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Zapatista Army of National Liberation

The Zapatista Army of National Liberation referred to as the Zapatistas, is a far-left libertarian-socialist political and militant group that controls a substantial amount of territory in Chiapas, the southernmost state of Mexico. Since 1994 the group has been nominally at war with the Mexican state. In recent years, the EZLN has focused on a strategy of civil resistance; the Zapatistas' main body is made up of rural indigenous people, but it includes some supporters in urban areas and internationally. The EZLN's main spokesperson is Subcomandante Insurgente Galeano known as Subcomandante Marcos. Unlike other Zapatista spokespeople, Marcos is not an indigenous Maya; the group takes its name from Emiliano Zapata, the agrarian revolutionary and commander of the Liberation Army of the South during the Mexican Revolution, sees itself as his ideological heir. Nearly all EZLN villages contain murals with images of Zapata, Ernesto "Che" Guevara, Subcomandante Marcos. While EZLN ideology reflects libertarian socialism, the Zapatistas have rejected and defied political classification.

The EZLN aligns itself with the wider alter-globalization, anti-neoliberal social movement, seeking indigenous control over local resources land. Since their 1994 uprising was countered by the Mexican army, the EZLN has abstained from military offensives and adopted a new strategy that attempts to garner Mexican and international support; the Zapatistas describe themselves as a decentralized organization. The pseudonymous Subcomandante Marcos is considered its leader despite his claims that the group has no single leader. Political decisions are decided in community assemblies. Military and organizational matters are decided by the Zapatista area elders who compose the General Command; the EZLN was founded on November 17, 1983 by non-indigenous members of the National Libertarian Forces from Mexico's urban north and by indigenous inhabitants of the remote Las Cañadas/Selva Lacandona regions in eastern Chiapas, by members of former rebel movements. Over the years, the group grew, building on social relations among the indigenous base and making use of an organizational infrastructure created by peasant organizations and the Catholic Church.

The Zapatista Army went public on January 1, 1994, releasing their declaration on the day the North American Free Trade Agreement came into effect. On that day, they issued their First Revolutionary Laws from the Lacandon Jungle; the declaration amounted to a declaration of war on the Mexican government, which they considered illegitimate. The EZLN stressed that it opted for armed struggle due to the lack of results, achieved through peaceful means of protest, their initial goal was to instigate a revolution against the rise of neoliberalism throughout Mexico, but since no such revolution occurred, they used their uprising as a platform to call attention to their movement to protest the signing of the NAFTA, which the EZLN believed would increase inequality in Chiapas. The Zapatistas hosted the Intercontinental Encounter for Humanity and Against Neoliberalism to help initiate a united platform for other anti-neoliberal groups; the EZLN called for greater democratization of the Mexican government, controlled by the Partido Revolucionario Institucional for 65 years, for land reform mandated by the 1917 Constitution of Mexico, repealed in 1991.

The EZLN did not demand independence from Mexico, preferring autonomy, land access, use of natural resources extracted from Chiapas. It advocated for protection from violence and political inclusion of Chiapas' indigenous communities. On the morning of January 1, 1994, an estimated 3,000 armed Zapatista insurgents seized towns and cities in Chiapas, including Ocosingo, Las Margaritas, Huixtán, Rancho Nuevo and Chanal, they freed the prisoners in the jail of San Cristóbal de las Casas and set fire to several police buildings and military barracks in the area. The guerrillas enjoyed brief success, but Mexican army forces counterattacked the next day, fierce fighting broke out in and around the market of Ocosingo; the Zapatista forces retreated from the city into the surrounding jungle. Armed clashes in Chiapas ended on January 12, with a ceasefire brokered by the Catholic diocese in San Cristóbal de las Casas under Bishop Samuel Ruiz, a well known liberation theologian who had taken up the cause of the indigenous people of Chiapas.

The Zapatistas retained some of the land for a little over a year, but in February 1995 the Mexican army overran that territory in a surprise offensive. Following this offensive, the Zapatistas abandoned their villages, the rebels fled to the mountains after breaking through the Mexican army perimeter. Arrest-warrants were made for Marcos, Javier Elorriaga Berdegue, Silvia Fernández Hernández, Jorge Santiago, Fernando Yanez, German Vicente and other Zapatistas. At that point, in the Lacandon Jungle, the Zapatista Army of National Liberation was under military siege by the Mexican Army. Javier Elorriaga was captured on February 9, 1995, by forces from a military garrison at Gabina Velázquez in the town of Las Margaritas, was taken to the Cerro Hueco prison in Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas. On February 11, 1995, the PGR informed the country that the government h

Oxtail soup

Oxtail soup is made with beef tails. The use of the word "ox" in this context is a legacy of nomenclature, it is believed by some that oxtail soup was invented in Spitalfields in London in the seventeenth century by French Huguenot and Flemish immigrants, from the tails of animals. Different versions of oxtail soup exist: Korean, Chinese, a fried/barbecued oxtail combined with soup variation, a popular dish in Indonesia where it is called as sop buntut. An ethnic dish of the American South which traces its lineage back to the pre-revolutionary war era, a thick, gravy-like soup popular in the United Kingdom since the 18th century. Creole oxtail soup is made from a tomato base with oxtails, green beans, mirepoix and herbs and spices. Though translated as "oxtail soup", this version of the dish is somewhere between a soup and a stew. One of the defining characteristics of oxtail soup is that it contains a large mass of solid ingredients, rather than ingredients that have been diced or shredded as is the norm with Chinese soup.

Chunks of oxtail, carrots, cabbage and mushrooms are mixed in water, salted to taste. The mixture should be heated at a slow boil, to allow time for the ingredients to release their flavors. In particular, the tomatoes and potatoes should disintegrate into the water, giving the broth a reddish-orange coloration and thickening it; as to be expected, oils from the oxtail lend most of the flavor. The soup is served with all of the ingredients. In Indonesian cuisine, oxtail soup is a popular dish, it is made of slices of fried or barbecued oxtail, served with vegetables in a rich but clear beef broth. It contains boiled potatoes, tomatoes, celery, fried shallots and dried black mushrooms. Indonesian sop buntut is seasoned with shallot and native spices such as black pepper and clove. A new variant is called sop buntut goreng, where the oxtail is seasoned and served dry; the dish is eaten with rice and accompanied by sambal, sweet soy sauce and lime juice. Some restaurants specialize in oxtail soup, among them the famous Bogor Café in the Hotel Borobudur in Central Jakarta.

Korean oxtail soup, called kkori-gomtang, is a type of gomguk. It is colloquially known as "bone soup"; the broth is made with raw oxtail, salt, black pepper, green onions and other typical Korean flavors. The soup must be simmered at low heat for several hours to make the broth. During this time, the layer of fat must be skimmed from the surface of the pot and discarded; the final result is bits of soft meat. A canned condensed oxtail soup was available from the Campbell Soup Company. Oxtail is a popular variety of Heinz soups in the United Kingdom. Despite its popularity in the United Kingdom, some suggest stormy weather may be experienced after serving oxtail soup aboard a Royal Navy submarine. Oxtail stew List of Chinese soups List of Indonesian soups List of soups

Hasegawa Shigure

Hasegawa Shigure was a Japanese playwright and editor of a literary journal. Hasegawa was the only female to be featured in three volumes of the Meiji bungaku zenshū, a collection published by Chikuma Shobō, she had the title joryū bundan no ōgosho. Hartley wrote that "Shigure’s work has been overlooked in English-language scholarship" and that this may have been due to a perception that she supported militaristic elements that existed in Japan before World War II, her family members. She was born as Hasegawa Yasu in Tōriabura-chō in Nihonbashi, her parents were merchants. She had two brothers and four sisters, her work. She received exposure to literature through a live-in apprentice though her mother opposed education for girls. For a period Hasegawa worked in the service of a nobleperson, her father forced her to marry at age 19. Hartley wrote that the forcing of the marriage was a "bitter" and that it "further heightened Shigure’s sense of the social injustices visited upon women." Her first husband was the second son of a businessman.

She began writing around the time of her first marriage. Hartley stated that Hasegawa became the era's first "acknowledged" female kabuki playwright in 1905. In 1914 she began caring for the son of one of her brothers, Toratarō. In 1915 Hasegawa began providing financial support for her family after the failure of her mother's businesses and the decline of her father's reputation due to having an involvement in a business scandal described by Hartley as "peripheral". In 1916 she met Mikami Otokichi, he wrote serial fiction. Hasegawa's father died in 1918. In 1919 she and Mikami began living together as part of a common law marriage. In 1923 Hasegawa and Okada Yachiyo began efforts to establish a literary magazine, launched in 1928; the journal was named Nyonin geijutsu. The funds came from Mikami's royalties. Hartley wrote. Hasegawa's plays were written for kabuki stages. Rebecca L. Copeland, editor of Woman Critiqued: Translated Essays on Japanese Women's Writing, stated that these plays "resisted clichéd tragic endings and featured heroines who strove for self-fulfillment and independence."M. Cody Poulton, the author of A Beggar's Art: Scripting Modernity in Japanese Drama, 1900-1930, wrote that Tamotsu Watanabe, a critic of kabuki works, had "expressed his shock at how dark Shigure's modern plays were".

Plays: Chōji midare - Translated into English in 1996 Tegona - It is a lyrical one act play. In the play, based on a legend, a woman encounters two men who wish to marry her, but she chooses to kill herself. According to Poulton, it "is more typical of Shigure's kabuki plays." Mori Ōgai's The Ikuta River is derived from the same legend. Other works: Old Tale Nihonbashi Hasegawa Shigure wrote a fictionalized biography of Tazawa Inabune as part of Shuntaiki—Meiji Taishō josei shō, a seven-part series, serialized in Tokyo Asahi. Melek Ortabasi, author of "Tazawa Inabune", wrote that wrote that compared to the Yomiuri Shimbun series about Inabune, this was "more sympathetic". Collections: Hasegawa, Shigure. Hasegawa Shigure zenshū. In five volumes. Tokyo: Fuji shuppan, 1993. Hartley, Barbara. "The space of childhood memories: Hasegawa Shigure and Old Nihonbashi." Japan Forum, Volume 25, Issue 3, 2013. P. 314-330. Published online on July 2, 2013. DOI: 10.1080/09555803.2013.804109. Tanaka, Yukiko. Women Writers of Meiji and Taisho Japan: Their Lives and Critical Reception, 1868-1926.

McFarland & Company, September 1, 2000. ISBN 0786481978, 9780786481972. English: Kano, Ayoko. Acting Like a Woman in Modern Japan: Theater and Nationalism. New York: Palgrave, 2001. Japanese: Ikuta, Hanayo. Ichiyō to Shigure—denki: Higuchi Ichiyō/Hasegawa Shigure denki sōsho. Tokyo: Ōzorasha, 1992. Inoue, Yoshie. "Hasegawa Shigure Aru hi no gogo." In: Nihon kindai engekishi kenkyūkai, 20-seiki no gikyoku. 1:121-122. Iwahashi, Kunie. Hyōden: Hasegawa Shigure. Tokyo: Chikuma shobō, 1993. Ogata, Akiko. Nyonin geijutsu no sekai—Hasegawa Shigure to sono shūhen. Tokyo: Domesu shuppan, 1980. Ogata, Akiko. Kaguyaku no jidai—Hasegawa Shigure to sono shūhen. Tokyo: Domesu shuppan, 1993. Ogata Akiko. "Watarikiranu hashi—Hasegawa Shigure, sono sei to sakuhin." In: Ogata, Akiko et al. Feminizumi hihyō e no shōtai: Kindai josei bungaku o yomu. Gakugei shorin, 1995. Start p. 101. Watanabe, Tamotsu. "Kaisetsu: kannō to zetsubō." In: Hasegawa, Shigure. Jōnetsu no onna: Kindai josei sakka senshū. Yumani shobō, 2000. 28:6. 長谷川 時雨 - Aozora Bunko

Saskia & Serge

Saskia & Serge are a Dutch vocal duo consisting of singer Trudy van den Berg and singer-guitarist Ruud Schaap. They are known for their participation in the 1971 Eurovision Song Contest, have enjoyed a long and successful career in their native Netherlands, where they were awarded the title of Knights of the Order of Orange-Nassau in 2004. Van den Berg and Schaap first attracted attention when, as Trudy & Ruud, they won a talent contest organised by singer Max van Praag in 1967; the couple married in 1969 and changed their professional name to Saskia & Serge, as their gentle, folksy style began to attract favourable attention. In 1970, Saskia & Serge took part in the Dutch Eurovision selection with "Het spinnewiel", narrowly and controversially beaten into second place, they returned in 1971, this time singing all six songs in the selection, "Tijd" was chosen to go forward to the 16th Eurovision Song Contest, held in Dublin on 3 April. Although Saskia suffered a microphone malfunction at the start of the song, "Tijd" finished in joint sixth place of the 18 entries.

After releasing several folk-themed albums to a indifferent response Saskia & Serge changed direction in 1976 by releasing a successful country music-style album, We'll Give You Everything, the title track from, a top 10 hit in The Netherlands. The album got them noticed outside the Netherlands, they became the first Dutch artists to appear at the Grand Ole Opry in Nashville. Further hit singles followed, including "Mama, He's a Soldier Now" which became their biggest hit, peaking at No. 6 in 1980. Saskia & Serge have continued to release popular albums of both original material and cover versions, their fifteenth studio album, Mooie liedjes, was released in December 2008, consisting of adaptations of well-known Dutch songs. Saskia & Serge website Complete discography 1971 at


Anopheles is a genus of mosquito first described and named by J. W. Meigen in 1818. About 460 species are recognised. Anopheles gambiae is one of the best known, because of its predominant role in the transmission of the most dangerous malaria parasite species – Plasmodium falciparum; the name comes from the Ancient Greek word ἀνωφελής anōphelḗs'useless', derived from ἀν- an-,'not','un-' and ὄφελος óphelos'profit'. Mosquitoes in other genera can serve as vectors of disease agents, but not human malaria; the ancestors of Drosophila and the mosquitoes diverged 260 million years ago. The culicine and Anopheles clades of mosquitoes diverged between 120 million years ago and 150 million years ago; the Old and New World Anopheles species subsequently diverged between 80 million years ago and 95 million years ago. Anopheles darlingi diverged from the Asian malaria vectors ∼ 100 million years ago; the Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus clades diverged between 80 million years ago and 36 million years ago.

A molecular study of several genes in seven species has provided additional support for an expansion of this genus during the Cretaceous period. The Anopheles genome, at 230–284 million base pairs, is comparable in size to that of Drosophila, but smaller than those found in other culicine genomes. Like most culicine species, the genome is diploid with six chromosomes; the only known fossils of this genus are those of Anopheles dominicanus Zavortink & Poinar contained in Dominican amber from the Late Eocene and Anopheles rottensis Statz contained in German amber from the Late Oligocene. The genus Anopheles Meigen belongs to the subfamily Anophelinae together with another two genera: Bironella Theobald and Chagasia Cruz; the taxonomy remains incompletely settled. Classification into species is based on morphological characteristics – wing spots, head anatomy and pupal anatomy, chromosome structure, more on DNA sequences. In the taxonomy published by Harbach et al in 2016, it was shown that three species of Bironella: confusa and hollandi are phylogenetically similar Anopheles kyondawensis than other Bironella species.

The same phylogeny argues that, based on genetic similarity, Anopheles implexus is divergent from the common ancestor to the Anopheles genus, raising new questions regarding taxonomy and classification. The genus has been subdivided into seven subgenera based on the number and positions of specialized setae on the gonocoxites of the male genitalia; the system of subgenera originated with the work of Christophers, who in 1915 described three subgenera: Anopheles and Nyssorhynchus. Nyssorhynchus was first described as Lavernia by Frederick Vincent Theobald. Frederick Wallace Edwards in 1932 added the subgenus Stethomyia. Kerteszia was described by Edwards in 1932, but recognised as a subgrouping of Nyssorhynchus, it was elevated to subgenus status by Komp in 1937, it is found in the Neotropics. Two additional subgenera have since been recognised: Baimaia by Harbach et al. in 2005 and Lophopodomyia by Antunes in 1937. Two main groupings within the genus Anopheles are used: one formed by the Celia and Anopheles subgenera and a second by Kerteszia and Nyssorhynchus.

Subgenus Stethomyia is an outlier with respect to these two taxa. Within the second group and Nyssorhynchus appear to be sister taxa; the number of species recognised within the subgenera is given here in parentheses: Anopheles, Cellia, Lophopodomyia and Stethomyia. Taxonomic units between subgenus and species are not recognised as official zoological names. In practice, a number of taxonomic levels have been introduced; the larger subgenera have been subdivided into sections and series which in turn have been divided into groups and subgroups. Below subgroup but above species level is the species complex. Taxonomic levels above species complex can be distinguished on morphological grounds. Species within a species complex are either morphologically identical or similar and can only be reliably separated by microscopic examination of the chromosomes or DNA sequencing; the classification continues to be revised. Subgenus Nyssorhynchus has been divided in three sections: Albimanus and Myzorhynchella.

The Argyritarsis section has been subdivided into Argyritarsis groups. The Anopheles group was divided by Edwards into four series: Anopheles, Myzorhynchus and Lophoscelomyia. Reid and Knight modified this classification and subdivided the subgenus Anopheles into two sections and Laticorn and six series; the Arribalzagia and Christya Groups were considered to be series. The Laticorn Section includes the Arribalzagia and Myzorhynchus series; the Angusticorn section includes members of the Anopheles and Lophoscelomyia series. All species known to carry human malaria lie within eithe

List of English words of Turkic origin

This is a list of words that have entered into the English language from the Turkic languages. Many of them came via traders and soldiers in the Ottoman Empire. There are some Turkic words. Languages of Turkic peoples left numerous traces in different languages, including the English language. Turkic borrowings, which belong to the social and political vocabulary, are used in special literature and in the historical and ethnographical works, which relate to the life of Turkic and Muslim peoples; the ethnographical words are used in the scientific literature, in the historical and ethnographical texts. The adoption of Indian words, among which there were some Turkic borrowings, became one of the ways for the words of the Turkic origin to penetrate English. Additionally, several words of Turkic origin penetrated English through Eastern European languages like Russian and Polish. Albanian, Latin, Italian, French and Serbo-Croatian were intermediary languages for the Turkic words to penetrate English, as well as containing numerous Turkic loanwords themselves.

In the nineteenth century, Turkic loanwords of Turkish origin, began to penetrate not only through the writings of the travelers and merchants, through the ethnographical and historical works, but through the press. In 1847, there were two English-language newspapers in Istanbul – The Levant Herald and The Levant Times, seven newspapers in French, one in German and 37 in Turkish. Turkish contributed the largest share of the Turkic loans, which penetrated into the English directly; this can be explained by the fact that Turkey had the most intensive and wide connections with England. There are many Turkic loans in English, which were borrowed by its contacts with other peoples – Azerbaijanis, Uzbeks and Kirghiz. Most of the Turkic loans in English carry ethnographical connotations, they do not have equivalents in English, do not have synonymic relations with primordial words, are used to describe the fauna, life customs and social life, an administrative-territorial structure of Turkic regions.

But there are many Turkic loans, which are still part of the used vocabulary. Some Turkic loans have acquired new meanings, unrelated to their etymology. To conclude, the words of the Turkic origin began penetrating English as early as the Middle Ages, the Turkic loanwords found their way into English through other languages, most through French. Since the 16c, beginning from the time of the establishment of the direct contacts between England and Turkey, Russia, in English appeared new direct borrowings from Turkic languages. German, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Arabic, Afrikaans, Yiddish, Spanish, Latin, Malayan, to a different extent, took part in the process of the transfer of the Turkic words into English; the main language from which the borrowings were made, was Turkish. Afshar from Turkic Afshar, "a Turkic tribe living majorly in Kerman province of Iran". A Shiraz rug of coarse weave. Aga or Agha from Turkish ağa, a title of rank in Turkey. Aga Khan from Turkic agha and khan, the divinely ordained head of the Nizari branch of Isma'ili Shi'a Islam.

Agaluk from Turkish Ağalık, a feudal unit of the Ottoman Empire Airan from Turkish ayran Akbash from Turkish akbaş "a whitehead" Akche from Turkish akçe asper, an Ottoman monetary unit consisted of small silver coins. Akhissar from Turkish Akhisar, a city in Manisa Province, Turkey near İzmir. A kind of heavy modern carpet made at Akhisar. Altay from the Altai Mountains of Central Asia, from Turkic-Mongolian altan, meaning "golden". 1. The Altai horse 2; the Altay sheep Altilik from Turkish altılık. A coin used in Turkey silver, equivalent to six piastres. Araba. A horse-driven carriage. Arnaut from Turkish arnavut, "an Albanian". An inhabitant of Albania and neighboring mountainous regions an Albanian serving in the Turkish army. Aslan from Turkish Aslan, "lion". Astrakhan from Astrakhan, from Tatar or Kazakh hadžitarkhan, or As-tarxan Karakul sheep of Russian origin or a cloth with a pile resembling karakul. Atabeg from Turkic atabeg, from ata, "a father" + beg "a prince". Atabek from Turkic, an alternative form of Atabeg.

Ataghan from Turkish yatağan, an alternative form of yatagan. Ataman from Russian, from South Turkic ataman, "leader of an armed band": ata, "father" + -man, augmentative suffix. Aul Russian, from the Tatar and Kyrgyz languages. Ayran see Airan Bahadur from Hindi bahādur "brave, brave person", from Persian from Mongolian, cf. Classical Mongolian baγatur, from Turkic originally a Turkic personal name. Bairam from Turkish bayram "a festival" Baklava from Turkish baklava Balaclava from Balaklava, village in the Crimea, from Turkish balıklava. A hoodlike knitted cap covering the head and part of the shoulders and worn by soldiers and mountaineers. Balalaika from Russian balalaika, of Turkic origin. Balkan from Turkish balkan "a mountain chain", relating to the states of the Balkan Peninsula, or their peoples, languages, or cultures. Bamia from Turkish bamya. Ban from Romanian, from Serbo-Croatian ban, "lord", from Turkic bayan, "very rich person": bay, "rich" + -an, intensive suff. Barbotte from Canadian French barbotte, from Turkish barbut.

A dice game Barchan/Barkhan from Russian, wh