Zanzibar is a semi-autonomous region of Tanzania. It is composed of the Zanzibar Archipelago in the Indian Ocean, 25–50 kilometres off the coast of the mainland, consists of many small islands and two large ones: Unguja and Pemba Island; the capital is Zanzibar City, located on the island of Unguja. Its historic centre is Stone Town, a World Heritage Site. Zanzibar's main industries are spices and tourism. In particular, the islands produce cloves, nutmeg and black pepper. For this reason, the Zanzibar Archipelago, together with Tanzania's Mafia Island, are sometimes referred to locally as the "Spice Islands". Zanzibar is the home of the endemic Zanzibar red colobus, the Zanzibar servaline genet, the extinct or rare Zanzibar leopard; the word Zanzibar came from Arabic zanjibār, in turn from Persian zangbâr, a compound of Zang + bâr, cf. the Sea of Zanj. The name is one of several toponyms sharing similar etymologies meaning "land of the blacks" or similar meanings, in reference to the dark skin of the inhabitants.
The presence of microliths suggests that Zanzibar has been home to humans for at least 20,000 years, the beginning of the Later Stone Age. A Greco-Roman text between the 1st and 3rd centuries, the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, mentioned the island of Menuthias, Unguja. Zanzibar, like the nearby coast, was settled by Bantu-speakers at the outset of the first millennium. Archaeological finds at Fukuchani, on the north-west coast of Zanzibar, indicate a settled agricultural and fishing community from the 6th century CE at the latest; the considerable amount of daub found indicates timber buildings, shell beads, bead grinders, iron slag have been found at the site. There is evidence for limited engagement in long-distance trade: a small amount of imported pottery has been found, less than 1% of total pottery finds from the Gulf and dated to the 5th to 8th century; the similarity to contemporary sites such as Mkokotoni and Dar es Salaam indicate a unified group of communities that developed into the first center of coastal maritime culture.
The coastal towns appear to have been engaged in Indian Ocean and inland African trade at this early period. Trade increased in importance and quantity beginning in the mid-8th century and by the close of the 10th century Zanzibar was one of the central Swahili trading towns. Excavations at nearby Pemba Island, but at Shanga in the Lamu Archipelago, provide the clearest picture of architectural development. Houses were built with timber and in mud with coral walls; the houses were continually rebuilt with more permanent materials. By the 13th century, houses were built with stone, bonded with mud, the 14th century saw the use of lime to bond stone. Only the wealthier patricians would have had stone and lime built houses, the strength of the materials allowing for flat roofs, while the majority of the population lived in single-story thatched houses similar to those from the 11th and 12th centuries. According to John Middleton and Mark Horton, the architectural style of these stone houses have no Arab or Persian elements, should be viewed as an indigenous development of local vernacular architecture.
While much of Zanzibar Town's architecture was rebuilt during Omani rule, nearby sites elucidate the general development of Swahili, Zanzibari, architecture before the 15th century. Persian and Arab traders used Zanzibar as a base for voyages between the Middle East and Africa. Unguja, the larger island, offered a protected and defensible harbor, so although the archipelago offered few products of value, traders settled at Zanzibar City a convenient point from which to trade with the other Swahili coast towns; the impact of these traders and immigrants on the Swahili culture is uncertain. During the Middle Ages and other settlements on the Swahili Coast were advanced; the littoral contained a number of autonomous trade cities. These towns grew in wealth as the Swahili people served as intermediaries and facilitators to local, inland mainland African, Persian, Malaysian and Chinese merchants and traders; this interaction contributed in part to the evolution of the Swahili culture, which developed its own written language.
Although a Bantu language, the Swahili language as a consequence today includes some elements that were borrowed from other civilizations loanwords from Arabic. With the wealth that they had acquired through trade, some of the Arab traders became rulers of the coastal cities. Vasco da Gama's visit in 1498 marked the beginning of European influence. In 1503 or 1504, Zanzibar became part of the Portuguese Empire when Captain Ruy Lourenço Ravasco Marques landed and demanded and received tribute from the sultan in exchange for peace. Zanzibar remained a possession of Portugal for two centuries, it became part of the Portuguese province of Arabia and Ethiopia and was administered by a governor general. Around 1571, Zanzibar became part of the western division of the Portuguese empire and was administered from Mozambique, it appears, that the Portuguese did not administer Zanzibar. The first English ship to visit Unguja, the Edward Bonaventure in 1591, found that there was no Portuguese fort or garrison.
The extent of their occupation was a trade depot where produce was purchased and collected for shipment to Mozambique. "In other respects, the affair
Brisbane Apollo Male Choir is the longest running male choir in Brisbane, Australia. Formed in 1884, the choir still performs today. Under its original name, Brisbane Liedertafel, the choir was formed in 1884 after a group of sixteen men expressed an interest in forming a male choir; the German word Liedertafel, meaning ‘song table’, indicates the German custom of men singing in harmony at social events. Brisbane Liedertafel's first public performance was given on 16 July 1885 at the Brisbane Town Hall. On 23 September 1914, the Brisbane Liedertafel performed a patriotic concert at the Centennial Hall, in aid of the Queensland Patriotic Fund and the Red Cross Society; the concert was attended by Lieutenant-Governor of Queensland. In 1916, due to anti-German sentiment prevalent during World War I, the name of the choir was changed to the Brisbane Apollo Choir, after the classical Greek God. In 1985, the Brisbane Apollo Choir gave a special concert was given in Brisbane's City Hall to mark the centenary of the choir.
Proceeds from this concert were given to South Brisbane. The Brisbane Apollo Male Choir meets and rehearses at St James Anglican Church Hall at Kelvin Grove, Brisbane. Three volumes of minutes of general meetings, committee meetings and special meetings of the Brisbane Liedertafel from 12 May 1885 to 29 May 1907 are held by State Library of Queensland
Hubbard v Vosper, 2 Q. B. 84, is a leading English copyright law case on the defence of fair dealing. The Church of Scientology sued a former member, Cyril Vosper, for copyright infringement due to the publication of a book, The Mind Benders, criticizing Scientology; the Church of Scientology alleged that the books contained material copied from books and documents written by L. Ron Hubbard, as well as containing confidential information pertaining to Scientology courses. Vosper defended the claim under the fair dealing doctrine, with the Court of Appeal deciding unanimously in his favour; the judgment given by Lord Denning clarified the content of the fair dealing defence. On September 9, 1971, The Mind Benders, a book critical of Scientology written by Cyril Vosper, a former scientologist of 14 years, was published by Neville Spearman Ltd; the Church of Scientology obtained an interim injunction on the same day to restrain publication of the book. The book contained many extracts from the works of L. Ron Hubbard, including books such as Axioms and Logics and Introduction to Scientology Ethics.
These extracts were accompanied by criticism and explanations in Vosper's book. Included in the book was information obtained by Vosper through Scientology courses, which the Church of Scientology claimed was confidential by virtue of a declaration signed by Vosper not to divulge any of the information to outsiders - to those who were not "Clear". At issue was whether the extracts in The Mind Benders constituted copyright infringement, whether the information published in the book amounted to an actionable breach of confidence; the lower court granted the injunction to prevent publication of the book, finding that there was a strong case for infringement. A panel of three judges in the Court of Appeal unanimously allowed the appeal, lifted the injunction against publication of the book. Lord Denning, writing the leading judgment for the court, found that the defence of fair dealing applied to Vosper's book under section 6 of the Copyright Act 1956, which said: No fair dealing with a literary, dramatic or musical work shall constitute an infringement of the copyright in the work if it is for purposes of criticism or review, whether of that work or of another work, is accompanied by a sufficient acknowledgment.
In clarifying the doctrine of fair dealing, Lord Denning considered previous case law, described a legal test for determining what would constitute a valid use of the defence: It is impossible to define what is "fair dealing." It must be a question of degree. You must consider first the extent of the quotations and extracts. Are they altogether too many and too long to be fair? You must consider the use made of them. If they are used as a basis for comment, criticism or review, that may be fair dealing. If they are used to convey the same information as the author, for a rival purpose, that may be unfair. Next, you must consider the proportions. To take long extracts and attach short comments may be unfair. But, short extracts and long comments may be fair. Other considerations may come to mind also. But, after all is said and done, it must be a matter of impression; as with fair comment in the law of libel, so with fair dealing in the law of copyright. The tribunal of fact must decide. In the present case, there is material on which the tribunal of fact could find this to be fair dealing.
Upon consideration of the evidence, Lord Denning found that the book was a fair dealing of the source material, rejecting the argument that Vosper was criticizing not the works per se, but was instead criticizing the underlying subject matter. He found that criticism of the book and criticism of the subject matter were indistinguishable, that this would not in itself cause the fair dealing defence to fail. Lord Megaw agreed, added in his concurring judgment that it may be possible to invoke the fair dealing defence if a substantial part or the entirety of the original work was reproduced, noting that the proportion of the work taken must be weighed against the nature and purpose of the reproduction; the Court of Appeal rejected the argument that confidential information was unfairly used in Vosper's book. Lord Denning noted that there was little evidence pointing to the use of such confidential information, but that if the information was used, there may be some circumstances such as these where the public interest may outweigh the confidentiality of the information.
A further attempt by the Church of Scientology to appeal the case to the House of Lords was dismissed on February 9, 1972. The hardcover edition of the book was released after the ruling, while a paperback edition, titled The Mind Benders: The Book They Tried to Ban was published in 1973, including a reference to the litigation in the appendix; the Church of Scientology attempted to ban the book in Canadian libraries by threatening the sue for libel. Several libraries were subsequently sued; the case, the judgment of Lord Denning, has been cited as the leading interpretation of the fair dealing defence in the United Kingdom. In Canada, Denning's test for fair dealing was adopted and expanded by the Supreme Court of Canada in CCH Canadian Ltd. v. Law Society of Upper Canada. Chief Justice Beverley McLachlin separated the fair dealing test into six factors based on Denning's judgment: The purpose of the dealing The character of the dealing The amount of the dealing Alternatives to the dealing The nature of the work The effect of the dealing on the work Fair dealing in Canadian copyright law Fair use in U.
S. copyright law Scientology and the legal system Full judgment of the Court of Appeal 1997 Electronic edition of The Mind Benders