskaya-Yamskaya Street, Leningradsky Avenue and Leningradskoye Highway. Tourists are told, its importance for the medieval city was immense, as it connected Moscow with its superior, chief rival, Tver. At that time, the thoroughfare crossed the Neglinnaya River; the first stone bridge across the Neglinnaya was set up in 1595. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Tverskaya Street was renowned as the centre of Moscow's social life; the nobility considered it fashionable to settle in this district. Among the Palladian mansions dating from the reign of Catherine the Great are the residence of the mayor of Moscow, the English Club; the mayor's residence among a number of other historic buildings was moved about 14 meters for the widening of the Gorky Street during Stalin's time.
On the square before it stands a statue of the legendary founder of Moscow, Yuri Dolgoruky, erected for the city's 800th anniversary. During the imperial period, the importance of the thoroughfare was highlighted by the fact that it was through this street that the tsars arrived from the Northern capital to stay at their Kremlin residence. Several triumphal arches were constructed to commemorate coronation ceremonies. In 1792, the Tverskaya Square was laid out before the residence of the governor of Moscow as a staging ground for mass processions and parades. In 1947, the square was decorated with an equestrian statue of Prince Yury Dolgoruky, founder of Moscow. During Pushkin's time, the Tverskaya was lined with five churches; the poet wove his impressions from the street into the following stanza of Eugene Onegin: The columns of the city gate Gleam white. Past sentry-boxes now they dash, Past shops and lamp-posts, serfs who lash Their nags, mansions, Parks, Bukharans, Fat merchants, boulevards, Old women, boys with cheeks like cherries, Lions on gates with great stone jaws, And crosses black with flocks of daws.
Towards the end of the 19th century, the street was reconstructed, with stately neoclassical mansions giving way to grandiose commercial buildings in an eclectic mixture of historical styles. A characteristic edifice of the time is the eclectic Hotel National, whose interior is a landmark of Russian Art Nouveau. In 1888 the actor, theatre director and founder of the Moscow Art Theatre, Constantin Stanislavski, rented the Ginzburg House on the street and had it converted into a luxurious clubhouse with its own large stage and several exhibition rooms, in order to house his newly formed Society of Art and Literature; the Society gave its last performance there on 3 January 1891 and the building burnt down on the night of January 10. Between the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the rise of Stalinist architecture in mid-1930s, the street acquired three modernist buildings - constructivist Izvestia Building by Grigory Barkhin, Central Telegraph Building, a modernist masterpiece by Ivan Rerberg, a stern "black cube" of the Lenin Institute in Tverskaya Square by Stepan Chernyshyov.
The street was renamed in 1932 for Maxim Gorky, the Russian writer and revolutionary admired by both Vladimir Lenin and Josef Stalin. Further expansion occurred in line with Joseph Stalin's 1935 master plan. During that period, all the churches and most other historic buildings were torn down in order to widen the street and replace low-rise buildings with larger, early Stalinist apartment blocks and government offices. Arkady Mordvinov, who handled this ambitious project, retained some historical buildings, like the ornately decorated Savvinskoye Podvorye by Ivan Kuznetsov; this building was moved to a new foundation North from the new street line, is now enclosed inside Mordvinov's Stalinist block at 6, Tverskaya Street. The project was only completed before World War II. Most of them were torn down with a few exceptions like Yermolova Theatre still standing. Intourist Hotel, a 23-story tower built in 1970, has been demolished in 2002 and replaced with an controversial hotel block; when Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev assumed power, he encouraged a return to the country's old Russian names.
Thus, the street's name became after a 55-year interlude as Gorky Street. Tverskaya Street runs from the Manege Square through the Tverskoy District and the crossing with the Boulevard Ring, known as Pushkin Square, to the Garden Ring, its extension, First Tverskaya-Yamskaya Street, continues further on Northwest right up to Belorussky Rail Terminal, changing its name again into Leningradsky Prospekt. It keeps the same direction before diverging into Leningradskoye Shosse. Tverskaya Street is the most expensive shopping street in Russia. According to an index published by global real estate company Colliers International in 2008, it is now the third most expensive street in the world, based on commercial rental fees, it is the center of the city's entertainment. Plans for the reconstruction of the Tverskaya radius into a grade-separated freeway under way in remote parts of the route (see Leningradsky
Dinamo (Moscow Metro)
Dinamo is a Moscow Metro station on the Zamoskvoretskaya line. It opened on 11 September 1938 as part of the second stage of the system, it was named for the home stadium of FC Dynamo Moscow. Passengers may make out-of-station transfers to the Bolshaya Koltsevaya and Kalininsko-Solntsevskaya lines via Petrovsky Park station. Dinamo is under Leningradsky Avenue in the Aeroport District of Moscow near Petrovsky Park and the Petrovsky Palace; the future VTB Arena is being built on the same dinamo stadium adjacent to the station. The station follows a tri-vaulted deep-level pylon design. Designed by Ya. Likhtenberg and Yury Revkovsky, the station features a sport-themed decoration with bas-reliefs designed by Ye. Yason-Manzer depicting sportsmen in various practices in the central hall; the pylons, faced with red tagilian marble and onyx have porcelain medallions showing sportsmen. The walls are faced with onyx and grey marble, neatly tiled together; the floor is revetted with black marble, although the platforms were covered with asphalt.
There are two identical vestibules, each on the northern side of the Leningradsky Avenue, the architect for the vestibules was Dmitry Chechulin. The city is building an underground walkway between Dinamo and Petrovsky Park stations that will ease transfers between the stations; that walkway could open in late of 2019 - the beginning of 2020. In 1940, physicists Georgy Flyorov and Konstantin Petrzhak used the station for their observations of the decay of uranium; the depth of the station reduced the potential effect of cosmic rays in their work. Working at night, the pair discovered spontaneous fission
The Moscow Metro is a rapid transit system serving Moscow and the neighbouring Moscow Oblast cities of Krasnogorsk, Reutov and Kotelniki. Opened in 1935 with one 11-kilometre line and 13 stations, it was the first underground railway system in the Soviet Union; as of 2018, the Moscow Metro excluding the Moscow Central Circle and Moscow Monorail has 224 stations and its route length is 381 km, making it the fifth longest in the world. The system is underground, with the deepest section 84 metres underground at the Park Pobedy station, one of the world's deepest. It's the busiest metro system in Europe, a tourist attraction in itself; the Moscow Metro, a state-owned enterprise, is 381 km long and consists of twelve lines and 223 stations organized in a spoke-hub distribution paradigm, with the majority of rail lines running radially from the centre of Moscow to the outlying areas. The Koltsevaya Line forms a 20-kilometre long circle which enables passenger travel between these diameters, the new Moscow Central Circle forms a 54-kilometre longer circle that serves a similar purpose on middle periphery.
Most stations and lines are underground. The Moscow Metro uses the Russian gauge of 1,520 millimetres, like other Russian railways, an underrunning third rail with a supply of 825 V DC, except line 13 and 14; the average distance between stations is 1.7 kilometres. Long distances between stations have the positive effect of a high cruising speed of 41.7 kilometres per hour. The Moscow Metro opens at 05:25 and closes at 01:00; the precise opening time varies at different stations according to the arrival of the first train, but all stations close their entrances at 01:00 for maintenance, so do transfer corridors. The minimum interval between trains is 90 seconds during the evening rush hours; as of 2017 the system had an average daily ridership of 6.99 million passengers. Peak daily ridership of 9.71 million was recorded on 26 December 2014. Free Wi-Fi has been available on all lines of the Moscow Metro since 1 December 2014; the network was launched by MaximaTelecom. Of the metro's 224 stations, 88 are deep underground, 123 are shallow, 12 are surface and five are elevated.
The deep stations comprise 55 triple-vaulted pylon stations, 19 triple-vaulted column stations, one single-vault station. The shallow stations comprise 79 spanned column stations, 33 single-vaulted stations, three single-spanned stations. In addition, there are 12 ground-level stations, four elevated stations, one station on a bridge. Two stations have three tracks, one has double halls. Seven of the stations have side platforms. In addition, there were two temporary stations within rail yards. One station is reserved for future service; the stations being constructed under Stalin's regime, in the style of socialist classicism, were meant as underground palaces of the people. Stations such as Komsomolskaya, Kiyevskaya or Mayakovskaya and others built after 1935 in the second phase of the evolution of the network are tourist landmarks, their photogenic architecture, large chandeliers and detailed decoration unusual for an urban transport system; each line is identified by an alphanumeric index and a colour.
The colour assigned to each line for display on maps and signs is its colloquial identifier, except for the nondescript greens and blues assigned to the Kakhovskaya, the Zamoskvoretskaya, the Lyublinsko-Dmitrovskaya, Butovskaya lines. The upcoming station is announced by a male voice on inbound trains to the city center and by a female voice on outbound trains; the metro has a connection to the Moscow Monorail, a 4.7-kilometre, six-station monorail line between Timiryazevskaya and VDNKh which opened in January 2008. Prior to the official opening, the monorail had operated in "excursion mode" since 2004. Sokolnicheskaya line was named Kirovsko-Fruzenskaya Zamoskvoretskaya line was named Gorkovsko-Zamoskvoretskaya. Filyovskaya line was named Arbatsko-Filyovskaya. Since the beginning, platforms have been at least 155 metres long to accommodate eight-car trains; the only exceptions are on the Filyovskaya Line: Vystavochnaya, Studencheskaya, Fili, Filyovsky Park and Pionerskaya, which only allows six-car trains.
Trains on the Zamoskvoretskaya, Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya, Tagansko-Krasnopresnenskaya, Serpukhovsko-Timiryazevskaya and Lyublinsko-Dmitrovskaya lines have eight cars, on the Sokolnicheskaya line seven cars and on the Koltsevaya and Kakhovskaya lines six cars. The Filyovskaya and Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya lines had six- and seven-car trains as well, but now use four- and five-car trains of another type; the V-type trains were from Berlin U-Bahn C-class trains from 1945 to 1969, until its complete demi
A third rail is a method of providing electric power to a railway locomotive or train, through a semi-continuous rigid conductor placed alongside or between the rails of a railway track. It is used in a mass transit or rapid transit system, which has alignments in its own corridors or fully segregated from the outside environment. Third rail systems are always supplied from direct current electricity; the third-rail system of electrification is unrelated to the third rail used in dual gauge railways. Third-rail systems are a means of providing electric traction power to trains using an additional rail for the purpose. On most systems, the conductor rail is placed on the sleeper ends outside the running rails, but in some systems a central conductor rail is used; the conductor rail is supported on ceramic insulators or insulated brackets at intervals of around 10 feet. The trains have metal contact blocks called collector shoes which make contact with the conductor rail; the traction current is returned to the generating station through the running rails.
In the US, the conductor rail is made of high conductivity steel or steel bolted to aluminium to increase the conductivity. Elsewhere in the world, extruded aluminum conductors with stainless steel contact surface or cap, is the preferred technology due to its lower electrical resistance, longer life, lighter weight; the running rails are electrically connected using wire bonds or other devices, to minimise resistance in the electric circuit. Contact shoes can be positioned below, above, or beside the third rail, depending on the type of third rail used: these third rails are referred to as bottom-contact, top-contact, or side-contact, respectively; the conductor rails have to be interrupted at level crossings and substation gaps. Tapered rails are provided at the ends of each section, to allow a smooth engagement of the train's contact shoes; the position of contact between the train and the rail varies: some of the earliest systems used top contact, but developments use side or bottom contact, which enabled the conductor rail to be covered, protecting track workers from accidental contact and protecting the conductor rail from frost, ice and leaf-fall.
Because third rail systems present electric shock hazards close to the ground, high voltages are not considered safe. A high current must therefore be used to transfer adequate power, resulting in high resistive losses, requiring closely spaced feed points; the electrified rail threatens electrocution of anyone falling onto the tracks. This can be avoided by using platform screen doors, or the risk can be reduced by placing the conductor rail on the side of the track away from the platform, when allowed by the station layout; the risk can be reduced by having an insulated coverboard to protect the third rail from contact, although many systems do not use one. In some modern systems such as the ground-level power supply, the safety problem is avoided by splitting the power rail into small segments, each of, only powered when covered by a train. There is a risk of pedestrians walking onto the tracks at level crossings. In the US, a 1992 Supreme Court of Illinois decision affirmed a $1.5 million verdict against the Chicago Transit Authority for failing to stop an intoxicated person from walking onto the tracks at a level crossing in an attempt to urinate.
The Paris Metro has graphic warning signs pointing out the danger of electrocution from urinating on third rails, precautions which Chicago did not have. The end ramps of conductor rails present a practical limitation on speed due to the mechanical impact of the shoe, 160 km/h is considered the upper limit of practical third-rail operation; the world speed record for a third rail train is 174 km/h attained on 11 April 1988 by a British Class 442 EMU. In the event of a collision with a foreign object, the beveled end ramps of bottom running systems can facilitate the hazard of having the third rail penetrate the interior of a passenger car; this is believed to have contributed to the death of five passengers in the Valhalla train crash of 2015. Third rail systems using top contact are prone to accumulations of snow, or ice formed from refrozen snow, this can interrupt operations; some systems operate dedicated de-icing trains to deposit an oily fluid or antifreeze on the conductor rail to prevent the frozen build-up.
The third rail can be heated to alleviate the problem of ice. Unlike third rail systems, overhead line equipment can be affected by strong winds or freezing rain bringing the wires down and stopping all trains. Thunderstorms can disable the power with lightning strikes on systems with overhead wires, disabling trains if there is a power surge or a break in the wires; because of the gaps in the conductor rail a train can stop in a position where all of its power pickup shoes are in gaps, so that no traction power is available. The train is said to be "gapped". Another train must be brought up behind the stranded train to push it on to the conductor rail, or a jumper cable may be used to supply enough power to the train to get one of its contact shoes back on the third rail. Avoiding this problem requires a minimum length of trains that can be run on a line. Locomotives have either had the backup of an on-board diesel engine system, or have been connected to shoes on the rolling stock; the first idea for feeding elec
Kolomenskaya (Moscow Metro)
Kolomenskaya is an underground metro station on the Zamoskvoretskaya Line of the Moscow Metro in Moscow, Russia. Kolomenskaya Station was opened on 11 August 1969 as a part of the southern line extension of the Moscow Metro system. Kolomenskaya was named after the nearby Kolomenskoye museum-park. Octagonal pillars of the station hall are lined with grey marble and the floor is riveted with red granite in the centre and grey granite at the sides; the track walls are faced with yellow ceramic tiles with a stripe of grey marble at the base. The station is adorned with copper plaques on the theme; the station has two underground vestibules, located on the intersection between the Andropova avenue and the Nagatinskaya/Novinki street. Both vestibules are interlinked with underpasses that offer exits to the surface level which covered glazed pavilions; the construction of the station is a typical example of Soviet urban development, as the apartment blocks that were built around it are contemporary with the station.
The region that it is located in, Nagatino became part of Moscow only a few years prior to the construction of the station. Part of the track from Avtozavodskaya is above ground, it passes over the Moskva River on the Nagatinsky Metro Bridge, opened with the new segment. Plans for a new station, Tekhnopark to be added in the future remains unfulfilled