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Zara (retailer)

Zara SA is a Spanish apparel retailer based in Arteixo in Galicia. The company specializes in fast fashion, products include clothing, shoes, swimwear and perfumes, it is the largest company in the world's largest apparel retailer. Zara as of 2017 manages up to 20 clothing collections a year. Amancio Ortega opened the first Zara store in 1975 in central A Coruña, Spain. Ortega named the store Zorba after the classic film Zorba the Greek, but after learning there was a bar with the same name two blocks away, they rearranged the letters molded for the sign to "Zara", it is believed extra "a" came from an additional set of letters, made for the company. The first store featured low-priced lookalike products of higher-end clothing fashions. Ortega opened additional stores throughout Spain. During the 1980s, Ortega changed the design and distribution process to reduce lead times and react to new trends in a quicker way, which he called "instant fashions"; the improvements included the use of information technologies and using groups of designers instead of individuals.

In 1988, the company started its international expansion through Portugal. In 1989, it entered the United States, France in 1990. During the 1990s, Zara expanded to Mexico, Greece and Sweden. In the early 2000s, Zara opened its first stores in Japan and Singapore and Malaysia, Morocco, Estonia and Romania, the Philippines, Costa Rica and Indonesia, South Korea, India, TAIWAN and South Africa and Australia. On September 2010, Zara launched its online boutique; the website began in Spain, the UK, Italy and France. In November that same year, Zara Online extended the service to five more countries: Austria, the Netherlands and Luxembourg. Online stores began operating in the United States in 2011, Russia and Canada in 2013, Mexico and South Korea in 2014. India in 4 October 2017. Zara introduced the use of RFID technology in its stores in 2014; the RFID chips are located in the security tags which are removed from clothing when it is purchased and can be reused. The chip allows the company to take inventory by detecting radio signals from the RFID tags.

When an item is sold, the stockroom is notified so that the item can be replaced. An item, not on the shelf can be found with the RFID tag. In 2015, Zara was ranked 30 on Interbrand's list of best global brands. In 2019, Zara had updated the logo. In 2019 the Global Fashion Business Journal stated that while the textile commerce of the world had gone down by 2.38%, Zara had risen 2.17%. In 2019, Chief Executive Persson said the brand is waiting for more acceptable global rent levels to continue their expansion. In Europe, the brand will be cutting the number of locations the next year. Zara stores have women's clothing as well as children's clothing. Zara's products are supplied based on consumer trends, its responsive supply chain ships new products to stores twice a week. After products are designed, they take ten to fifteen days to reach the stores. All of the clothing is processed through the distribution center in Spain. New items are inspected, sorted and loaded into trucks. In most cases, the clothing is delivered within 48 hours.

Zara produces over 450 million items per year. Zara needs just one week to develop a new product and get it to stores, compared to the six-month industry average, launches around 12,000 new designs each year. Zara has a policy of zero advertising. Zara set up its own factory in La Coruña in 1980, upgraded to reverse milk-run-type production and distribution facilities in 1990; this approach, designed by Toyota Motor Corp. was called the just-in-time system. It enabled the company to establish a business model that allows self-containment throughout the stages of materials, product completion and distribution to stores worldwide within just a few days. Most of the products Zara sells are manufactured in proximity countries like Spain, Portugal and Morocco. While some competitors outsource all production to Asia, Zara manufactures its most fashionable items—half of all its merchandise—at a dozen company-owned factories in Spain and Portugal and Turkey in Galicia and northern Portugal and Turkey.

Clothes with a longer shelf life, such as basic T-shirts, are outsourced to low-cost suppliers in Asia. The company can have finished goods in its stores in four to five weeks. Shortening the product life cycle means greater success in meeting consumer preferences. If a design does not sell well within a week, it is withdrawn from shops, further orders are canceled and a new design is pursued. Zara monitors customers' fashion changes. Zara has a range of basic designs that are carried over from year to year, but some fashion forward designs can stay on the shelves less than four weeks, which encourages Zara fans to make repeat visits. An average high-street store in Spain expects customers to visit three times a year; that goes up to 17 times for Zara. As a result of increasing competitive pressures from the online shopping market, Zara is shifting its focus onto online as well, will open fewer but larger stores in the future. In 2011, Greenpeace started a dialog with Zara to ban toxics from the clothing production.

Greenpeace published its "Toxic threads: the big fashion stitch-up" report in November 2012 as part o

Copyright law of Romania

In Romania, copyright law is defined by the Law No. 8/1996 on authors rights and related rights, as republished in 2018, which implements European copyright law. Copyright is acquired irrespective of formalities, belongs to the natural person/s who created the protected work. A protected work is created. Like other EU civil law jurisdictions, Romanian copyright law recognises two types of rights: moral rights and patrimonial rights; the right to decide if, when a work is brought to public knowledge. These rights can not be transferred. After the author’s death, the rights under, above are exercised by heirs, for an unlimited period of time. Reproduce and distribute the work. In addition, the author of a graphic, plastic art or photographic work has a resale right, which entitles him or her to receive a percentage of the price when the work makes the object of a reselling operation in which an art dealer participates as seller, buyer or agent. According to chapter 2 of the Law No. 8/1996 on authors rights and related rights, the Author is the natural person or persons who created the work.

It is presumed to be the author the person under whose name the work was first brought to public knowledge. When the work has been made public in anonymous form or under a pseudonym that does not allow the identification of the author, the copyright shall be exercised by the natural or legal person making it public with the consent of the author, as long as he does not disclose his identity; the copyright of the joint work belongs to its co-authors, one of which may be the principal author, under the terms of this law. According to chapter III of the Law No. 8/1996 on authors rights and related rights, any original works in the literary, artistic or scientific fields, whatever the mode of creation, mode or form of expression, regardless of their value and purpose, are protected by copyright. The article 7 of the Law No. 8/1996 on authors rights and related rights provides a non-exhaustive list of works protected by copyright, such as: literary and publicist writings, sermons, pleadings and any other written or oral works, as well as computer programs.

In Romania, there is no requirement for a copyright notice in order to obtain copyright protection, as original works are automatically protected by copyright as of their creation. However, the author and other copyright holders are entitled to place on their works a copyright notice consisting of the letter C in a circle together with their name, the place and year of the first publication. In cases where such a copyright notice is displayed, there is a presumption that the work is copyright protected in favour of the person using the copyright notice, until otherwise proven. Duration of copyright protection is defined by chapter V of the Law No. 8/1996 on authors rights and related rights. The general rule is that the patrimonial rights of the author last for seventy years after his or her death. If there are no heirs, the exercise of these rights rests with the collective management body mandated during the lifetime by the author or, in the absence of a mandate, by the collective management body with the largest number of members in the field of creation.

Holders of copyright or related rights can file for infringement when there is: Unauthorised use of their works. Infringement of moral rights. Infringement of the droit de suite. Copyright law of the European Union

Takka Takka (Roy Lichtenstein)

Takka Takka is a 1962 pop art painting by Roy Lichtenstein in his comic book style of using Ben-Day dots and a story panel. This work is held in the collection of the Museum Ludwig; the title comes from the onomatopoeic graphics. Lichtenstein was a trained United States Army pilot and artist as well as a World War II veteran who never saw active combat; the work depicts a machine gun firing as it is situated above the camouflage of palm fronds during the Battle of Guadalcanal. The image shows a grenade in mid flight. An explosion is stylized with the titular phrase; the source of Takka Takka is the comic book Battlefield Action #40. Lichtenstein's reinterpretation of the original comic image eliminates the horizon line and other indications of depth of field, he eliminates the human element by removing a hand, a helmet and the Japanese rising sun emblem. When the characters in some of his works, e.g. Takka Takka, Whaam! and Okay Hot-Shot, Okay!, were criticised for being militaristic, Lichtenstein responded: "the heroes depicted in comic books are fascist types, but I don't take them in these paintings—maybe there is a point in not taking them a political point.

I use them for purely formal reasons." The Washingtonian critic Sophie Gilbert, regards Takka Takka as exemplary of Lichtenstein's "aggressive, hyper-masculine war paintings" due to the depiction of the guns creating sound effects and the use of onomatopoeic words during military conflict. Takka Takka, with its disruption of the primary narrative clause by text focused on absent details about the past or omitted present, is described as "the most unlikely conjunction of picture and story"; the work is regarded as one in which Lichtenstein exaggerated comic book sound effects in common pop art style. In the view of critic Steven Weisenburger, Lichtenstein's reimagining creates a tension between the narrative and graphical content because the "exhausted soldiers" are absent. Takka Takka is a subversion of the interpretive conventions of "pop" culture, "but more important, it interrogates a shared idea about war, that war's sublime violence heroizes." Implicitly comparing Takka Takka to Picasso's Guernica, art historian Klaus Honnef states that the work's use of the "cartoon idiom in combination with elements of written language" demonstrates that art does not have to present the horrors of war graphically in order to be forceful.

1962 in art Lichtenstein Foundation website