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Zaporozhian Cossacks

The Zaporozhian Cossacks, Zaporozhian Cossack Army, Zaporozhian Host or Zaporozhians were Cossacks who lived beyond the Dnieper Rapids, the land known under the historical term Wild Fields in today's Central Ukraine. Today much of its territory is flooded by the waters of Kakhovka Reservoir; the Zaporozhian Sich grew in the 15th century from serfs fleeing the more controlled parts of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. It became established as a well-respected political entity with a parliamentary system of government. During the course of the 16th, 17th and well into the 18th century, the Zaporozhian Cossacks became a strong political and military force that challenged the authority of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Tsardom of Russia, the Crimean Khanate; the Host went through a series of conflicts and alliances involving the three powers, including supporting an uprising in the 18th century. Their leader signed a treaty with the Russians; this group was forcibly disbanded in the late 18th century by the Russian Empire, with most of the population relocated to the Kuban region in the South edge of the Russian Empire.

The Cossacks served a valuable role of conquering the Caucasian tribes and in return enjoyed considerable freedom granted by the Tsars. The name Zaporozhtsi comes from the location of their fortress, the Sich, in Zaporozhia "Land Beyond the Rapids", from Ukrainian za "beyond" and poróhy "rapids", it is not clear. There are signs and stories of similar people living in the Eurasian Steppe as early as the 12th century. At that time they were not called Cossacks, since cossack is a Turkic word meaning a "free man" which shares it etymology with the ethnic name "Kazakh", it became a Ukrainian and Russian word for "freebooter.") The steppes to the north of the Black Sea were inhabited by nomadic tribes such as the Cumans and Khazars. The role of these tribes in the ethnogenesis of the Cossacks is disputed, although Cossack sources claimed Khazar origin. There were groups of people who fled into these wild steppes from the cultivated lands of Kievan Rus' in order to escape oppression or criminal pursuit.

Their lifestyle resembled that of the people now called Cossacks. They raiding the Asiatic tribes for horses and food. In the 16th century, a great organizer, Dmytro Vyshnevetsky, a Ukrainian noble, united these different groups into a strong military organization; the Zaporozhian Cossacks had various social and ethnic origins but were predominantly made up of escaped serfs who preferred the dangerous freedom of the wild steppes, rather than life under the rule of Polish aristocrats. However, lesser noblemen and Crimean Tatars became part of the Cossack host, they had to adopt its rituals and prayers. The nomadic hypothesis was that the Cossacks came from one or more nomadic peoples who at different times lived in the territory of the Northern Black Sea. According to this hypothesis the Cossacks' ancestors were the Scythians, Khazars, Circassians and others; the nomadic hypothesis of the origin of the Cossacks was formed under the influence of the Polish historical school of the 16th-17th centuries and was connected with the theory of the Sarmatian origin of the gentry.

According to the tradition of deriving the origin of the state or people from a certain people of antiquity, the Cossack chroniclers of the 18th century advocated the Khazar origin of the Cossacks. With the expansion of the source base and the formation of historical science, nomadic hypotheses were rejected by official historiography. For the first time, Alexander Rigelman pointed out the imperfection of the hypothesis. In the 20th century, the Russian scientist Gumilyov was an apologist for the Polovtsian origin of the Cossacks. In the XXI century, this hypothesis - concerning Cossacks and Kubans - has been refuted by a number of genetic studies. In the 16th century, with the dominance of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth extending south, the Zaporozhian Cossacks were if tentatively, regarded by the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as their subjects. Registered Cossacks were a part of the Commonwealth army until 1699. Around the end of the 16th century, relations between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire, which were not cordial to begin with, were further strained by increasing Cossack aggression.

From the second part of the 16th century, the Cossacks started raiding Ottoman territories. The Polish government could not control the fiercely independent Cossacks but, since they were nominally subjects of the Commonwealth, it was held responsible for raids by their victims. Reciprocally, the Tatars living under the Ottoman rule launched raids in the Commonwealth in the sparsely inhabited south-east territories of the Ukraine. Cossacks, were raiding wealthy merchant port cities in the heart of the Ottoman Empire, which were just two days away by boat from the mouth of the Dnieper River. By 1615 and 1625, Cossacks had managed to raze townships on the outskirts of Constantinople, forcing the Ottoman Sultan Murad IV to flee his palace, his nephew, Sultan Mehmed IV, fared little better as the recipient of the legendary Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks, a ribald response to Mehmed's insistence that the Cossacks submit to his authority. Consecutive treaties between the Ottoman Empire and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth called for

Baa Nalle Madhuchandrake

Baa Nalle Madhuchandrake is a 1993 Indian Kannada-language romantic thriller film, starring K. Shivram and Nandini Singh in the lead roles; the film was directed and written by Nagathihalli Chandrashekar and based on the novel of same name written by him. It is produced by Urmila Babu for Drishya Kavya Films banner; the film features a soundtrack by Hamsalekha. Vivek gets engaged to a beautiful girl, Preethi, he could not live without her for a few days. Their marriage happens and the couple travels to Shimla for a honeymoon. Preethi falls from a cliff and dies and shocked, Vivek returns home, he becomes distraught in life and starts drinking heavily. His friend consoles him every time. Meanwhile, a police officer arrives from Shimla to investigate the case, he consoles the grief-stricken Vivek and suspects him. He does his investigation. After not finding any clue to move forward in the case, he concludes; when returning to Shimla he is meet by thanked for his investigation and consoling. He wishes him to recover from the shock and move on in life.

The train was delayed and he made one final enquiry in the railway department. They confirm; the police officer looks towards him. Vivek is nowhere. Vivek is caught and it is revealed that Vivek murdered his wife Preethi after coming to know that she betrayed him and had an extramarital affair with another man; the film was released in 1993 all over Karnataka. The film was a musical hit at the box office. All the songs were scored by Hamsalekha; the soundtrack was received with positive response and the songs gets aired on FM channels

Somebody Else's Life

"Somebody Else's Life" is a song recorded by British-Irish girl group The Saturdays for their fourth studio album, Living for the Weekend. The song was written by band members Una Healy, Frankie Bridge, Rochelle Humes, Vanessa White and Mollie King as well as Lucie Silvas, Judie Tzuke and Charlie Holmes co-writing the song with the band members; the songs genre is pop, although the song contains a hint dance. When creating the song, the band wanted to create something "amazing", "crazy" and "very pop"; the song was chosen to be the opening theme for the bands reality television show Chasing the Saturdays. "Somebody Else's life was the first song recorded when the band arrived in the United States to record their fourth studio album, Living for the Weekend. The band said they were looking to go back to their "roots" with the song and record a song which related to their first studio album, Chasing Lights, they were looking to great a song, "amazing", "crazy" and "very pop" like they were known for back in their native, the United Kingdom.

In late October 2012, it was revealed to the public that The Saturdays were in talks to feature in their own reality television programme. Although, they had done this with The Saturdays: 24/7 broadcast through ITV2, it was revealed that American television network, E! were interested in showing their show programme. It was announced that they did sign a contract with the network and Chasing The Saturdays would be broadcast through E! internationally. It was revealed that the band had signed a joint record deal with Island Def Jam Records and Mercury Records, with a view to releasing future material internationally the United States and Canada. While the band were filming their reality television in America the band began working on new music and collaborating with a number of producers. Rodney Jerkins, known as "Darkchild" was revealed to be included in the band's fourth studio album. "Somebody Else's Life is the opening theme for the bands reality show Chasing the Saturdays. After the release of Living for the Weekend, "Somebody Else's Life" debuted on Official Charts Company UK Singles Chart at number 94, becoming The Saturdays twenty-third top 100 on the chart.

"Somebody Else's Life" was included on the set list of The Greatest Hits! Live Tour. During their Chasing the Saturdays stink, the band performed the song to Island Def Jam and Mercury Records executives, which led to them signing a US record deal


Grünkern is spelt, harvested when half ripe and artificially dried. In response to periods of adverse weather, which destroyed crops, spelt was harvested before it was ripe, during the so-called'dough-ripe phase', at about 50% moisture content; because the dried kernels exhibited a pleasing flavor when cooked in water, it became traditional to harvest a portion of the spelt crop as grünkern. As a winter crop, the spelt meant for Grünkern would be harvested at the end of July and subsequently dehydrated, traditionally over a beechwood fire, or in modern times, in heated-air ovens; this endows it with its typical taste and aroma. Before further processing, Grünkern must be milled. Grünkern husk has been used as a cattle feed, or as the filler for small pillows which are meant to promote healthy sleep; the first attested use of grünkern was in southern Germany, in 1660. Grünkern was added to soups, was dried by using the residual heat of bakehouses; the primary harvesting period at the end of July is seen in old folk proverbs, such as: Christine, Sankt Anne is Ern! / Schneid't mer kee Korn, / so schneid't mer doch Keern.

Christopher, Saint Jacob, Saint Anne it's harvest time! We don't reap grains. Freekeh, prepared from green wheat by drying and burning

Cadlina flavomaculata

Cadlina flavomaculata, common name the yellow-spot cadlina, is a species of colourful sea slug, a dorid nudibranch, a shell-less marine gastropod mollusk in the family Cadlinidae. Cadlina flavomaculata is a rare nudibranch found in subtidal and intertidal zones of the northeastern Pacific, from Vancouver Island to the southern tip of Baja California. However, it is common in some diving sites between Monterey and Big Sur; the yellow-spot cadlina is charactered by its ovate, white mantle with distinctive, brown to black rhinophores. A series of large, yellow spots can be seen on each side of the mantle; some reported specimens show a yellow border to the mantle, but this is not found in all individuals. The color of branchia is white to yellow, its reported length is 15 mm. Cadlina flavomaculata feeds on the sponge Aplysilla glacialis


Transmisogyny is the intersection of transphobia and misogyny. Transmisogyny includes negative attitudes and discrimination toward transgender individuals who fall on the feminine side of the gender spectrum trans women and transfeminine people; the term was coined by Julia Serano in her 2007 book Whipping Girl. According to Serano, transmisogyny is an intersectional form of sexism, based on the interaction between oppositional and traditional sexism, she explained that traditional sexism is "the belief that maleness and masculinity are superior to femaleness and femininity", oppositional sexism is "the belief that female and male are rigid, mutually exclusive categories". Transmisogyny is a central concept in transfeminism and is referenced in intersectional feminist theory; that trans women's femaleness is a source of transmisogyny is denied by certain radical feminists, who state that trans women are not female. Transmisogyny is understood to be caused by the social belief that men are superior to women.

In Whipping Girl, Julia Serano writes that the existence of trans women is seen as a threat to a "male-centered gender hierarchy, where it is assumed that men are better than women and that masculinity is superior to femininity". Gender theorist Judith Butler echoes this assumption, stating that the murder of transgender women is "an act of power, a way of re-asserting domination... killing establishes the killer as sovereign in the moment that he kills". Trans women are viewed as threatening the heterosexuality of cisgender men. In media, "deceivers" such as Dil, a transgender woman from the 1992 film The Crying Game, have been observed to evoke outrage and male homophobia in an audience when their "true" maleness is unveiled. Transgender women face harsher levels of discrimination than other transgender people. A study on workplace experiences after people receive sex changes found that "average earnings for female-to-male transgender workers increase following their gender transitions, while average earnings for male-to-female transgender workers fall by nearly one third.

On top of this, the transition to female was found to accompany a loss of authority and an increase in harassment, whereas the opposite brings authority and respect."According to Laura Kacere, "hate crimes against trans people are disproportionately and tragically high, the majority of this violence victimizes trans women." The National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs found that "transgender people across the U. S. experience three times more police violence than cisgender people. In fact, over half of all anti-LGBTQIA+ homicides were perpetrated against transgender women. According to Kacere, “Transmisogyny is seen in violence as well- studies show that 1 in 5 transgender women has been incarcerated at some point in her life; this is far above the general population, is higher for Black transgender people.” A study on discrimination of lesbian, transsexual and intersex women in Ecuador found that transgender women "lack protection against discrimination in both law and practice." As a result, trans women have faced violence, sexual abuse, discrimination in educational and workforce institutions.

Julia Serano in Whipping Girl pointed out that transvestic fetishism, a disorder listed in the DSM-IV, only mentions cross dressing by men. Autogynephilia was a recognised disorder in the DSM-IV, but autoandrophilia was not; the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders was revised in 2013 and transvestic fetishism and gender identity disorder were removed. The other addition to DSM-V regarding gender is transvestic disorder. Serano has stated that many trans women experience an additional layer of misogyny in the form of fetishization, she notes that, despite transitioning, trans women are still perceived as male. In the porn industry, whose target audience is heterosexual men, trans women are presented as sexual objects rather than "predatory". Serano observes that when she is in a social environment where she is known to be transsexual, for example places where she performs spoken word poetry, she receives many more blatantly sexual comments than when in a similar setting where she is assumed to be cissexual.

According to Serano, the sexualisation of trans women is not because transgender women, by nature of their relative rarity, are viewed as "exotic": "there are plenty of types of women who are rare, but they are not all sexualized in the same manner that trans women are". In Whipping Girl, Serano writes on what she calls a "predator–prey dichotomy", where "men are invariably viewed as predators and women as prey"; because of this view, trans women are perceived to be luring men by transitioning and "turning into sexual objects that no red-blooded man can resist". Transmisogyny is different from transphobia in that transmisogyny focuses on trans women in particular, whereas transphobia is a more general term, covering a broader spectrum of hate and discrimination towards transsexual and transgender individuals. Julia Serano states in Whipping Girl that "When the majority of jokes made at the expense of trans people center on'men wearing dresses' or'men who want their penises cut off', not transphobia – it is transmisogyny.

When the majority of violence and sexual assaults committed against trans people is directed at trans women, not transphobia – it is transmi