Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, the tenth most densely populated; the state's capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio River, whose name in turn originated from the Seneca word ohiːyo', meaning "good river", "great river" or "large creek". Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, Ohio was the 17th state admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, the first under the Northwest Ordinance. Ohio is known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees, Ohioans are known as "Buckeyes". Ohio rose from the wilderness of Ohio Country west of Appalachia in colonial times through the Northwest Indian Wars as part of the Northwest Territory in the early frontier, to become the first non-colonial free state admitted to the union, to an industrial powerhouse in the 20th century before transmogrifying to a more information and service based economy in the 21st.
The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the Governor. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives. Ohio is known for its status as both a bellwether in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected. Ohio is an industrial state, ranking 8th out of 50 states in GDP, is the second largest producer of automobiles behind Michigan. Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic expansion; because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity. To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles of coastline. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River, much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Lake Erie to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, West Virginia on the southeast.
Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows: Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line, on the south by the Ohio River, to the mouth of the Great Miami River, on the west by the line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid, on the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east after intersecting the due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line, thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid. Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. In 1980, the U. S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia, the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.
The border with Michigan has changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features glaciated till plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp; this glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests; the rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state.
In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, an attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region." This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia. While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, Scioto River. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence River, the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio River and the Mississippi; the worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton; as a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.
Grand Lake St. Marys in the west-central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for ca
Aberdeen is a village in Huntington Township, Brown County, United States, along the Ohio River 50 miles southeast of Cincinnati. The population was 1,638 at the 2010 census. Aberdeen is connected to Maysville, Kentucky by the Simon Kenton Memorial Bridge to downtown Maysville and the William H. Harsha Bridge, a cable-stayed bridge completed in 2001, it was part of Zane's Trace, a frontier road through the Northwest Territory completed in 1797. Aberdeen was founded by James Edwards in 1795 and platted by Nathan Ellis in 1816, it was incorporated on July 5, 1816. Aberdeen is located at 38°39′54″N 83°46′3″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 1.63 square miles, of which 1.35 square miles is land and 0.28 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,638 people, 760 households, 454 families residing in the village; the population density was 1,213.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 882 housing units at an average density of 653.3 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the village was 96.2% White, 1.8% African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.9% of the population. There were 760 households of which 26.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.3% were married couples living together, 14.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 40.3% were non-families. 35.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.16 and the average family size was 2.75. The median age in the village was 41.9 years. 21.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 46.6% male and 53.4% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,603 people, 689 households, 436 families residing in the village; the population density was 1,133.8 people per square mile. There were 825 housing units at an average density of 583.5 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the village was 96.88% White, 1.37% African American, 0.81% Native American, 0.19% Asian, 0.37% from other races, 0.37% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.25% of the population. There were 689 households out of which 32.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.4% were married couples living together, 15.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.7% were non-families. 31.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.88. In the village, the population was spread out with 25.8% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 30.4% from 25 to 44, 24.0% from 45 to 64, 12.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.4 males. The median income for a household in the village was $30,202, the median income for a family was $33,906.
Males had a median income of $32,500 versus $23,889 for females. The per capita income for the village was $16,287. About 18.6% of families and 21.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.9% of those under age 18 and 18.3% of those age 65 or over. List of cities and towns along the Ohio River Official website
The Northwest Territory in the United States was formed after the American Revolutionary War, was known formally as the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio. It was the initial post-colonial Territory of the United States and encompassed most of pre-war British colonial territory west of the Appalachian mountains north of the Ohio River, it included all the land west of Pennsylvania, northwest of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River below the Great Lakes. It spanned all or large parts of six eventual U. S. States, it was created as a Territory by the Northwest Ordinance July 13, 1787, reduced to Ohio, eastern Michigan and a sliver of southeastern Indiana with the formation of Indiana Territory July 4, 1800, ceased to exist March 1, 1803, when the southeastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the state of Ohio, the remainder attached to Indiana Territory. At its inception the Territory was a vast wilderness sparsely populated by nomadic Indians including the Delaware, Potawatomi and others.
At the territory's dissolution, there were dozens of towns and settlements, a few with thousands of settlers in Ohio chiefly along the Ohio and Miami Rivers and around the Great Lakes. The region was ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Paris of 1783; the Congress of the Confederation enacted the Northwest Ordinance in 1787 to provide for the administration of the territories and set rules for admission of jurisdictions as states. On August 7, 1789, the new U. S. Congress affirmed the Ordinance with slight modifications under the Constitution; the Territory was governed by martial law under a governor and three judges, but as population increased, a legislature, the Territorial General Assembly, was formed. Administratively, the Territory was divided into a succession of counties totaling 13. Conflicts between settlers and Native American inhabitants of the Territory resulted in the Northwest Indian War culminating in General "Mad" Anthony Wayne's victory at Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794.
The subsequent Treaty of Greenville 1795 opened the way for settlement of eastern Ohio. The Northwest Territory included all the then-owned land of the United States west of Pennsylvania, east of the Mississippi River, northwest of the Ohio River, it incorporated most of the former Ohio Country except a portion in western Pennsylvania, Illinois Country. It covered all of the modern states of Ohio, Illinois and Wisconsin, as well as the northeastern part of Minnesota. Lands west of the Mississippi River were the Louisiana Province of New France; the area included more than 260,000 square miles and comprised about 1/3 of the land area of the United States at the time of its creation. It was inhabited by about 45,000 Native Americans and 4,000 traders Canadien and British. Among the tribes inhabiting the region were the Shawnee, Miami, Wyandot and Potawatomi. Notably, the Miami capital along with British trading posts was at Kekionga at the site of present day Fort Wayne, Indiana. Neutralizing Kekionga became the focus of the Northwest Indian War, the driving events in the early evolution of the territory.
Integration of the Northwest Territory into a political unit, settlement, depended on three factors: relinquishment by the British, extinguishment of states' claims west of the Appalachians, usurpation or purchase of lands from the Indians. These objectives were accomplished correspondingly by the American Revolutionary War, provisions in the Articles of Confederation, various treaties preceding the Northwest Indian War including Treaty of Fort Stanwix and Treaty of Fort McIntosh; the treaty process would extend well beyond the War and existence of the Territory as a political entity. European exploration of the region began with French-Canadian voyageurs in the 17th century, followed by French missionaries and French fur traders. French-Canadian explorer Jean Nicolet was the first recorded European entrant into the region, landing in 1634 at the current site of Green Bay, Wisconsin; the French exercised control from separate posts in the region, which they claimed as New France. France ceded the territory to the Kingdom of Great Britain as part of the Indian Reserve in the 1763 Treaty of Paris, after being defeated in the French and Indian War.
From the 1750s to the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812, the British had a long-standing goal of creating an Indian barrier state, a large "neutral" Indian state that would cover most of the Old Northwest. It would be independent of the United States and under the tutelage of the British, who would use it to block American expansion and to build up their control of the fur trade headquartered in Montreal. A new colony, named Charlotina, was proposed for the southern Great Lakes region. However, facing armed opposition by Native Americans, the British issued the Proclamation of 1763, which prohibited white colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains; this action angered American colonists interested in expansion, as well as those who had settled in the area. In 1774, by the Quebec Act
Lancaster is a city located in South Central Pennsylvania which serves as the seat of Pennsylvania's Lancaster County and one of the oldest inland towns in the United States. With a population of 59,322, it ranks eighth in population among Pennsylvania's cities; the Lancaster metropolitan area population is 507,766, making it the 101st largest metropolitan area in the U. S. and second largest in the South Central Pennsylvania area. The city's primary industries include healthcare, public administration and both professional and semi-professional services. Lancaster hosts more electronic public CCTV outdoor cameras per capita than cities such as Boston or San Francisco, despite controversy among residents. Lancaster was home to James Buchanan, the nation's 15th president, to congressman and abolitionist Thaddeus Stevens. Called Hickory Town, the city was renamed after the English city of Lancaster by native John Wright, its symbol, is from the House of Lancaster. Lancaster was part of the 1681 Penn's Woods Charter of William Penn, was laid out by James Hamilton in 1734.
It was incorporated as a borough in 1742 and incorporated as a city in 1818. During the American Revolution, Lancaster was the capital of the United States for one day, on September 27, 1777, after the Continental Congress fled Philadelphia, captured by the British; the revolutionary government moved still farther away to York, Pennsylvania. Lancaster was capital of Pennsylvania from 1799 to 1812, after which the capital was moved to Harrisburg. In 1851, the current Lancaster County Prison was built in the city, styled after Lancaster Castle in England; the prison remains in use, was used for public hangings until 1912. It replaced a 1737 structure on a different site; the first paved road in the United States was the former Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike, which makes up part of the present-day U. S. Route 30. Opened in 1795, the Turnpike connected the cities of Lancaster and Philadelphia, was designed by a Scottish engineer named John Loudon McAdam. Lancaster residents are known to use the word "macadam" in lieu of asphalt.
This name is a reference to the paving process named for McAdam. The city of Lancaster was home to several important figures in American history. Wheatland, the estate of James Buchanan, the fifteenth President of the United States, is one of Lancaster's most popular attractions. Thaddeus Stevens, considered among the most powerful members of the United States House of Representatives, lived in Lancaster as an attorney. Stevens gained notoriety for his abolitionism; the Fulton Opera House in the city was named for Lancaster native Robert Fulton, a renaissance man who created the first functional steamboat. All of these individuals have had local schools named after them. After the American Revolution, the city of Lancaster became an iron-foundry center. Two of the most common products needed by pioneers to settle the Frontier were manufactured in Lancaster: the Conestoga wagon and the Pennsylvania long rifle; the Conestoga wagon was named after the Conestoga River. The innovative gunsmith William Henry lived in Lancaster and was a U.
S. congressman and leader during and after the American Revolution. In 1803, Meriwether Lewis visited Lancaster to be educated in survey methods by the well-known surveyor Andrew Ellicott. During his visit, Lewis learned to plot latitude and longitude as part of his overall training needed to lead the Lewis and Clark Expedition. In 1879, Franklin Winfield Woolworth opened his first successful "five and dime" store in the city of Lancaster, the F. W. Woolworth Company. Lancaster was one of the winning communities for the All-America City award in 2000. On October 13, 2011, Lancaster's City Council recognized September 27 as Capital Day, a holiday recognizing Lancaster's one day as capital of the United States in 1777. Lancaster is located at 40°02'23" North, 76°18'16" West, is 368 feet above sea level; the city is located about 34 miles southeast of Harrisburg, 70 miles west of Philadelphia, 55 miles north-northeast of Baltimore and 87 miles northeast of Washington, D. C; the nearest towns and boroughs are Millersville, Willow Street, East Petersburg, Landisville, Mountville and Leola.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.4 square miles, of which, 7.4 square miles of it is land and 0.14% is water. Lancaster has a humid subtropical climate with hot or warm summers; as of the 2010 census, the city was 55.2% White, 16.3% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 3.0% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian, 5.8% were two or more races. 39.3 % of the population were of Latino ancestry. As of the census of 2000, there were 56,348 people, 20,933 households, 12,162 families residing in the city; the population density was 7,616.5 people per square mile. There were 23,024 housing units at an average density of 3,112.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 61.55% White, 14.09% African American, 0.44% Native American, 2.46% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 17.44% from other races, 3.94% from two or more races. 30.76 % of the population were Latino people of any race. The largest ethnic groups in Lancaster as of recent estimates are: Puerto Rican 29.2% German 21.2% African American 12.8% Irish 8.6% English 8.2% Italian 4.1% Dominican 3.2% Polish 2.0% Scottish 1.9% Mexican 1.8% Cuban 1.7% West Indian 1.0%In 2010, 29.2% of Lancaster residents were of P
The National Road was the first major improved highway in the United States built by the federal government. Built between 1811 and 1837, the 620-mile road connected the Potomac and Ohio Rivers and was a main transport path to the West for thousands of settlers; when rebuilt in the 1830s, it became the second U. S. road surfaced with the macadam process pioneered by Scotsman John Loudon McAdam. Construction began heading west in 1811 at Maryland, on the Potomac River. After the Financial Panic of 1837 and the resulting economic depression, congressional funding ran dry and construction was stopped at Vandalia, the capital of the Illinois, 63 miles northeast of St. Louis across the Mississippi River; the road has been referred to as the Cumberland Turnpike, the Cumberland–Brownsville Turnpike, the Cumberland Pike, the National Pike, the National Turnpike. Today, much of the alignment is followed by U. S. Route 40, with various portions bearing the Alternate U. S. Route 40 designation, or various state-road numbers.
In 2002, the full road, including extensions east to Baltimore and west to St. Louis, was designated the Historic National Road, an All-American Road; the Braddock Road had been opened by the Ohio Company in 1751 between Fort Cumberland, the limit of navigation on the upper Potomac River, the French military station at Fort Duquesne at the forks of the Ohio River, an important trading and military point where the city of Pittsburgh now stands. It received its name during the colonial-era French and Indian War of 1753–63, when it was constructed by British General Edward Braddock, accompanied by Colonel George Washington of the Virginia militia regiment in the ill-fated July 1755 Braddock expedition, an attempt to assault the French-held Fort Duquesne. Construction of the Cumberland Road was authorized on March 1806, by President Thomas Jefferson; the new Cumberland Road would replace the wagon and foot paths of the Braddock Road for travel between the Potomac and Ohio Rivers, following the same alignment until just east of Uniontown, Pennsylvania.
From there, where the Braddock Road turned north towards Pittsburgh, the new National Road/Cumberland Road continued west to Wheeling, Virginia on the Ohio River. The contract for the construction of the first section was awarded to Henry McKinley on May 8, 1811, construction began that year, with the road reaching Wheeling on August 1, 1818. For more than 100 years, a simple granite stone was the only marker of the road's beginning in Cumberland, Maryland. In June 2012, a monument and plaza were built in that town's Riverside Park, next to the historic original starting point. Beyond the National Road's eastern terminus at Cumberland and toward the Atlantic coast, a series of private toll roads and turnpikes were constructed, connecting the National Road with Baltimore the third-largest city in the country, a major maritime port on Chesapeake Bay. Completed in 1824, these feeder routes formed what is referred to as an eastern extension of the federal National Road. On May 15, 1820, Congress authorized an extension of the road to St. Louis, on the Mississippi River, on March 3, 1825, across the Mississippi and to Jefferson City, Missouri.
Work on the extension between Wheeling and Zanesville, used the pre-existing Zane's Trace of old Ebenezer Zane, was completed in 1833 to the new state capital of Columbus, in 1838 to the college town of Springfield, Ohio. In 1849, a bridge was completed to carry the National Road across the Ohio River at Wheeling; the Wheeling Suspension Bridge, designed by Charles Ellet Jr. was at the time the world's longest bridge span at 1,010 feet from tower to tower. Maintenance costs on the Cumberland Road were becoming more. In agreements with Maryland and Pennsylvania, the road was to be reconstructed and resurfaced; the section that ran over Haystack Mountain, just west of Cumberland, was abandoned and a new road was built through the Cumberland Narrows. On April 1, 1835, the section from Wheeling to Cumberland was transferred to Maryland and Virginia; the last congressional appropriation was made May 25, 1838, in 1840, Congress voted against completing the unfinished portion of the road, with the deciding vote being cast by Henry Clay.
By that time, railroads were proving a better method of long-distance transportation, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad was being built west from Baltimore to Cumberland along the Potomac River, by a more direct route than the National Road across the Allegheny Plateau of West Virginia to Wheeling. Construction of the National Road stopped in 1839. Much of the road through Indiana and Illinois remained unfinished and was transferred to the states. In 1912, the Cumberland National Road was chosen to become part of the National Old Trails Road, which would extend further east to New York City and west to Los Angeles, California. Five Madonna of the Trail monuments, donated by the Daughters of the American Revolution, were erected along the old National Road. In 1927, the National Road was designated as the eastern part of U. S. Highway 40, which still follows the National Road's alignment with occasional bypasses and newer bridges; the parallel Interstate 70 now provides a faster route for through t
The Hocking River is a 102mi. Long right tributary of the Ohio River in southeastern Ohio in the United States; the Hocking flows on the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau, but its headwaters are in a glaciated region. It rises in Bloom Township in Fairfield County and flows southeastwardly through Fairfield and Athens counties, through the Hocking Hills region and past the cities of Lancaster, Nelsonville and Coolville, it joins the Ohio River at Hockingport. The Hocking's tributaries drain parts of Perry and Washington Counties, its name derives from a Native American name "Hokhokken" or "Hokhochen", which meant "bottle-shaped" or "gourd-shaped" and referred to the river's headwaters 7 miles north-west of present-day Lancaster, Ohio. The river begins as a small stream immediately goes over a water fall into a wide gorge; when viewed from above this feature looks like a bottle, which led to its name. The river was known as the Hockhocking River until the late 19th century; the Hocking Canal once linked Athens to Lancaster and the Ohio and Erie Canal, but was destroyed by flooding and never rebuilt.
Due to frequent flooding of Ohio University's campus, the Army Corps of Engineers re-channelized a section of the Hocking River in Athens during the late 1960s and early 1970s. Between Nelsonville and Athens, the Hocking today is paralleled by a rail trail, the Hockhocking Adena Bikeway; the path serves as a major source of recreation for the residents of the area the students of Ohio University and Hocking College. Major tributaries to the Hocking include Federal Creek, Margaret Creek, Sunday Creek, Monday Creek, Scott Creek, Oldtown Creek, Clear Creek, Rush Creek, Pleasant Run, Baldwin Run, Hunters Run. Many of these tributaries are affected by acid mine drainage. Canoeing, kayaking and tubing are popular activities on the Hocking River. Hocking Hills Adventures and Hocking Hills Canoe Livery each operate trips suitable for all skill levels on the mid and upper sections of the river; the mid and upper portions of the Hocking River serve as an above-average smallmouth bass fishery. Typical species of midwestern warmwater streams are found throughout the river.
The Hocking River Water Trail is now under development. There are river access points for fishing and for canoes and kayaks at Logan, Ohio, at Hocking College at Nelsonville, Ohio, on Hamley Run Road northwest of The Plains, Ohio, at West State Street Park in Athens, Ohio, at County Road 24A near Canaanville, at the Army Corps of Engineers' Belleville Locks and Dam recreational access point on Frost Road near Coolville, Ohio, it is spanned by the Rock Mill Covered Bridge. There are two organizations concerned with preserving the environment of the river and its adjacent lands, with providing recreational access to the river: the Hocking River Commission, based in Athens County and the Friends of the Hocking River, based in Hocking County, Ohio. Friends of the Hocking River in conjunction with Hocking Hills Adventures sponsor an annual river cleanup; the event is held during the second Saturday in June and it concludes with a BBQ and music. The Shawnee language name is Wi'thakakkwathiipi. According to the Geographic Names Information System, the Hocking River has been known as: Big Hock-hocking River Great Hock-hocking River Hock-Hocking River Hockhocken River Hockhocking River Hocking Hocking River Hokhoking River Big Hockhocking River Big Hocking River Great Hockhocking River Hakhakkien River Hockhoking RiverThe form "Hockhocking" was used for the first century of Ohio's statehood, as reflected on old maps, while the shorter "Hocking" River form has been used for about the past century.
Flooding on the Hocking used to be a yearly occurrence for the residents of Athens, Ohio. The floods determined many aspects of the residents' lives, for example. Most of the houses in Athens are built up on the higher ground, it wasn’t until the university needed to expand, due to an influx of students during the 1950s that anything was built into the flood plain. Some mentionable floods were the 1907 flood, in which seven people died, about twenty houses were swept away. Another notable flood took place in 1968, labeled "The worst flood in fifty five years"; the 1968 flood is of interest due to the fact that the re-routing of the Hocking River project began in 1969. The re-routing of the Hocking was undertaken by the US Army Corps of Engineers, was paid for by the university; the project was reverted five miles of the river along the West Green. This flood caused extensive damage throughout Athens and SE Ohio. According to the Athens Journal, seven people died during the flood and the rescue attempts which followed.
The flood uprooted about twenty houses, as well as drowned countless heads of horse and cattle. Residents who owned rowboats spent the days after the flood rescuing as many people as possible from their flooded houses. Thousands of people were forced to leave their homes, many people were arrested for looting in the days after the flood. Telegraph lines were ripped down due to the flood, leaving Athens residents with no way of communicating with the outside world in the days after the flood; the railroad, waterworks plant, electric plant were flooded, leaving Athens residents without water or electricity. The Flood of 1968 caused more severe damage. Four inches of rain fell in twenty four hours, causing the river to crest at twenty five feet, eight feet above flood level. S
Cambridge is a city in and the county seat of Guernsey County, United States. It lies in southeastern Ohio, in the Appalachian Plateau of the Appalachian Mountains 74 miles east of Columbus; the population was 11,129 at the 2010 census. It is the principal city of the Cambridge Micropolitan Statistical Area and is located adjacent to the intersection of Interstates 70 and 77. Cambridge is well known among glass collectors as being the location for the Cambridge Glass, Boyd Glass and Mosser Glass plants; the Cambridge area is noted for its "S" shaped bridges, dating back to the building of the National Road in 1828. In 1796, Col. Sean O'Brien received funds to blaze a road suitable for travel by horse through the Ohio wilderness from a point on the Ohio River opposite Wheeling, Virginia to another point opposite Maysville, Kentucky. Where this road, known as Zane's Trace, crossed Wills Creek, a ferry was established in 1798; this was followed by the first bridge authorized by the legislature of the Northwest Territory, built in 1803.
The land on which part of Cambridge stands was granted to Zaccheus Biggs and Zaccheus Beatty by the government in 1801. A settlement grew up at the creek crossing; the town of Cambridge was platted there in 1806. Both Cambridge and Cambridge, Massachusetts have been speculated by historians as having inspired the naming of the town. In 1806, another group of early settlers from the Isle of Guernsey in the English Channel pitched camp in Cambridge because the women in the party refused to move on; the county for which Cambridge serves as the county seat was named in honor of its many settlers from Guernsey. In 1828, the federally built National Road came through Cambridge; the first railroad arrived in 1854. The Cambridge area experienced massive flooding in late June 1998. Mayor of Cambridge is Tom Orr. Cambridge is located along Wills Creek. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.35 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2010, there were 10,635 people, 4,651 households, 2,604 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,674.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,313 housing units at an average density of 836.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.7% White, 3.4% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 0.3% from other races, 3.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.2% of the population. There were 4,651 households of which 30.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.9% were married couples living together, 16.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 44.0% were non-families. 38.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 17% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.94. The median age in the city was 38.8 years. 24.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 46.6% male and 53.4% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 11,520 people, 4,924 households, 2,954 families residing in the city.
The population density was 2,055.1 people per square mile. There were 5,585 housing units of an average density of 996.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.84% White, 3.91% African American, 0.33% Native American, 0.37% Asian, 0.47% from other races, 2.07% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.96% of the population. There were 4,924 households out of which 30.5% had children under the age of 18, 39.2% were married couples living together, 16.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.0% were non-families. 35.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.92. The population of the city was spread out with 25.9% under the age of 18, 9.2% from 18 to 24, 26.5% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, 17.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.8 males and every 100 females aged 18 and over, there were 79.9 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $24,102, the median income for a family was $30,780. Males had a median income of $26,368 versus $20,596 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,452. About 18.1% of families and 30.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.5% of those under age 18 and 12.2% of those age 65 or over. The Cambridge City School District administers one primary school, one intermediate school, one middle school and Cambridge High School. St. Benedict Elementary School is a Roman Catholic institution; the Guernsey County Public Library operates two libraries in the city. William Lawrence Boyd – boyhood home of actor who portrayed western character Hopalong Cassidy in 66 films Dom Capers – defensive coordinator for NFL's Green Bay Packers. – Unit